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Utilisation Treated Waste Engine oil and Diesohol blends as fuel for Compression Ignition Engine – An Experimental Study

Hindustan Institute of Tech. Science-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2384
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards. Optimal blend (45%ethanol 15% treated waste engine oil & 40% diesel) was tested for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine at…
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Influence of Addition of Ethanol into Non-Edible Biodiesel from Rice Bran Oil on the Properties and Performance - An Experimental Study in Direct Injection VCR Diesel Engine

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian, Padmanaba Sundar Shanmuga Sundaram, Hemakumar Manoharan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Non-edible oil biodiesels and alcohols are the two major liquid fuel sources available to replace diesel to fuel compression ignition engine. This study is to investigate the solubility, properties and performance of biodiesel from non-edible rice bran oil and ethanol. Solubility test was conducted in three different temperatures 50C, 150C& room temperature (300C approximately). The stable blends were tested for essential properties such as energy content, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, heat of vaporisation, flash point and oxygen content as per ASTM standards. Biodiesel- ethanol blends containing 30% of ethanol was found stable up to 50C. This blend also met the minimum requirement with respect to properties to fuel compression ignition engine. These blends were tested in compression ignition engine for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in various load conditions under two compression ratios (17,1 & 18,1). Results showed that the compression ratio 18:1 was found suitable for the optimal blend. This blend produced brake thermal efficiency, peak incylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and smoke similar to that of diesel. However, ignition…
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Experimental Investigation on Performance of a Variable Compression Ratio Engine Fueled with Diesel Butanol Blends with Nano Additives

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Butanol is an attractive alcohol having closer properties to that of diesel. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of a variable compression ratio engine fueled with diesel butanol blends enhanced by two nano additives (nano alumina and nano zinc oxide) in various proportions. To start with a solubility test was conducted with various proportions of diesel and butanol (0% to 50%). Optimal blend as (50% diesel and 50% butanol) from diesel butanol blends was selected from this step. Nano zinc oxide (100 - 500ppm) and nano alumina (0 - 100ppm) were blended with this optimal blend through ultasonication. This blend was tested for essential properties such as cetane number, energy content, kinematic viscosity, oxygen content, the heat of vaporization and flash point. Out of the 10 proportions of diesel butanol blends with nano-additives, two blends were chosen with respect to the properties in comparison to that of diesel. These two blends were tested in a variable compression ratio engine by varying compression ratios (16: 1, 17.5:1, 19:1 & 20.5:1) under various load conditions.…
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Experimental Assessment of Ozone Addition Potential in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines

IFP Energies nouvelles-Institut Carnot-Michele Bardi, Guillaume Pilla, Mickaël Matrat
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The potential of ozone addition in compression ignition engines is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experiments were carried out in an optically accessible single cylinder engine equipped with a common rail direct injection system. A commercially available ozone generator (P < 100W) was used to add to the intake flow a controlled amount of ozone.EU Diesel fuel (cetane number 52) and a Naphtha fuel (cetane number 33) were tested investigating the impact of Ozone in conventional diesel combustion and LTC cases (e.g. high exhaust gas recirculation rate).Minimal ozone concentration in the intake flow (100 ppm) demonstrated to reduce significantly the ignition delay. However, the impact observed strongly depends on the engine conditions tested and, in general, this effect observed becomes significant in conditions characterized by a long ignition delay: low intake temperature, high dilution, and low cetane number fuel.Significant practical benefits of ozone addition were found for engine cold-start, where ozone yields a significant reduction in misfire events during the first cycle and a faster stabilization of the combustion phasing and a reduction of the…
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Experimental Investigation of Combustion Timing of HVO, RME and Diesel Fuel in a Euro6 Car Engine during Transient Driving Cycles

Czech University of Live Sciences-Martin Pechout, David Macoun
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The current targets to decrease greenhouse gases production, to reduce fossil fuel dependency and to gain energy security and sustainability are driving demand on combustion engine fuels from renewable sources. This effort resulted in utilization of first generation biofuels. Unfortunately, these fuels brought new dilemmas and challenges in general, such as food production competition and land use and, in case of fatty acid methyl esters for compression ignition engines, also technical challenges such as storage stability and deposit formation. Utilization of particle filters and sensitive fuel systems are driving effort to develop compatible renewable biofuels which can be utilized at higher than current shares. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO), as industrially produced biofuels, exhibit some beneficial properties compared to traditional fatty-acid methyl esters especially in terms of oxidation stability, injector fouling, energy content and cetane number. The aim of this study was to investigate heat release rates when three neat fuels (diesel, RME and HVO) are utilized in a current passenger car with a EURO 6 diesel engine at a wide range of operating regimes extracted…
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Low- to High-Temperature Reaction Transition in a Small-Bore Optical Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

