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Fueling an Engine by Ultrasonic Atomization, and Its Control

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Balasubramanian Nallannan, Ganesh Keerthi, T.N.C. Anand
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-04-0030
Published 2018-08-08 by SAE International in United States
This article presents work carried out on a small, 4-stroke, SI engine, incorporated with an ultrasonic atomizer-based fueling system. A disc-type ultrasonic atomizer having good atomization characteristics was incorporated in the air intake path of a single cylinder, two-wheeler engine, replacing the conventional carburetor. This new fueling system was introduced with the aim of reducing the engine fuel consumption, while looking for a possible reduction in exhaust emissions. An electronic control mechanism was devised to change the atomization rate, in order to set the desired equivalence ratio for optimum engine operation. Test results indicate a significant improvement in fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, with a good control over the equivalence ratio. The system also allows engine operation at equivalence ratios as low as 0.5, and hence could be adopted for ultra-lean engines. This atomizer fueling system allows the use of closed loop lambda control which is required for meeting stringent automotive emission norms.
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Devices Providing Backfire Flame Control for Gasoline Engines in Marine Applications

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1928_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-12 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers the minimum requirements for design, construction, and testing of devices to prevent the propagation of backfire flame from within the gasoline engine to the surrounding atmosphere.
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Fuel Control and Spark Optimization of a Propane Fuel System for an Engine-Generator System

University of Kansas-Khalaf AlZeeby, Christopher Depcik
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As climate change drives the exploration into new and alternative fuels, biodiesel has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional diesel fuel. To further increase the viability of biodiesel, a unique system at the University of Kansas utilizes glycerin, the primary byproduct of biodiesel production, for power generation. This system converts glycerin into a hydrogen-rich gas (syngas) that is sent to an engine-generator system in one continuous flow process. The current setup allows for running the engine-generator system on pure propane, reformed propane, or reformed glycerin, with each fuel serving a unique purpose. This paper discusses upgrades in pure propane operation that serves the intent of preheating the engine prior to syngas operation and establishing the baseline energy requirement for fueling the system. The current upgrade to the fuel system incorporates an Electric Fuel Valve (EFV) as a replacement for a gaseous propane carburetor, providing the ability for Air-to-Fuel Ratio (AFR) adjustment of the engine at different generator loads. The use of EFV in a continuous fuel additive manner provides a solution to the carburetor’s…
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Innovative Carburetor Design with Dynamic Air to Fuel Ratio (AFR) Control for Improved Fuel Economy and Reduced Emissions

INI Power Systems-Timothy C. Simmons, Larry J. Markoski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0003
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
An innovative carburetor system has been developed for use in single cylinder small engines. The carburetor has been implemented on a 79cc 4 stroke portable gasoline generator for the purposes of illustrating its effect in reducing emissions, engine deposits and improving fuel economy without re-jetting the carburetor. This method of carburetion dynamically tunes the venturi effect in the carburetor, allowing for air density, fuel viscosity and fuel type compensation for optimal AFR. Modified and stock generators were tested at various power levels, elevations and temperatures to simulate operational environments. The improvements in emissions and fuel consumption will be presented. In addition, the system has been designed as a bolt-on, low cost alternative to an EFI method of complying with emissions regulations for existing small engine applications.
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A New-Concept Gasoline Pump Injector (GPI) for Motorcycle

Stanadyne India Pvt. Ltd.-Balasubramanian N., Karthick Durairaj, Jayabalan Sethuraman
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Asian countries hold a vast majority of the global two-wheeler population. Currently majority of these two wheelers are fueled by carburetors owing to their low cost and ease of maintenance. As these countries try to adopt emission norms similar to that of Euro 6 in a few years from now, they will be migrating to an injection system like port fuel injection (PFI), as it offers good control over emissions by using closed loop corrections, based on the exhaust lambda feedback. Stanadyne R&D has developed an innovative injection system that can be applied for such port fuel injection in two-wheelers. In this innovative design, the pump and injector are integrated into a single unit, making the system simple, compact and less expensive. The integrated injector uses a solenoid and spring arrangement, for pressurizing the fuel in a small chamber, and consumes less current. The pressurized fuel is then injected through orifice to produce spray in the intake port. This new concept injector components are modeled using a one dimensional (1-D) commercial code AMESim, and its…
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A Novel Concept for Mixture Preparation in Port Fuel Injected Engines

