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Seatbelt Entanglement: Field Analysis, Countermeasure Development, and Subject Evaluation of Devices Intended to Reduce Risk

Tool Inc.-Jason Sidman, Bill Liteplo
UMTRI-Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Sheila Ebert, Laura Malik, Miriam A. Manary
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Since 2000, over 200 rear seat occupants have become entangled in the seatbelt when they inadvertently switched it from emergency locking mode (ELR) to automatic locking mode (ALR). Since a method is needed to lock the seatbelt when installing child restraint systems (CRS), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) commissioned tool, inc. to develop prototype devices that could reduce the risk of seatbelt entanglement resulting from the lockability requirement. A field analysis of entanglement incidents was first conducted to inform countermeasure design. Prototype devices were developed and evaluated through testing with volunteer subjects in comparison to standard seatbelt systems by assessing how different designs would be used to install CRS, the quality of the resulting installations, how users would disentangle a trapped child surrogate, as well as to identify volunteer experience when using the belts themselves. Four prototype devices were evaluated in two phases of testing conducted at the UMTRI. All four prototype devices had shorter disentanglement times than trials with the standard seatbelt, but there was not a statistically significant difference between the…
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Evaluation of Harness Tightening Procedures for Child Restraint System (CRS) Sled Testing

Ohio State University-Julie Mansfield, Gretchen Baker, John Bolte
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Sled testing procedures should reflect a rigorous level of repeatability across trials and reproducibility across testing facilities. Currently, different testing facilities use various methods to set the harness tension for child restraint system (CRS) sled tests. The objective of this study is to identify which harness tightening procedure(s) produce tensions within a reasonable target range while showing adequate reproducibility, repeatability, and ease-of-use. Five harness tightening procedures were selected: A) FMVSS 213 procedure, B) a 3-prong tension gauge, C) ECE R44/R129 procedure, D) two finger method, and E) pinch test. Two CRS models were instrumented with a tension load cell in the harness system. Seven sled room operators were recruited to perform each of the five harness tightening procedures for ten repetitions apiece on both instrumented CRS using a Hybrid III 3-year-old. The static harness tension measured by the load cell was recorded after each procedure was completed. Data were analyzed for mean, variance, reproducibility, and repeatability. Operator feedback surveys were used to quantify ease-of-use.The ECE R44/R129 procedure produced harness tensions which were quite low. The…
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Comparative protocol study between R44 and I-Size regulations for child restraint systems

Applus+IDIADA, L’Albornar PO Box 20 E-43710 Santa Oliva (Tar-David Domenech, Nuria Parera, Gustavo Maturana
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Children tend to be victims of road accidents more often than is the case for adults. Children made up 2,5% of the total number of road fatalities in the EU countries in 2015 and about 15% of the world? population. They are at about a sixth regarding the risk of dying in a road accident of the average member of the population across the EU as a whole.[1]The European Union uses the R44.04 [2] homologation standard to assess child restraint systems (CRS), but in 2013 a new regulation was implemented called Enhanced Child Restraint Systems (ECRS) or UNECE R-129[3] The first step of this regulation, called Phase 1 or I-Size, adds new performance criterion and improved the requirements for the CRS related to safety by introducing side-impact protection, classification based on stature not mass, use of Isofix and mandatory rearward facing until 15 months. Both regulations have been used simultaneously since 2013.In this paper a comparison study was carried out to analyse the differences between both protocols and regulation requirements in order to assess the…
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Rear-Facing Child Restraint Systems in Rear Impact Sled Tests

Ohio State University-Julie Mansfield, Yun-Seok Kang, John Bolte
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This study examines the performance of rear-facing child restraint systems (RF CRS) in moderate severity rear impact sled tests. The study also investigates the effects of RF CRS features on CRS kinematics and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) injury metrics in this scenario. Twelve tests were conducted at a moderate severity rear impact sled pulse (approximately 28.2 km/h and 18.4 g). Four models of RF CRS were tested in the rear outboard positions of a sedan seat. The CRABI 12-month-old and Hybrid III 3-year-old ATDs were instrumented with head and chest accelerometers, head angular rate sensors, six-axis upper neck load cells, and a chest linear potentiometer (3-year-old only). The effects of carry handle position, occupant size, presence of anti-rebound bar, Swedish style tethering, and lower anchor vs. seat belt installation were investigated. Data were also compared to pediatric injury assessment reference values (IARV). Head Injury Criterion (HIC15) values ranged from 9.6 to 89.2. Chest resultant accelerations (3 ms duration) ranged from 21.3 to 39.9 g. Neck loads and head contact against seat structures varied depending on…
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Mechanical Characterization and Finite Element Implementation of the Soft Materials Used in a Novel Anthropometric Test Device for Simulating Underbody Blast Loading

Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2017

  • Magazine Article
  • 17AERP12_07
Published 2017-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Understanding the mechanical behavior of components made from eight soft polymer materials is necessary to ensure the predictive capability of WIAMan FE models.

Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) have been used in automotive safety research since the 1970s to predict injuries. ATDs must repeatedly perform under a dynamic range of loading rates and reliably distinguish between injuries ranging from minor to severe.

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Mechanical Characterization and Finite Element Implementation of the Soft Materials Used in a Novel Anthropometric Test Device for Simulating Underbody Blast Loading

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-27960
Published 2017-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) have been used in automotive safety research since the 1970s to predict injuries. ATDs must repeatedly perform under a dynamic range of loading rates and reliably distinguish between injuries ranging from minor to severe.

 

User’s Guide for the Six Month Old Infant Dummy (CRABI)

Dummy Testing and Equipment Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2854_201711
  • Current
Published 2017-11-08 by SAE International in United States
The CRABI dummy was developed to evaluate small child restraint systems in automotive crash environments, in all directions of impact, with or without air bag interaction Basic anthropometry for this test device was taken from the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Report 85-23. Weight distribution and scaling methods for the infant were approved by the Society of Automotive (SAE) Infant Dummy Task Group. The dummy weighs 17.2 pounds and has a 26.4 inches standing or 17.3 inches sitting height. The Hybrid Ill-like neck and lumbar spine are laterally notched to reduce lateral stiffness The shoulders have flesh support for durability and human-like performance in areas where seatbelt webbing may be placed. In addition, rubber elements are used in each joint to improve biofidelity and to give the CRABI infant-like range of motion. The CRABI Six-Month-Old design meets all the SAE Infant Dummy Task Group anthropometry, biomechanical and instrumentation requirements. The instrumentation design incorporates three 6-channel load cells to provide load measurements at the C1, C7 and L5 vertebrae locations. Accelerometers are used to measure…
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Hybrid III Ten-Year-Old Child Dummy User's Manual

Dummy Testing and Equipment Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2858_201710
  • Current
Published 2017-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This user's manual covers the Hybrid III 10-year old child test dummy. The manual is intended for use by technicians who work with this test device. It covers the construction and clothing, assembly and disassembly, available instrumentation, external dimensions and segment masses, as well as certification and inspection test procedures. It includes guidelines for handling accelerometers, guidelines for flesh repair, and joint adjustment procedures. Finally, it includes drawings for some of the test equipment that is unique to this dummy.
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VW finally fills its SUV gap with 2018 Atlas

Automotive Engineering: June 2017

Gary Witzenburg
  • Magazine Article
  • 17AUTP06_11
Published 2017-06-01 by SAE International in United States

With the market rushing headlong toward trucks, SUVs and crossovers, Volkswagen has badly needed a mid-range SUV between its $25,000 compact Tiguan and $50,000-plus premium Touareg. And now, finally, it has one.

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A Test Method to Assess Interactions and Compatibility of Inflatable Seatbelts with Child Restraint Systems

Ford Motor Company-Kevin Pline, Derek Board, Nirmal Muralidharan, Srinivasan Sundararajan, Eric Eiswerth, Katie Salciccioli
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Ford Motor Company introduced the automotive industry’s first second row inflatable seatbelt system in 2011. The system is currently available in the outboard seating positions of the second row of several Ford and Lincoln models. An important consideration for this system is the interaction with child restraint systems (CRS) when it is used to install a CRS or used in conjunction with belt position booster. A novel test methodology to assess the interaction of CRS with Ford and Lincoln inflatable seatbelts through frontal impact sled tests is explained. Details of test methods including construction of additional fixtures and hardware are highlighted. This procedure is designed to enable test labs capable of running Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 testing to adapt this test method, with minimal fabrication, by utilizing existing test benches. The test methodology can be used to quantify the effect of the Ford and Lincoln inflatable seatbelt compared to a standard seatbelt on CRS in terms of Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) responses and CRS and ATD kinematics as well as assess the…
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