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Optimization of CI Engine Performance and Emissions Fueled by Blends of Alternative Fuels Methyl Ester Using Taguchi and Multi Regression Analysis

Dr. D. Y.Patil Unitech Society's-Vijay javanjal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1893
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to improve the performance and reduce emission using alternative fuel while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the Present study, to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection Single Cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen, Hydrocarbons (HC) etc.. For this investigation, we used Biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel which possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be combined with the diesel fuel in the form of blends. For this investigation…

Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1168/1A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2. At higher velocities and for large loss coefficients (Kt and 4fL/D), compressible flow analysis should be used.
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The Physical and Chemical Effects of Fuel on Gasoline Compression Ignition

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-R. Vallinayagam, Ponnya Hlaing, Abdullah S. AlRamadan, Yanzhao An, Bengt Johansson
Saudi Aramco-Jaeheon Sim, Junseok Chang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the engine community, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are at the forefront of research and efforts are being taken to commercialize an optimized GCI engine in the near future. GCI engines are operated typically at Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode as it offers better control of combustion with improved combustion stability. While the transition in combustion homogeneity from convectional Compression Ignition (CI) to Homogenized Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion via PPC has been comprehensively investigated, the physical and chemical effects of fuel on GCI are rarely reported at different combustion modes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of physical and chemical properties of fuels on GCI is investigated. In-order to investigate the reported problem, low octane gasoline fuels with same RON = 70 but different physical properties and sensitivity (S) are chosen. Fuels with comparable sensitivity and RON are chosen to study the impact of physical properties on GCI. On the other hand, by keeping the same RON and physical properties, the effect of sensitivity on GCI is investigated. In this regard, three test…
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Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels

Aramco Research Center-Jong Lee
Aramco Services Co-Tom Tzanetakis, Yu Zhang, Michael Traver
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and a split injection strategy was developed to promote partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various low reactivity gasoline-range fuels were compared with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) for steady-state engine performance and emissions. Specially, particulate matter (PM) emissions were examined for their mass, size and number concentrations, and further characterized by organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. As more fuel-efficient PPCI combustion was promoted, a slight reduction in fuel consumption was observed for all gasoline-range fuels, which also had higher heating values than ULSD. Since mixing-controlled combustion dominated the latter part of the combustion process, hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were only slightly increased with the gasoline-range fuels. In contrast, soot emissions were significantly reduced with the gasoline-range fuels, including a ~70% reduction in micro soot sensor measurements and a >50% reduction in smoke meter measurements. All gasoline-range fuel PM samples were also found to contain higher amount of volatile species and organic carbon fractions compared…
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Triple Injection Strategies for Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Small-Bore Common-Rail Diesel Engine

Imagineering Inc.-Yuji Ikeda
The University of New South Wales-Xinyu Liu, Harsh Goyal, Sanghoon Kook
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Implementing triple injection strategies in partially premixed charge-based gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines has shown to achieve improved engine efficiency and reduced NOx and smoke emissions in many previous studies. While the impact of the triple injections on engine performance and engine-out emissions are well known, their role in controlling the mixture homogeneity and charge premixedness is currently poorly understood. The present study shows correspondence between the triple injection strategies and mixture homogeneity/premixedness through the experimental tests of second/third injection proportion and their timing variations with an aim to explain the observed GCI engine performance and emission trends. The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder, small-bore common-rail diesel engine fuelled with a commercial gasoline fuel of 95 research octane number (RON) and running at 2000 rpm and 830 kPa indicated mean effective pressure conditions. While the first injection proportion and timing were fixed at 40% and 170 °CA bTDC, the second injection proportion was varied between 5 and 20% (i.e. third injection of 40~55%) and the timing was varied from 20 to 80 °CA…
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Experimental and Computational Study of DOC on CSF for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

