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Correlation of Noise Emitted by vehicle on an External Pass-By Noise Track and Indoor Anechoic Chamber

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Ikshit Shrivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2425
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Pass By Noise emitted by the vehicle is one of the most critical tests for certification is vehicle worldwide. There are a number of national and international regulations to define test procedure. Though the available tracks are constructed to meet the requirements of these test standards, but there are other external parameters viz. ambient temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and its direction, affecting the measurements. These parameters are beyond the control of human and this contamination of test data results in longer test time to monitor atmospheric/ambient conditions and perform the test. Indoor pass-by noise testing is a comparatively new method of testing, which is yet to be evaluated for repeatability/correlation with conventional exterior pass-by noise testing. Objective: This paper aims to establish a correlation between exterior pass-by noise testing and indoor pass-by noise testing. This correlation will serve to establish a foundation for future developments in automobiles; and, evaluate the use of indoor pass-by noise testing as an acceptable alternative…
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A Service-Based Modelling Approach to Ease the Certification of Multi-Core COTS Processors

ONERA-Frédéric Boniol, Youcef Bouchebaba, Julien Brunel, Kevin Delmas, Claire Pagetti, Thomas Polacsek, Nathanaël Sensfelder
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Phylog project aims at offering a model-based software-aided certification framework for aeronautical systems based on multi/many-core architectures. Certifying such platforms will entail fulfilling the high level objectives of the MCP-CRI / CAST-32A position paper. Among those, two types of analysis are required: interference and safety analyses. Because of the large size of the platforms and their complexity, those analyses can lead to combinatorial explosion and to some misinterpretation. To tackle these issues, we explore a service-based modelling approach that leads to a simplification of the analyses and to the highlighting of salient properties, making the adaptation of the certification argumentation efficient.
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Designing Sensors for Hazardous Environments

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35196
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Some of the most common applications for hazardous duty sensors are in the oil and gas industry. Rotary encoders are frequently used to provide crucial feedback about moving machinery on the rig. Flammable agents are common in applications near the wellbore, so most electrical components on the rig require special hazardous area certification. Hazardous duty sensors are also used in applications such as paint spray booths because of the volatiles coming off the paint; grain silos because the dust environment is very explosive; chemical factories; explosives factories; and believe it or not, for cosmetics because the very fine powders that are used are highly explosive.

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Ranking of Thick Ice Shapes Based on Numerical Simulation for Certification

Airbus-Marcus Barth, Johan Degrigny, James Brown, Fatih Tezok, Richard Lewis, Nathalie Alegre, Isaac Barrios-Garcia
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to present a numerical method to rank thick ice shapes for aircraft by comparing the ice accretion effects for different icing scenarios in order to determine the more critical ice shape. This ranking allows limiting the demonstration of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft in iced condition during certification to a reduced number of ice shapes. The usage of this numerical method gives more flexibility to the determination of the critical ice shapes, as it is not dependent of the availability of physical test vehicles and/or facilities. The simulation strategy is built on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and is validated based on a representative test case, both in terms of aircraft geometry and ice shapes. Validation against existing experimental results shows the method exhibits an adequate level of reliability for the ranking of thick ice shapes.
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Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

Delphine Leroy
Airbus-Alice Grandin, Fabien Dezitter
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step. Complementary to previous studies reporting on MMD values calculated from the HAIC-HIWC dataset, this paper deals with the uncertainty in MMD by comparing two different approaches for the retrieval of the mass-size (m-D) relationship. The analysis encompasses the data collected in the…
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Aerodynamic Comparison of Freezing Rain and Freezing Drizzle Conditions at the RTA Icing Wind Tunnel

RTA-Wolfgang Breitfuß, Michael Wannemacher, Florian Knöbl, Hermann Ferschitz
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The simulation of icing conditions in icing wind tunnels (IWTs) is a significant element in the certification of aircraft components and offers unique possibilities for research purposes. Up to 2014 only the conditions defined in Appendix C of the EASA Certification Specification 25, respectively the FAA Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 25 were used for the certification processes in IWTs. In addition, Appendix O was introduced in 2014 to cover the supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions of freezing drizzle and freezing rain, which pose a potential risk for flight safety. The simulation of SLD icing in IWTs is, due to the different behavior of the large droplets, very challenging and not all required conditions have successfully been recreated yet. RTA Rail Tec Arsenal Fahrzeugversuchsanlage GmbH has focused on the simulation of in-flight icing conditions since 2012 and increased effort was put in the simulation of SLDs in recent years. During several research projects funded by the Austrian government it was shown that droplet size distributions for freezing drizzle MVD > 40 μm…
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Flight in Icing Regulatory Evolution and the Influence on Aircraft Design

Boeing Co.-David Leopold
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Flight in icing for transport category aircraft certification presents a particularly challenging set of considerations to establish adequate safety commensurate with the associated risk while balancing design complexity and efficiency. A review highlighting important aspects of the regulatory evolution and guiding principles for flight in icing certification is presented, including the current standards and recent rulemaking activity. While historical icing certification relied on a simple yet subjective requirement to demonstrate that an aircraft is capable of operating safely within the prescribed icing envelopes, the certification requirements associated with demonstrating an adequate level of safety have progressively evolved into more explicit quantitative performance and qualitative handling qualities standards now scattered throughout the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) Part 25 Subpart B Flight standards which are largely harmonized with other regulatory agencies. Recent rulemaking activity, including the potential branching of the regulatory structure to address modern fly-by-wire aircraft not envisioned at the inception of the original flight standards, have firmly engrained flight in icing certification as a major design consideration with…
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Getting the Most Out of Industrial CT Scanning

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_12
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Industrial CT analysis software uncovers aerospace manufacturing defects that scanning alone might miss.

Quality assurance and flight certification of critical aerospace parts and assemblies have reached new levels of sophistication in recent years. Leading aerospace and defense manufacturers worldwide now consider computed tomography (CT) scanning to be an essential part of their non-destructive testing (NDT) toolkit. Far more powerful than the CT used to scan the human body, industrial CT can penetrate almost every material, from superalloys to lead, revealing hidden details that previously could only be found by cutting and destroying finished parts.

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The FACE™ of Military Modernization

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34528
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

U.S. rival countries have been rapidly modernizing their militaries, with publicized advances that pose credible challenges to U.S. supremacy in all aspects of warfare: air, land, sea, space and cyberspace. On January 19, 2018 Secretary Mattis discussed the National Defense Strategy and emphasized the need to modernize key capabilities to address these threats. He stated: “To keep pace with our times, the department will transition to a culture of performance and affordability that operates at the speed of relevance. Success does not go to the country that develops a new technology first, but rather, to the one that better integrates it and more swiftly adapts its way of fighting. Our current bureaucratic processes are insufficiently responsive to the department's needs for new equipment. We will prioritize speed of delivery, continuous adaptation and frequent modular upgrades.”

Getting the Most Out of Industrial CT Scanning

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34544
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Quality assurance and flight certification of critical aerospace parts and assemblies have reached new levels of sophistication in recent years. Leading aerospace and defense manufacturers worldwide now consider computed tomography (CT) scanning to be an essential part of their non-destructive testing (NDT) toolkit. Far more powerful than the CT used to scan the human body, industrial CT can penetrate almost every material, from superalloys to lead, revealing hidden details that previously could only be found by cutting and destroying finished parts.