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Utilisation Treated Waste Engine oil and Diesohol blends as fuel for Compression Ignition Engine – An Experimental Study

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2384
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards. Optimal blend (45%ethanol 15% treated waste engine oil & 40% diesel) was tested for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine at…

Influence of addition of ethanol into Non-Edible biodiesel from rice bran oil on the properties and performance – An Experimental Study in Direct Injection VCR diesel engine

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian, Padmanaba Sundar Shanmuga Sundaram, Hemakumar Manoharan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0160
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Non-edible oil biodiesels and alcohols are the two major liquid fuel sources available to replace diesel to fuel compression ignition engine. This study is to investigate the solubility, properties, and performance of biodiesel from non-edible rice bran oil and ethanol. Solubility test was conducted in three different temperatures 5⁰C, 15⁰C & room temperature (30⁰C approximately). The stable blends were tested for essential properties such as energy content, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, the heat of vaporization, flash point and oxygen content as per ASTM standards. Biodiesel- ethanol blends containing 30% of ethanol was found stable up to 5⁰C. This blend also met the minimum requirement with respect to properties to fuel compression ignition engine. These blends were tested in a compression ignition engine for performance in various load conditions under three compression ratios (16:1, 17:1 & 18:1). Results showed that the compression ratio 18:1 was found suitable for the optimal blend. This blend produced brake thermal efficiency, peak in-cylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, ignition delay, emission of oxides of nitrogen and smoke similar to that…

Experimental Investigation of Performance Variable Compression Ratio Engine Fueled with Diesel Butanol Blends with Nano Additives

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0157
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Butanol is attractive alcohol having closer properties to that of diesel. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of a variable compression ratio engine fueled with diesel butanol blends enhanced by two nano additives (nano alumina and nano zinc oxide) in various proportions. To start with a solubility test was conducted with various proportions of diesel and butanol (0% to 50%). Optimal blend (50% diesel and 50% butanol) of diesel butanol blends was selected from this step. Nano zinc oxide (100 - 500ppm) and nano alumina (0 - 100ppm) were blended with this optimal blend through ultrasonication. This blend was tested for essential properties such as cetane number, energy content, kinematic viscosity, oxygen content, the heat of vaporization and flash point. Out of the 10 proportions of diesel butanol blends with nano-additives, two blends were chosen with respect to the properties in comparison to that of diesel. These two blends were tested in a variable compression ratio engine by varying compression ratios (16:1, 17.5:1, 19:1 & 20.5:1) under various load conditions. Results indicated that…

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Timing of HVO, RME and Diesel Fuel in a Euro6 Car Engine During Transient Driving Cycles

Czech University of Live Sciences-Martin Pechout, David Macoun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0138
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The current targets to decrease greenhouse gases production, to reduce fossil fuel dependency and to gain energy security and sustainability are driving demand on combustion engine fuels from renewable sources. Over last more than two decades, the effort resulted in utilization of first generation biofuels. Unfortunately, these fuels brought new dilemmas and challenges in general, such as food production competition and land use and, in case of fatty acid methyl esters for compression ignition engines, also technical challenges such as storage stability and deposit formation. The technical aspects are more pronounced as advanced technologies employed to mitigate pollutants related adverse effects are applied, mandating stringent fuel properties, while demand for fuels from renewable sources is rising. Utilization of particle filters and sensitive fuel systems are driving effort to develop compatible renewable biofuels which can be utilized at higher than current shares. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO), as industrially produced biofuels, exhibits some beneficial properties compared to traditional fatty acid methyl esters especially in terms of oxidation stability, injector fouling, energy content and cetane number. Different combustion…

Assessment of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Applicability as an Alternative Marine Fuel Based on Its Performance and Emissions Characteristics

