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Update on Second-Row Children Responses in Rear and Frontal Crashes with a Focus on the Potential Effect of Stiffening Front Seat Structures

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau
ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1215
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The protection of children in rear seats is an important issue, but it is a more complex than assessing front seat performance in rear impacts. 1997–2015 NASS-CDS data were analyzed to estimate the distribution and risk of seriously-to-fatally (MAIS 3+F) injured 0-7 year old children in the 2nd row by crash types with 1994+ model year vehicles. The results showed that children were frequently injured in frontal (39.3%) and in side (27.2%) crashes. The injury risk was highest in rollover (1.72% ± 0.36) followed by rear crashes (0.75% ± 0.56%). Individual rear and frontal impact cases were also reviewed to better understand injury mechanisms of children in the 2nd row. The cases were downloaded and reviewed. There were 15 injured children involved in 14 rear impact crashes. Half were associated with significant intrusion (12+ inches) intrusion of their seating area, pushing the child forward. More than half (7 out of 11 cases with known information) of the front seatbacks remained in their pre-crash position or were pushed forward. Rear crashes involving the front-seat rotating rearward…
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The Roles of Vehicle Seat Cushion Stiffness and Length in Child Restraint System (CRS) Performance

Ohio State University-Julie Mansfield, Yun-Seok Kang
Transportation Research Center Inc.-HyunJung Kwon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0977
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective is to determine whether responses and injury risks for pediatric occupants in child restraint systems (CRS) are affected by vehicle seat cushion stiffness and fore/aft cushion length. Eighteen sled tests were conducted using the Federal Motor Vehicles Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 frontal pulse (48 km/h). Seats from a recent model year vehicle were customized by the manufacturer with three different levels of cushion stiffness: compliant, mid-range, and stiff. Each stiffness level was quantified using ASTM D 3574-08 and all were within the realistic range of modern production seats. The usable length of each seat cushion was manipulated using foam spacers provided by the manufacturer. Two different seat lengths were examined: short (34.0 cm) and long (43.5 cm). Three different types of CRS were tested with size-appropriate anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs): rear-facing (RF) CRS with 12-month-old CRABI, forward-facing (FF) CRS with Hybrid III 3-year-old, and high-back booster with Hybrid III 6-year-old. Each CRS, vehicle seat (including cushion and frame), seat belt webbing and buckle were replaced after every test. ATD kinematic and kinetic data…
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Factors Affecting Child Injury Risk in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute-Marco Benedetti, Kathleen D. Klinich, Miriam A. Manary, Carol A. C. Flannagan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0008
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Current recommendations for restraining child occupants are based on biomechanical testing and data from national and international field studies primarily conducted prior to 2011. We hypothesized that analysis to identify factors associated with pediatric injury in motor-vehicle crashes using a national database of more recent police-reported crashes in the United States involving children under age 13 where type of child restraint system (CRS) is recorded would support previous recommendations. Weighted data were extracted from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS-GES) for crash years 2010 to 2015. Injury outcomes were grouped as CO (possible and no injury) or KAB (killed, incapacitating injury, non-incapacitating injury). Restraint was characterized as optimal, suboptimal, or unrestrained based on current best practice recommendations. Analysis used survey methods to identify factors associated with injury. Factors with significant effect on pediatric injury risk include restraint type, child age, driver injury, driver alcohol use, seating position, and crash direction. Compared to children using optimal restraint, unrestrained children have 4.9 (13-year-old) to 5.6 (< 1-year-old) times higher odds of injury, while suboptimally…
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Novel use of a Halo Orthosis on Pediatric Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in Frontal Sled Test

Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Nationwide-Eric A. Sribnick
Injury Biomechanics Research Center, The Ohio State Universi-Julie A. Mansfield, John H. Bolte IV
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0018
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Children recovering from cervical spine injuries may need a halo orthosis, which rarely fits into traditional child restraint systems (CRS) during motor vehicle travel. The objectives are to affix a halo orthosis to a 3-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and to explore the effectiveness of alternative safety restraints for these occupants. The head of the ATD was modified to allow proper insertion of halo pins. The ATD was restrained in either a backless booster or a RideSafer Travel Vest (RSTV) with and without the halo orthosis. The shoulder belt routing over the halo bars caused axial rotation of the occupant during frontal impacts, which increased lateral and torsional neck loads compared to tests without the halo. The halo decreased frontal neck shear and bending compared to tests without the halo. Loose fit between the halo vest and the torso of the ATD likely contributed to a concentration of loads in the cervical spine.
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Create the Future Contest Idea Saving Lives

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36161
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The Create the Future Design Contest was launched in 2002 by the publishers of Tech Briefs magazine to help stimulate and reward engineering innovation. The annual event has attracted more than 14,000 product design ideas from engineers, entrepreneurs, and students worldwide.

