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Experimental and 1D Numerical investigations on the exhaust emissions of a small Spark Ignition engine considering the cylinder-by-cylinder variability

Istituto Motori CNR-Luca Marchitto, Luigi Teodosio, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
University of Naples-Fabio Bozza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0578
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The stringent legislations on pollutant and CO2 emissions require relevant efforts to improve both the combustion efficiency and the exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines. In the case of spark ignition (SI) engines, various techniques have been tested and implemented in the last generation SI engine architectures. On the other hand, a reduced emphasis has been posed on the analysis of individual cylinder behavior, since a systematic sub-optimal operation may occur, due to cylinder-by-cylinder non-uniformities. The main purpose of this work is to accurately forecast the combustion and the exhaust emissions of a twin-cylinder turbocharged SI engine, taking into account the overall performance and individual cylinder-by-cylinder operation, with particular attention to volumetric efficiency, injected fuel quantity, and residuals content. To this aim, a dedicated experimental activity is performed on the engine under investigation. Preliminary measurements have shown relevant differences in combustion evolution in the two cylinders, mainly ascribed to variations in the injected fuel quantities, which in turn depend on the fuel rail geometry . As a consequence, cylinder out emissions are also quite different…
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Integration of Sensitivity Analysis and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology into Transient Thermal Analysis

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
Optumatics LLC-Amr Sami, Abd El-Rahman Hekal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1389
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper we present an integrated approach which combines analysis of the effect of simultaneous variations in model input parameters on the component or system temperatures. The sensitivity analysis can be conducted by varying model input parameters using specific values that may be of interest to the user. The alternative approach is to use a structured set of parameters generated in the form of DFSS DOE matrix. The matrix represents a combination of simulation conditions which combine the control factors (CF) and noise factors. CF’s are the design parameters that the engineer can modify to achieve a robust design. Noise factors include parameters that are outside the control of the design engineer. In automotive thermal management, noise factors include changes in ambient temperature, exhaust gas temperatures or aging of exhaust system or heat shields for example. The integrated approach, presented in this paper, provides powerful tools that can significantly reduce the total simulation time and helps to provide robust thermal protection scenarios. The relative importance of the CF’s can be estimated and the least…
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Engine and Aftertreatment Co-Optimization of Connected HEVs via Multi-Range Vehicle Speed Planning and Prediction

Ford Motor Company-Ashley Wiese, Zeng Qiu, Julia Buckland
University of Michigan-Qiuhao Hu, Mohammad R. Amini, Yiheng Feng, Zhen Yang, Hao Wang, Ilya Kolmanovsky, Jing Sun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0590
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Connected vehicles (CVs) have situational awareness that can be exploited for control and optimization of the powertrain system. While extensive studies have been carried out for energy efficiency improvement of CVs via eco-driving and platooning, the implication of such technologies on the thermal responses of CVs (including those of the engine and aftertreatment systems) has not been fully investigated. One of the key challenges in leveraging connectivity for optimization-based thermal management of CVs is the relatively slow thermal dynamics, which necessitate the use of a long prediction horizon to achieve the best performance. Long-term prediction of the CV speed, unlike the short-range prediction based on vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications-based information, is difficult and error-prone. The multiple timescales inherent to power and thermal systems call for a variable timescale optimization framework with access to short- and long-term vehicle speed preview. To this end, a model predictive controller (MPC) with a multi-range speed preview for integrated power and thermal management (iPTM) of connected hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is presented in this paper. The MPC is…
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Dimensional Optimization of Key Parameters Using DoE Technique to Achieve Better NOX Emission Values in Mass Production of Single Cylinder Small Diesel Engines for 3 Wheeler Applications.

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Jaganathan Ramalingam, Prabakaran B, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Hariram Venkatesan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1356
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions are considered as one of the harmful emissions globally which has a direct influence on human beings as well as the environment. This works deals about a strategy for reducing NOx pollutant from an automotive engine. Catalytic converters and particulate filters are mostly used as after treatment device for CI engines to control the limits of the pollutants from the tail pipes, but the real ingenuity lies in achieving the same effect through in - cylinder combustion. Optimization of the critical factors like Nozzle Tip Protrusion (NTP), Static Injection Timing (SIT), Bumping Clearance (BC) and Swirl Number are the most important engine design parameters in achieving the optimum combustion which might result in the release of minimal harmful pollutants. In this work, L9 Orthogonal Array (OA) table was used in designing experiments for studying the interactive model between the said factor and its levels on NOx emissions. Absolute value of NTP considering the tolerance limit is set as 3.0 mm, 3.15 mm and 3.30 mm and similarly SIT, BC and…
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Control Oriented Physics Based Three-Way Catalytic Converter Temperature Estimation Model for Real Time Controllers

