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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.
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Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

Sridhar Sahoo, Chinmay Nayak, Srinibas Tripathy, Dhanajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2380
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend. Experiments were carried out at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and load 15 Nm. FIP governs fuel atomization and air-fuel mixture preparation controlling combustion behavior of the engine, whereas…
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Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

Manav Rachna International University-Sunny Bhatia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2382
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly. The catalysts used are Rhodium Palladium and platinum, these make a…
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Assessing the Combined Outcome of Rice Husk Nano Additive and Water Injection Method on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characters of the Low Viscous Pine Oil in a Diesel Engine

Anna University Chennai-Mebin Samuel P, Devaradjane Gobalakichenin
University College of Engineering Villupuram-Gnanamoorthi V
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2604
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The research work intends to assess the need and improvement by using a low viscous bio oil, RH (rice husk) nano particles and water injection method in enhancing the performance, emission and combustion characters of a diesel engine. One of the major setbacks for using biodiesel is its higher viscosity. Hence, a low viscous oil (pine oil) which does not need transesterification process was used as a biofuel in this study. Further, to improve its characteristics a non-metallic nano additive produced from rice husk was added at 3 proportions (50, 100, 200 ppm) and the optimal quantity was found as 100 ppm based on the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) value of 30.2% at peak load condition. This efficiency value was accompanied by a considerable decrease in pollutants like HC (hydrocarbon)-34.8%, Smoke-31.6%, CO (carbon monoxide)-43.7%. On the contrary, NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emission was found to be increased for all load values. At peak load, when compared with diesel, pine oil with RH has 19.3% increased NOx emission. To reduce this increased NOx emission, water was…
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Design, Development and Analysis of Mullite Catalytic Converter for CI Engines

Kongu Engineering College-Selvakumar Pandiaraj, Dhamotharan Subbaiyan, Tamilvanan Ayyasamy, Sathishkumar Nagarajan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine. In the design stage, the back pressure analysis is performed on perforated mullite plate with ANSYS software. After arriving satisfactory results, the design is taken for development. The…
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Influence of Addition of Ethanol into Non-Edible Biodiesel from Rice Bran Oil on the Properties and Performance - An Experimental Study in Direct Injection VCR Diesel Engine

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian, Padmanaba Sundar Shanmuga Sundaram, Hemakumar Manoharan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Non-edible oil biodiesels and alcohols are the two major liquid fuel sources available to replace diesel to fuel compression ignition engine. This study is to investigate the solubility, properties and performance of biodiesel from non-edible rice bran oil and ethanol. Solubility test was conducted in three different temperatures 50C, 150C& room temperature (300C approximately). The stable blends were tested for essential properties such as energy content, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, heat of vaporisation, flash point and oxygen content as per ASTM standards. Biodiesel- ethanol blends containing 30% of ethanol was found stable up to 50C. This blend also met the minimum requirement with respect to properties to fuel compression ignition engine. These blends were tested in compression ignition engine for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in various load conditions under two compression ratios (17,1 & 18,1). Results showed that the compression ratio 18:1 was found suitable for the optimal blend. This blend produced brake thermal efficiency, peak incylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and smoke similar to that of diesel. However, ignition…
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Characteristics Investigation on Di Diesel Engine with Nano-Particles as an Additive in Lemon Grass Oil

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian
Sri Krishna College of Enggineering and Technology-Karthickeyan Viswanathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this experimental study, combustion, performance & emission characteristics of a single cylinder D.I. diesel engine is analyzed using lemon grass oil and diesel blend B20. The alumina (Al2O3) nano-particles of 10, 20 and 30 parts per million (B20A10, B20A20, B20A30) are assorted with prepared fuel blend through an ultrasonicator which would help to fetch an unvarying suspension of nano-particles over the blend fuel. SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction have been done for the alumina nano-particles to test the size of the particles that are blended to the bio-fuel blends. The chemical reactivity and rate of mixing are better though the characteristics of nano-particles exhibit high exterior area/capacity ratio during combustion that ultimately results in good characteristics of a diesel engine. Among test fuels, B20A20 shows healthier performance both in relationships of efficiency & emissions such as Nitrous oxide (NOx), hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO), and Smoke. The ŋBTE for fuel B20A20 is significantly improved by 11.5% when it is compared to the fuel B100. The HC emission is decreased by 40%, CO emission reduced…
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CFD Investigation of the Effects of Gas’ Methane Number on the Performance of a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Luca Ambrogi, Michele Battistoni, Lorenzo Gasbarro
West Virginia Univ.-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Dumitrescu
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of the year and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to NG spark ignition simulated lean-combustion engine operation at low speed and medium load conditions. The work investigated three NG blends with similar lower heating value (i.e., similar energy density) but different Methane Number (MN). The results indicated that a lower MN increased flame propagation speed and thus increased in-cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure. In addition, a low MN increased the thermal efficiency despite the higher heat transfer to the surroundings. Also, a higher MN reduced the nitrogen-oxides emissions but increased unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) emissions. Moreover, while UHC emissions…
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Reduction of NOx in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Emissions Using Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) with In-Cylinder Injection of Aqueous Urea

Univ of North Florida-Anthony Timpanaro, John Nuszkowski
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The subject of this study is the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea ((NH2)2CO) into the combustion chamber. A single cylinder diesel test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation. Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen to ensure precise delivery of the aqueous urea without the risk of any premature reactions taking place. The injection strategy was four molar ratios, 4.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 with five varying injection timings of 60, 20, 10, 0, and -30 degrees after top dead center (ATDC). The main secondary injection fluid, aqueous urea, was mixed with glycerol (C3H8O3) in an 80-20 ratio, by mass, with the desire to function as a lubricant for the secondary injector. In addition to the base line and aqueous urea tests, neat water injection and an 80-20 ratio, by mass, water-glycerol solution tests were also conducted to compare the effects…
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Exhaust Purification Performance Enhancement by Early Activation of Three Way Catalysts for Gasoline Engines Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

NE Chemcat Corporation-Makoto Nagata
Waseda Univesity-Toshinori Okajima, Ryota Sone, Xieyang Yan, Ryoya Inoue, Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Jin Kusaka, Kyohei Yamaguchi
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Three-way catalyst (TWC) converters are used to remove harmful substances (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbons (HC)) emitted from gasoline engines. However, a large amount of emissions could be emitted before the TWC reaches its light-off temperature during a cold start. For hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by gasoline engines, the emission purification performance by TWC converters unfortunately deteriorates because of mode switching from engine to battery and vice versa, which can repeatedly generate cold start conditions for the TWCs. In this study, aiming to reduce emissions from series HEVs by early activation of TWCs, numerical simulations and experiments are carried out. An HEV is tested on a chassis dynamometer in the Worldwide Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) mode. The upstream and downstream gas conditions of the close-coupled catalyst converter are measured. A test piece is taken from the same catalyst and used in model gas experiments to decide the chemical reaction scheme and each corresponding reaction rate parameter. A 1-D numerical simulation TWC model, which includes 13 chemical species with 22 global…
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