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Head Support Concept to Mitigate Neck Injury for Children Installed Forward Facing in Vehicles

General Motors of Brazil-Rodrigo da Silva Ribeiro
Unicamp-Antonio Celso Fonseca De Arruda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0106
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The slender neck of a 3-year-old child can be serious injured or even lead to child’s death when loaded under frontal impact by the proportionately larger and heavier head. Accordingly with medical recommendations based on latest studies, a 3-year-old child is safer when installed in a rear-facing child seat, but this configuration is not feasible for some vehicles with limited rear space such as superminis, small MPVs and pick-ups when front seats are occupied. This study aims to explore the potential of neck tension (Fz) reduction in 3-year-old dummy installed forward-facing when subjected to three head static restraints (head strap, head support, cervical collar) as well as an overhead shield car seat in order to identify solutions for a device to avoid or mitigate neck injuries. To simulate frontal impacts, a 3-year-old dummy from Q series was installed on a reinforced vehicle body fixed on a sled test equipment where the United Nations R129 pulse was applied. Both head strap and head support were not able to reduce neck tension due to the high Q3…
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Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes

Aircraft SEAT Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5276/1
  • Current
Published 2019-10-31 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems (CRS) which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport category airplanes. The AS is not intended to provide design criteria that could be met only by an aircraft-specific CRS. The goal of this standard is to achieve child-occupant protection by specifying a dynamic test method and evaluation criteria for the performance of CRS under emergency landing conditions.
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Seatbelt Entanglement: Field Analysis, Countermeasure Development, and Subject Evaluation of Devices Intended to Reduce Risk

Tool Inc.-Jason Sidman, Bill Liteplo
UMTRI-Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Sheila Ebert, Laura Malik, Miriam A. Manary
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Since 2000, over 200 rear seat occupants have become entangled in the seatbelt when they inadvertently switched it from emergency locking mode (ELR) to automatic locking mode (ALR). Since a method is needed to lock the seatbelt when installing child restraint systems (CRS), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) commissioned tool, inc. to develop prototype devices that could reduce the risk of seatbelt entanglement resulting from the lockability requirement. A field analysis of entanglement incidents was first conducted to inform countermeasure design. Prototype devices were developed and evaluated through testing with volunteer subjects in comparison to standard seatbelt systems by assessing how different designs would be used to install CRS, the quality of the resulting installations, how users would disentangle a trapped child surrogate, as well as to identify volunteer experience when using the belts themselves. Four prototype devices were evaluated in two phases of testing conducted at the UMTRI. All four prototype devices had shorter disentanglement times than trials with the standard seatbelt, but there was not a statistically significant difference between the…
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Evaluation of Harness Tightening Procedures for Child Restraint System (CRS) Sled Testing

Ohio State University-Julie Mansfield, Gretchen Baker, John Bolte
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Sled testing procedures should reflect a rigorous level of repeatability across trials and reproducibility across testing facilities. Currently, different testing facilities use various methods to set the harness tension for child restraint system (CRS) sled tests. The objective of this study is to identify which harness tightening procedure(s) produce tensions within a reasonable target range while showing adequate reproducibility, repeatability, and ease-of-use. Five harness tightening procedures were selected: A) FMVSS 213 procedure, B) a 3-prong tension gauge, C) ECE R44/R129 procedure, D) two finger method, and E) pinch test. Two CRS models were instrumented with a tension load cell in the harness system. Seven sled room operators were recruited to perform each of the five harness tightening procedures for ten repetitions apiece on both instrumented CRS using a Hybrid III 3-year-old. The static harness tension measured by the load cell was recorded after each procedure was completed. Data were analyzed for mean, variance, reproducibility, and repeatability. Operator feedback surveys were used to quantify ease-of-use.The ECE R44/R129 procedure produced harness tensions which were quite low. The…
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Comparative Responses of the PIPER 6YO Human Body Model and the Q6 ATD for Simulated Frontal and Lateral Impacts

1 Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children’s-Shreyas Sarfare, Jalaj Maheshwari, Nhat Duong, Aditya Belwadi
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Abstract - Adult and pediatric human body models have focused on developing accurate representation of the human body in terms of anthropometry and kinetics/kinematics in correlation with published PMHS (Post-Mortem Human Subjects) data. This study focuses on comparing the PIPER 6-year-old human body finite element (FE) model with a Q6 FE model to generate comparable metrics. The FE models were simulated in a vehicle environment by positioning them on two different child booster seats with a 3-point lap-shoulder belt for frontal and lateral impacts. The overall kinematic response (head excursion) of the PIPER human body model (HBM) mimics the behavior of the Q6 ATD. However, there is a significant difference in the NIJ values between the PIPER HBM and Q6 ATD (minimum reduction of 67% in PIPER HBM). The head-neck complex of the PIPER is seen to be more flexible (minimum reduction of 12% in neck forces and 64% in neck moments) as compared to the Q6.
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