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Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy models to predict cetane number of different biodiesels and their blends: A novel approach.

IIT Madras-Kiran Raj Bukkarapu, Anand Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0617
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ignition quality of a fuel is described by its Cetane number. Experimental methods used to determine cetane number employ Co-operative fuel research (CFR) engine and Ignition quality tester (IQT) which have less repeatability and require skilled operation, and hence least preferred. There are many prediction models reported, which involve number of double bonds and number of carbon atoms whose determination is not-direct. Usage of models relating biodiesel composition to its cetane number is limited by the range of esters involved. Hence, a model to predict cetane number of biodiesels that addresses the limitations of the existing models, without ignoring the influence of factors such as degree of unsaturation and number of carbon atoms is needed. Employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) could be one such method. Five biodiesels with significant compositional variations were prepared from Camelina, Coconut, Karanja, Linseed and Palm oils which were blended in different volume proportions to 70 samples. The range of cetane number covered was from 42.2 to 66.6. Peak absorbance of different functional groups of these samples was determined…
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Analysis of performance and emission of diesel engines operating on palm oil biodiesel

Univ of South Australia-Chi Zhang
Univ. of South Australia-tanmay patel, Saiful Bari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0336
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fast consumption of fossil fuels is quickly demanding researchers to find few potential alternative fuels that meets sustainable energy demand in near future with least environmental impact. Future energy system needs to be cost efficient, renewable, and safe. Biodiesel is expected to be future energy source that meets all environmental norms. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion (IC) engine represents an alternative clean energy source compared to hydro carbon fuels that generate emissions such as CO2, CO, and PM. This paper describes the importance on Palm Oil biodiesel (POB) as an alternative fuel source for IC engines. Simulations are carried out with ANSYS Fluent software with POB. The engine chosen is a 26 kW diesel-gen-set. The actual engine geometry is drawn in SOLIDWORS using the dimension of the diesel-gen-set. Then, the geometry is imported in ANSYS FORTE and simulations are carried out with diesel and compared with the experimental data which shows around 95% accurate. Then, a CHEMKIN file is created to use POB in ANSYS FORTE. Thereafter, simulations are carried out with POB…
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Compatibility of Elastomers with Oxymethylene Ethers and Blends with Diesel Fuel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Martin Wissink, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0620
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxymethylene ethers (OMEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of OMEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of OMEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 67, at 100% by volume. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell. The elastomer materials included multiple fluoroelastomers (Viton and fluorosilicone) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), as well as neoprene, polyurethane, epichlorohydrin (ECO), PVC-nitrile blend (OZO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and silicone. The exposure results indicated overall poor compatibility for OME, with every elastomer except for fluorosilicone exhibiting greater than 30% volume swell at the 33% blend level. The general trend…
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Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines – Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Berner Fachhochschule TI AFHB-Danilo Engelmann
Univ of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for Gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than Ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like Ethanol, Butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources. In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and Butanol) addition of Butanol to Diesel fuel was investigated from the points of view of engine combustion and of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and emissions. One investigated engine (E1) was with emission class “EU Stage 3A” for construction machines, another one, engine (E2) was HD Euro VI. The operation of engine (E1) with Bu30 was instable at lower part load due to the lower Cetane Number of the blend fuel. The electronic control system of the engine (E2) compensated very well the varying properties of fuels. With higher Butanol content, there is a lower heat value of the fuel and there is…
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Loss of power in Military vehicles by using JP-8 instead of ULSD

Wayne State University-Prasad D. Raut, Omkar A. Atre, Manan Trivedi, Naeim Henein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0804
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted to use JP-8 under the “single battlefield fuel” policy. Fuel properties of JP-8 which are different from ULSD include Cetane number, density, heating value and bulk modulus. This paper determines which of these properties cause the loss in power and suggest some strategies to regain the power lost while operating on JP-8 instead of ULSD.
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Study on the effects on Diesel LTC combustion of 2-EHN as cetane improver