CCDC Army Research Laboratory, United States-Kenneth S. Kim, Chol-Bum Kweon
The University of New South Wales, Australia-Harsh Goyal, Yilong Zhang, Sanghoon Kook
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-05-0031
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
This study shows the development of low-temperature and high-temperature reactions in a gasoline-fuelled compression ignition (GCI) engine realizing partially premixed combustion for high efficiency and low emissions. The focus is how the ignition occurs during the low- to high-temperature reaction transition and how it varies due to single- and double-injection strategies. In an optically accessible, single-cylinder small-bore diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of formaldehyde (HCHO-PLIF), hydroxyl (OH-PLIF), and fuel (fuel-PLIF) has been performed. This was complemented with high-speed imaging of combustion luminosity and chemiluminescence imaging of cool flame and OH*. The diagnostics were performed for two different fuels including conventional diesel as a reference case and then a kerosene-based jet fuel which is a low-ignition quality fuel with cetane number of 30, firstly with single near top dead center (TDC) injection and then a double-injection strategy implementing very early injection and late injection in the same engine. For diesel combustion, it is shown that the cool-flame and HCHO signals appear from the jet axis before spreading…
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Assessment of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Applicability as an Alternative Marine Fuel Based on Its Performance and Emissions Characteristics

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway-Sergey Ushakov, Nicolas Lefebvre
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0007
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In current study, the combustion and emission characteristics of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) were studied and compared to those of conventional marine gas oil (MGO). The main goal was to verify its applicability as an alternative marine fuel. All experiments were performed using generator set and propeller-law test cycles, i.e., standardized E2 and E3 cycles respectively. Additional emphasis was paid to the particulate matter (PM) emissions combining gravimetric and particle number measurements. The obtained results indicate average 10-15 % reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) emissions were reduced by 50-55 %. It is believed that a much higher cetane number of HVO together with its superior chemical composition (overall higher H/C ratio, absence of aromatics and heavy-boiling compounds) plays a vital role here. This may also explain the observed around 30 % PM mass reduction, which however showed a strong dependence on load (fuel-air ratio) and speed (time available for combustion) settings. Measured particle size distributions showed a clearly unimodal nature for both the tested fuels with pronounced accumulation (soot)…
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Process for Study of Micro-pilot Diesel-NG Dual Fuel Combustion in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel Utilizing the Premixed Pre-burn Procedure

Michigan Technological University-Xuebin Yang, Vinicius Bonfochi Vinhaes, Jeffrey Naber, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Henry Schmidt, William Atkinson
Westport Fuel Systems-Marco Turcios, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A constant volume spray and combustion vessel utilizing the pre-burn mixture procedure to generate pressure, temperature, and composition characteristic of near top dead center (TDC) conditions in compression ignition (CI) engines was modified with post pre-burn gas induction to incorporate premixed methane gas prior to diesel injection to simulate processes in dual fuel engines. Two variants of the methane induction system were developed and studied. The first used a high-flow modified direct injection injector and the second utilized auxiliary ports in the vessel that are used for normal intake and exhaust events. Flow, mixing, and limitations of the induction systems were studied. As a result of this study, the high-flow modified direct injection injector was selected because of its controlled actuation and rapid closure.Further studies of the induction system post pre-burn were conducted to determine the temperature limit of the methane auto-ignition. It was found that for sufficient induction and mixing time determined from experimental observations and CFD modeling studies, a maximum core temperature of 750 K at the time of micro-pilot diesel injection can…
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Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission Fuel Cetane Diagnostics with Machine Learning

US Naval Academy-Jim Cowart, Dianne Luning-Prak
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A diesel engine electrical generator set (‘gen-set’) was instrumented with in-cylinder pressure indicating sensors as well as a nearby microphone. Conventional jet fuel plus high (Cetane Number CN55) and low (CN35) secondary reference fuels were operated during which comprehensive engine and acoustic data were collected. Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) were analyzed on the acoustic data. FFT peaks were then applied to machine learning neural network analysis with MATLAB based tools. Detection of the low and high cetane fuel operation was audibly determined with correlation coefficients greater than 98% on test data sets. Further, unsupervised machine learning Self Organizing Maps (SOMs) were produced during normal-baseline operation of the engine with jet fuel. Application of the high and low cetane fuel operational acoustic data was then applied to the normal SOM. The quantization error of various fueled acoustic data showed clear statistical differentiation from the normal baseline jet fueled operational data map. This unsupervised SOM based approach does not know the engine degradation behavior in advance, yet shows promise as a method to monitor and detect changing…
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Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Jinlin Han, Bart Somers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation. Carbon monoxide (CO) decreases and NOx emissions increase with the increase of injection pressure. It was also found that for a constant lambda (1.55) the stable operating load range of BH80 is limited to relatively high load (>8 bar…
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