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The Study on the Influence of Factors on Vehicle Refueling Emission Test

China Automotive Technology and Research-Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Chongzhi Zhong, Qiang Chen, Jiaxing Sun, Xiaoliang Wu, Tiefei Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1070
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two vehicles with ORVR system which are met with the US standard were studied. A comparative of refueling emissions test under different refueling rate and different refueling temperature were studied. The HC chemical analysis was carried out for the fuel gas emission from a sample car. The results show that with the increase of the refueling rates, the refueling emissions decline at first, and then gradually stabilize; with the increase of the refueling temperature, the results of refueling emissions show a gradual increase. Under the condition of 37 L / min refueling flow rate and 20 °C fuel temperature, 14 kinds of alkanes are emitted from the fuel, in which isobutane, isopentane and n-pentane are the highest emissive components, accounting for 57.66% of the total amount of VOCs.
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Low-Cost Electromagnetic Shielding Materials Based on Polypyrrole-Bio Waste Composites

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy, Puspamitra Panigrahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need for Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using a strong oxidizing agent like ammonium persulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterized using UV- Visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The AC conductivity of the obtained material was calculated successfully.
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Investigation of the Operating Conditions on the Water and Thermal Management for a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell by One-Dimensional Model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Simulation-Based Evaluation of Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition Control for Production

Clemson University-Dennis Robertson, Robert Prucka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1145
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) leverages flame propagation to trigger autoignition in a controlled manner. The autoignition event is highly sensitive to several parameters, and thus, achieving SACI in production demands a high tolerance to variations in conditions. Limited research is available to quantify the combustion response of SACI to these variations. A simulation study is performed to establish trends, limits, and control implications for SACI combustion over a wide range of conditions. The operating space was evaluated with a detailed chemical kinetics model. Key findings were synthesized from these results and applied to a 1-D engine model. This model identified performance characteristics and potential actuator positions for a production-viable SACI engine. This study shows charge preparation is critical and can extend the low-load limit by strengthening flame propagation and the high-load limit by reducing ringing intensity. The simulation results also suggest that under certain operating conditions, there can be a significant disparity between the autoignition sensitivity to temperature and pressure. This may dictate different load control or combustion phasing control strategies, and these results are…
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Lightweight Plastic Engine Oil Pump

SABIC-Subhransu Sekhar Mohapatra, Arunachala P, Raghavendra Janiwarad, Ashwin Kumar Ramasagaram, Fred Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0233
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses the engineering design and development of a plastic automotive engine oil pump as an alternative to current metal oil pumps. Detailed component design features to ensure the working of the plastic pump under harsh chemical, temperature and vibration environment are discussed. The proposed design integrates several parts and uses unique plastic design elements to improve upon current metal design. Innovative joining methods and assembly sequencing are implemented to maintain pump efficiency and functional precision. Use of self-lubricating plastics to increase engine efficiency by reducing wear between moving parts is explored. Data and findings from extensive structural and processing simulations, as well as high temperature and long-term material tests, carried out during the design phase to ensure structural integrity and manufacturability are included. The proposed plastic oil pump design is found to significantly reduce weight, cost and part count while maintaining equivalent structural integrity at high operating temperatures.
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Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Oil Dilution on the Ability to Initiate a Pre-Ignition Combustion

Technische Universität Wien-Norbert Zöbinger, Thomas Lauer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0611
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Although the root-cause of the initial pre-ignition is not yet proven, there is a general agreement throughout the literature that it is very likely a 2-phase particle or droplet induced phenomenon. In the case of a droplet induced mechanism there are still uncertainties regarding the detached droplet size, velocity and composition. Former research work suggests that heavy wall wetting during injection is increasing the PI-frequency in WOT operation points. Due to the oil dilution the viscosity and the surface tension are reduced, which enhances the likelihood of detachment.The present work is therefore investigating the influence of the oil dilution on the droplet evaporation and the PI-tendency. According to previous work performed at the research group, there is an influence of the radical ketohydroperoxide that has its origin in incomplete oil combustion on the pre-ignition probability of an engine cycle. This underlines the role of oil combustion chemistry and the oil mass fraction in detached droplets.In order to characterize the droplet evaporation a multicomponent surrogate model was chosen. The selection of the species is based on…
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Eco-profiling of Bio-epoxies via Life Cycle Assessment

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

Clemson University, USA-Adhimoolam Bakthavachalam Kousaalya, Rakesh Krishnamoorthy Iyer, Srikanth Pilla
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0003
Published 2020-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Epoxies, synthesized from bisphenol-A (BPA) and epichlorohydrin (ECH), are predominantly used as coatings, adhesives, and matrix material in fiber-reinforced composites for body-in-white (BiW) applications in the automotive sector. However, given the production of conventional epoxies from nonrenewable petroleum resource and toxicity of BPA, several initiatives have been undertaken by researchers to synthesize alternative epoxies from various bio-sources that are free of BPA and exhibit similar mechanical performance. As a result, such bio-sourced epoxies are almost immediately termed as “ecofriendly,” despite the lack of comprehensive evaluation of their ecological performance that takes into account enhanced natural resource usage and associated impacts accompanying such epoxies. Hence, this work aims at addressing this gap by evaluating the environmental impacts of such bio-sourced epoxies via cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine the genuine credentials of their ecofriendliness. Epoxies synthesized from three different bio-sources - namely, bark extractives, lignin, and triglyceride - were chosen so to evaluate their ecological performance. ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint methods were used to evaluate these epoxies in accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044…
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Test Slabs, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR-L) Low Acrylonitrile, 65 - 75

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3217/2D
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a standard acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR-L) rubber stock with low acrylonitrile content in the form of molded test slabs.
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Researchers Create Nanoscale Sensors to Better See How High Pressure Affects Materials

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36148
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have developed new nanoscale technology to image and measure more of the stresses and strains on materials under high pressures. According to the researchers, that matters because pressure alters the physical, chemical, and electronic properties of matter.

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Blood Test Detects Multiple Types of Cancer

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36176
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new blood test uses next-generation sequencing technology to probe DNA for tiny chemical tags (methylation) that influence whether genes are active or inactive. When applied to nearly 3,600 blood samples — some from patients with cancer and some from people who had not been diagnosed with cancer at the time of the blood draw — the test successfully picked up a cancer signal from the cancer patient samples and correctly identified the tissue from where the cancer began (the tissue of origin). The test’s specificity — its ability to return a positive result only when cancer is actually present — was high, as was its ability to pinpoint the organ or tissue of origin.