Universite D'Orleans-Fabrice Foucher
Université d'Orleans-Richard Oung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1125
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A single cylinder Diesel engine was used to study Diesel and LTC combustion. We evaluated the 2-EthylHexyl Nitrate (2-EHN) as Cetane improver distributed by VeryOne@ on the combustion of six diesel fuel prepared from a low Cetane Number (CN) diesel fuel (CN of 43.7) and two biodiesel mixed at 20% with the low Cetane number diesel fuel : Soybean oil Methyl Ester (SME) and Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester (RME). Each fuels doped with the 2-EHN were prepared to meet the minimum European CN, 51. LTC strategies could provide low NOx emission without thermal efficiency deterioration. The study investigated engine operation at loads of 2, 6 and 10 bar IMEP at engine speed of 1250 rpm, 1500 rpm and 2000 rpm and the impact against synthetic EGR up to 30%. The low-temperature decomposition of 2-EHN, resulting in the oxidation of the fuel, makes it possible to achieve a very low cycle-to-cycle variation of the IMEP even at very low load or at a very high rate of EGR. From kinetic mechanism analysis, we had shown that…
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Modeling the Impact of Alternative Fuel Properties on Light Vehicle Engine Performance and Greenhouse Gases Emissions

Aalto University-Yuri Kroyan, Michal Wojcieszyk, Martti Larmi, Ossi Kaario, Kai Zenger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2308
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The present-day transport sector needs sustainable energy solutions. Substitution of fossil-fuels with fuels produced from biomass is one of the most relevant solutions for the sector. Nevertheless, bringing biofuels into the market is associated with many challenges that policymakers, feedstock suppliers, fuel producers, and engine manufacturers need to overcome.The main objective of this research is an investigation of the impact of alternative fuel properties on light vehicle engine performance and greenhouse gases (GHG). The purpose of the present study is to provide decision-makers with tools that will accelerate the implementation of biofuels into the market. As a result, two models were developed, that represent the impact of fuel properties on engine performance in a uniform and reliable way but also with very high accuracy (coefficients of determination over 0.95) and from the end-user point of view. The inputs of the model are represented by fuel properties, whereas output by fuel consumption (FC). The parameters are represented as percentage changes relative to standard fossil fuel, which is gasoline for spark ignition (SI) engines and diesel for…
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Utilisation Treated Waste Engine Oil and Diesohol Blends as Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine - An Experimental Study

Hindustan Institute of Tech. Science-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2384
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards. Optimal blend (45%ethanol 15% treated waste engine oil & 40% diesel) was tested for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine at…
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Heat Absorption Properties of Fuel Blends from Recycled Edible and Lubricating Oils

Tablet School and Universidad Internacional del Ecuador-Marcos Gutierrez
Universidad Internacional del Ecuador-Andres Castillo, Juan Iñiguez, Gorky Reyes, Diego Perez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5087
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
The urgency to reduce pollutant emissions from the combustion of neat diesel has led to the production, especially from waste substances, of various types of alternative fuels and new methods of analysis that sustain their use. The study of the heat absorption properties of different fuel blends, from recycled edible and lubricant oils, allows to identify the type and concentration of the fuel blend, which allows taking advantage of the generated heat from the air compression stroke of an internal combustion engine, increasing the temperature in the combustion chamber volume and giving the possibility to accelerate the chemical reaction during the combustion process. By means of spectral analysis in the visible and near-ultraviolet range of electromagnetic radiation, it measured the absorption capacity of heat energy of different concentrations and types of fuel blends from vegetable-animal and mineral-synthetic sources. It was observed that the fuel blends from the synthetic and mineral base are the ones which absorb more heat energy compared with the blend of animal-vegetable base and diesel. With the present study it is possible…
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Influence of Addition of Ethanol into Non-Edible Biodiesel from Rice Bran Oil on the Properties and Performance - An Experimental Study in Direct Injection VCR Diesel Engine

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian, Padmanaba Sundar Shanmuga Sundaram, Hemakumar Manoharan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Non-edible oil biodiesels and alcohols are the two major liquid fuel sources available to replace diesel to fuel compression ignition engine. This study is to investigate the solubility, properties and performance of biodiesel from non-edible rice bran oil and ethanol. Solubility test was conducted in three different temperatures 50C, 150C& room temperature (300C approximately). The stable blends were tested for essential properties such as energy content, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, heat of vaporisation, flash point and oxygen content as per ASTM standards. Biodiesel- ethanol blends containing 30% of ethanol was found stable up to 50C. This blend also met the minimum requirement with respect to properties to fuel compression ignition engine. These blends were tested in compression ignition engine for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in various load conditions under two compression ratios (17,1 & 18,1). Results showed that the compression ratio 18:1 was found suitable for the optimal blend. This blend produced brake thermal efficiency, peak incylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and smoke similar to that of diesel. However, ignition…
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