Johnson Matthey Inc.-Sharan Sethuraman, Siddarth Sitamraju, Yaritza M Lopez-De Jesus, Penelope Markatou
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
For diesel exhaust aftertreatment applications with space limitations, as well as to move the selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) to a warmer location closer to the engine, DOC on CSF technology can be used. This technology combines the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed soot filter (CSF) functionalities in one component, thereby enabling volume reduction. DOC on CSF maintains the abatement of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM), and the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for passive soot oxidation and fast SCR reaction of NOx on a downstream SCR catalyst. In this study, the performance of DOC on CSF was compared to a DOC + bare diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a DOC + CSF system, to understand the performance benefits and challenges.All the components were optimized individually for their respective functions. The DOC on CSF was optimized for NO oxidation and passive soot oxidation performance. Experimental data and simulations were used to understand the underlying mechanisms in the DOC on CSF technology. Steady state HC oxidation under…
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Numerical Modeling Study of Detailed Gas Diffusivity into Catalyst Washcoat for Lean NOx Catalyst

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Osami Yamamoto, Yuichi Matsuo, Shinichi Tosa, Tatsuya Okayama
RES Group Inc-Zhiwei Zhang, John Tolsma
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To evaluate the relationship between the exhaust gas purification performance and the catalyst pore properties related to gas diffusion, an elementary reaction model was combined with gas diffusion into catalyst pores, referred to as the pseudo-2D gas diffusion/reaction model. It was constructed for Pt/Al2O3 + CeO2 catalyst as lean NOx catalyst. The gas diffusion was described as macro pore diffusion between the catalyst particles and meso pore diffusion within the particle. The kinetic model was composed of 26 reactions of NO/CO/O2 chemistry including 17 Pt/Al2O3 catalyst reactions and 9 CeO2 reactions. Arrhenius parameters were optimized using activity measurement results from various catalysts with various pore properties, meso pore volume and diameter, macro pore volume and diameter, particle size, and washcoat thickness. Good agreement was achieved between the measured and calculated values. Moreover, as compared to the performance of other catalysts which was not used for reaction model calibration, the simulated results were in good agreement with this experimental data. Using the calibrated reaction model combined with detailed gas diffusion model, a sensitivity analysis for NOx…
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Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

Brunel University-Hua Zhao
China North Engine Research Institute-Yan Zhang, Yufeng Li, Honglin Bai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion. The combustion and emissions characteristics in the SFI combustion were experimentally investigated in a naturally aspirated single-cylinder 4-stroke gasoline engine at medium-high loads when direct injection timing was kept at -60 °CA after top dead center and direct injection ratio was less than or equal to 0.4 at stoichiometry. The results show that advanced spark timing or decreased direct injection ratio alters the SFI…
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Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Jinlin Han, Bart Somers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation. Carbon monoxide (CO) decreases and NOx emissions increase with the increase of injection pressure. It was also found that for a constant lambda (1.55) the stable operating load range of BH80 is limited to relatively high load (>8 bar…
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Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Propan-2-ol and Gasoline Fuel Blends in an Unmodified Spark Ignition Engine

CASRAE, Delhi Technological University-Naveen Kumar, Shikhar Jain, Aakriti Bagla, Shivalika Sharma
Delhi Technological University-Mukul Tomar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In view of the rapid depletion, increasing prices and uneven distribution of conventional petroleum fuels; the interest in the use of alternative fuels has increased exponentially. Fuels such as biodiesel & alcohol have been evaluated both at experimental and commercial scale due to improved emission characteristics as compared to conventional fuels. Alcohols are oxygenated and result in improving the engine performance. As a blend with conventional gasoline, the alcohols enhance the premixed and diffusive combustion phase which improves the combustion efficiency. The present investigation evaluates studies on stability and homogeneity along with physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, calorific value, copper-strip corrosion and solubility at room temperature of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends. Comprehensive engine trials on unmodified petrol engine fuelled with blends of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends in the proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume have been conducted. The performance characteristics e.g. brake-specific energy consumption, brake thermal efficiency and emissions characteristics such as NOX, CO and HC were studied and analyzed to evaluate the optimum alcohol/fuel blend for the petrol engine. The result…
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