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Te-Saransh Jain, T.N.C. Anand
  • Technical Paper
  • 2015-32-0773
Published 2015-11-17 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Every year, large numbers of two wheelers are sold in India and other Asian countries. A majority of these engines still tend to be carbureted due to cost and fuel quality issues. As an alternative to the carburetor, port fuel injectors (PFI) have started being introduced in the last few years for small two wheeler vehicles. Although PFI systems offer better metering of fuel and better transient response compared to carbureted systems, they are more expensive and require more power to pressurize the fuel. More importantly, wall film formation is observed in both the technologies, which reduces the effectiveness of the PFI system. Hence, a new technology is proposed which includes a PFI system along with an ultrasonic atomizer. The purpose of the proposed system is to improve the transient response and hence improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and lower the emissions especially under cold conditions.The proposed concept was tested standalone on a laboratory setup. A transparent duct of square section was fabricated and fuel was injected in it. High speed schlieren imaging…
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Development of a Low Pressure Direct Injection System for a Small 2S Engine. Part I - CFD Analysis of the Injection Process

SAE International Journal of Engines

Betamotor S.p.A.-Paolo Trassi, Jacopo Fiaschi, Federico Tozzi
University of Florence-Francesco Balduzzi, Giovanni Vichi, Luca Romani, Giovanni Ferrara
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1727
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are the main drawbacks of the small crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engine. The symmetrical port timing combined with a carburetor or an indirect injection system leads to a lower scavenging efficiency than a four-stroke engine and to the short-circuit of fresh air-fuel mixture. The use of fuel supply systems as the indirect injection and the carburetor is the standard solution for small two-stroke engine equipment, due to the necessity of reducing the complexity, weight, overall dimensions and costs.This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the application of an innovative Low Pressure Direct Injection system (LPDI) on an existing 300 cm3 cylinder formerly equipped with a carburetor. The proposed solution is characterized by two injectors working at 5 bar of injection pressure. The injection nozzles are located in the liner wall at the opposite side of the exhaust port, with the axes oriented towards the piston at the BDC (Bottom Dead Center). The injectors are positioned above all of the cylinder ports in order to have an injection…
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Development of a Low Pressure Direct Injection System for a Small 2S Engine. Part II - Experimental Analysis of the Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions

Betamotor S.p.A.-Paolo Trassi, Jacopo Fiaschi, Federico Tozzi
University of Florence-Luca Romani, Giovanni Vichi, Giovanni Ferrara, Francesco Balduzzi
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are the main drawbacks of the small crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engine. The symmetrical port timing combined with a carburetor or an indirect injection system leads to a lower scavenging efficiency than a four-stroke engine and to the short-circuit of fresh air-fuel mixture. The use of fuel supply systems as the indirect injection and the carburetor is the standard solution for small two-stroke engine equipment, due to the necessity of reducing the complexity, weight, overall dimensions and costs.This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the application of an innovative Low Pressure Direct Injection system (LPDI) on an existing 300 cm3 cylinder formerly equipped with a carburetor. The proposed solution is characterized by two injectors working at 5 bar of injection pressure. The injection nozzles are located in the liner wall at the opposite side of the exhaust port, with the axes oriented towards the piston at the BDC (Bottom Dead Center). The injectors are positioned above all of the cylinder ports in order to have an injection…
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An Advanced Fuel Supply Unit for Single Cylinder Gas Engines

Synerject LLC-John Walters, Francois Brun
Published 2014-11-11 by SAE International in United States
Stringent emissions legislation is being applied to small motorcycles and scooters around the world. This is forcing, gradually, the replacement of carburetors by electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems. The integration of this new technology creates new constraints on the engine and also on the vehicle. This study will provide an overview of these constraints and also technical solutions to reduce the impact on engine and vehicle. A special focus will be done on the fuel system, where the development of an advanced technology will be discussed in detail. This technology marks a break with the standard automotive fuel system architecture in order to fulfill the specific requirements of scooters and small motorcycles: low size, low weight, low energy demand, as well as simple integration. The discussion will disclose: the advantages and drawbacks of different fuel system architectures, the detailed description of the technology selected to achieve the requirements, the modelling approach used for the sizing and optimization of the design, and finally the performance achieved on the test bench.
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Digital DC CDI for Small Engines: Low Cost Solution and Challenges with 8 Bit Microcontroller

Infineon Technologies India Pvt. Ltd.-Ramdas Ugale
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Emerging markets like India is very cost sensitive for small engines like motorcycle. Capacitive discharge Ignition (CDI) with carburetor is popular low cost solution with good engine performance. CDI system accumulates charge inside the ignition capacitor, until a point at which a signal allows to release discharge of the stored charge to the spark plug through high tension coil.This paper will focus on single spark digital two teeth DC CDI solution and below design challenges with two sparks. 1Higher power dissipation in step up fly back converter2Need higher CPU speed, flash size and restrictions on engine map profile for advance anglesThis paper will elaborate above problems and their solutions with test results for optimizing solution cost and achieve performance. Solutions include, exploring 8 bit microcontroller peripherals usage and smart software to boost MCU performance for engine dynamic conditions and to achieve lower losses in flyback converter.
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