FCA US LLC-Darshan Shah, Kiran Premchand, David Pedro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0904
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As automotive emissions become more stringent, accurate control of three-way catalyst temperature is increasingly important for maintaining high levels of conversion efficiency as well as preventing damage to the catalyst. A real-time catalyst temperature model provides critical information to the engine control system. In order to improve emissions and ensure regulatory compliance over a wide range of speed-load conditions, it is desirable to use modelled catalyst temperature as the primary input to catalyst efficiency control strategies. This requirement creates a challenge for traditional empirical models designed for component protection at high speed-load conditions. Simulation results show that a physics aligned model can estimate temperature in all operating conditions, including: cold-start, extended idle, engine shutdown, stop-start events, decel fuel shut-off, as well as traditional high load and part load points. However, physics based approaches which calculate detailed chemical reaction kinetics remain impractical for real-time controller implementation due to computational burden and calibration complexity. This paper outlines a proposal for a simplified control-oriented physics model which estimates catalyst temperature in real time. The model consists of reduced…
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A Novel Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Catalytic Converter Replacement for Enhanced Emission Control and Power Generation in Automotive Exhaust

Syracuse University-Thomas S. Welles, Jeongmin Ahn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0353
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increased concern over climate change, limited fossil fuel resources, emissions and poor air quality has created a greater need for sustainable energy systems. The need for increased sustainable energy systems has created largely two cooperative movements; 1) technologies that are considered renewable or more environmentally friendly and 2) higher efficiency. The automotive industry has long been a target for increasing efficiency and decreasing emissions. Current emission control systems rely heavily on the usage of precious metal based catalytic converters. Traditional catalytic converters convert incomplete combustion products into carbon dioxide and water vapor. During this conversion any remaining chemical energy within the exhaust is lost to waste heat production. In order to achieve increased efficiency and reduced pollutant emission the remaining chemical energy in the exhaust must be transformed into usable energy. A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is therefore integrated into the exhaust system of a traditional internal combustion engine in place of the current upstream catalytic converter. A SOFC stack would eliminate the need to maintain stoichiometric exhaust conditions, and would allow the…
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Experimental Investigations on CO2 Recovery from Engine Exhaust Using Adsorption Technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is an energy-consuming process compared to the catalytic converters. The best way to reduce CO2 is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industrial applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. In comparison to other CO2 separation methods, adsorption technique consumes less work and energy. Moreover, the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust manifold. The selected engine was a single-cylinder Briggs and Stratton petrol engine. The experiments were conducted in two…
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Design, Development and Analysis of Mullite Catalytic Converter for CI Engines

Kongu Engineering College-Selvakumar Pandiaraj, Dhamotharan Subbaiyan, Tamilvanan Ayyasamy, Sathishkumar Nagarajan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine. In the design stage, the back pressure analysis is performed on perforated mullite plate with ANSYS software. After arriving satisfactory results, the design is taken for development. The…
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Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

Prince Shri Venkateshwara Engg. College-Edison Rajasingh
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundararaj Senthilkumar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stringent across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases.The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used. Validation is done on baseline Catalytic converter pressure drop results obtained both numerically and experimentally for various speeds conditions and it is found that a reasonably good agreement exists. From the analytical calculations, Catalytic converter diameter, length and Cone angle are…
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Analysis of TWC Characteristics in a Euro6 Gasoline Light Duty Vehicle

Aristotle University Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis
Empa-Viola Papetti, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A Euro6 gasoline light duty vehicle has been tested at the engine dynamometer and the emissions have been analyzed upstream and downstream the Three-Way-Catalyst (TWC) during a WLTC cycle. Catalyst simulations have been used for assessing the processes inside the catalytic converter using a reaction scheme based on 19 brutto reactions (direct oxidation and reduction, selective catalytic reductions with CO, C3H6 and H2, steam reforming, water-gas shift and bulk ceria as well as surface ceria reactions). The reactions have been parameterized in order to best approximate the measurements.Based on the reactions taken into account, the real vehicle emissions can be predicted with good accuracy. The simulations show that the cycle emissions comprise mainly the cold start contribution as well as discrete emission break-through events during transients. During cold start no reactions are evident in the catalyst before the temperature of the gas entering the catalyst reaches 270°C. Following the light-off, prevailing reactions are direct oxidation as well as surface ceria reactions for CO and THC. NO reduction during cold start is due to reaction with…
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