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway-Sergey Ushakov, Nicolas Lefebvre
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0007
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In current study, the combustion and emission characteristics of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) were studied and compared to those of conventional marine gas oil (MGO). The main goal was to verify its applicability as an alternative marine fuel. All experiments were performed using generator set and propeller-law test cycles, i.e., standardized E2 and E3 cycles respectively. Additional emphasis was paid to the particulate matter (PM) emissions combining gravimetric and particle number measurements. The obtained results indicate average 10-15 % reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) emissions were reduced by 50-55 %. It is believed that a much higher cetane number of HVO together with its superior chemical composition (overall higher H/C ratio, absence of aromatics and heavy-boiling compounds) plays a vital role here. This may also explain the observed around 30 % PM mass reduction, which however showed a strong dependence on load (fuel-air ratio) and speed (time available for combustion) settings. Measured particle size distributions showed a clearly unimodal nature for both the tested fuels with pronounced accumulation (soot)…
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Process for Study of Micro-pilot Diesel-NG Dual Fuel Combustion in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel Utilizing the Premixed Pre-burn Procedure

Michigan Technological University-Xuebin Yang, Vinicius Bonfochi Vinhaes, Jeffrey Naber, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Henry Schmidt, William Atkinson
Westport Fuel Systems-Marco Turcios, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A constant volume spray and combustion vessel utilizing the pre-burn mixture procedure to generate pressure, temperature, and composition characteristic of near top dead center (TDC) conditions in compression ignition (CI) engines was modified with post pre-burn gas induction to incorporate premixed methane gas prior to diesel injection to simulate processes in dual fuel engines. Two variants of the methane induction system were developed and studied. The first used a high-flow modified direct injection injector and the second utilized auxiliary ports in the vessel that are used for normal intake and exhaust events. Flow, mixing, and limitations of the induction systems were studied. As a result of this study, the high-flow modified direct injection injector was selected because of its controlled actuation and rapid closure.Further studies of the induction system post pre-burn were conducted to determine the temperature limit of the methane auto-ignition. It was found that for sufficient induction and mixing time determined from experimental observations and CFD modeling studies, a maximum core temperature of 750 K at the time of micro-pilot diesel injection can…
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Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission Fuel Cetane Diagnostics with Machine Learning

US Naval Academy-Jim Cowart, Dianne Luning-Prak
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A diesel engine electrical generator set (‘gen-set’) was instrumented with in-cylinder pressure indicating sensors as well as a nearby microphone. Conventional jet fuel plus high (Cetane Number CN55) and low (CN35) secondary reference fuels were operated during which comprehensive engine and acoustic data were collected. Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) were analyzed on the acoustic data. FFT peaks were then applied to machine learning neural network analysis with MATLAB based tools. Detection of the low and high cetane fuel operation was audibly determined with correlation coefficients greater than 98% on test data sets. Further, unsupervised machine learning Self Organizing Maps (SOMs) were produced during normal-baseline operation of the engine with jet fuel. Application of the high and low cetane fuel operational acoustic data was then applied to the normal SOM. The quantization error of various fueled acoustic data showed clear statistical differentiation from the normal baseline jet fueled operational data map. This unsupervised SOM based approach does not know the engine degradation behavior in advance, yet shows promise as a method to monitor and detect changing…
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Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Jinlin Han, Bart Somers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation. Carbon monoxide (CO) decreases and NOx emissions increase with the increase of injection pressure. It was also found that for a constant lambda (1.55) the stable operating load range of BH80 is limited to relatively high load (>8 bar…
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Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Goutham Kukkadapu, Russell A. Whitesides
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Gina Fioroni, Lisa Fouts, Jon Luecke, Derek Vardon, Nabila Huq, Earl Christensen, Xiangchen Huo, Teresa Alleman, Robert McCormick
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C. Blendstocks needed to be soluble in diesel fuel, have a toxicity no worse than conventional diesel, not be corrosive, and be compatible with fuel system elastomers. Additionally, cloud point or freezing point below 0°C was required. Screening based on blendstock properties…
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A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

Concawe-Heather Hamje, John Rogerson
ENI Spa-Leonardo Pellegrini
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications - a fixed ethanol volume percent in the dieseline blend (0-50% ethanol), or blends containing specified EXX gasolines (E10, E20, E30, E40, E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all…
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