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CFD Analysis and Validation of Automotive Windshield De-Fogging Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.https://www.sae-Gopinath Sathianarayanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0039
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays Climate component system plays a vital role in JD power rating of automotive vehicle. Apart from customer point of view, stringent homologation norms pose challenge in designing climate control system components. At extreme cold climate conditions either mist/ fog forms on the automobile windshield. This makes visibility issue on driver/Co driver side. To overcome this issue efficient demister system is required. Development of Demister system requires thorough knowledge on velocity spread over windscreen and thermal performance of heater (HVAC). This work is aimed for simulating windshield demisting patterns of a vehicle as described by ECC norms. New methodology was developed to simulate the actual behaviour of condensation and evaporation of mist on the windscreen. Transient demisting patterns were simulated with the CFD code and validated with experimental test results.
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Experimental Study on Thermal Management Strategy of the Exhaust Gas of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Based on In-Cylinder Injection Parameters

Tongji University-Piqiang Tan, Lishuang Duan, Erfeng Li, Zhiyuan Hu, Diming Lou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0621
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aftertreatment system is indispensable for the removal of the noxious pollutants emitted by diesel engines, whose efficiency depends largely on the exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, this study proposes a thermal management strategy including post injection, intake throttling and late post injection to improve the efficiency of the aftertreatment system for a heavy-duty diesel engine. In the experiments, the effects of main injection, post injection, injection pressure and throttle opening on the exhaust gas temperature at diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) inlet were studied, with the influence of late post injection on the exhaust gas temperature at DOC outlet also investigated. The results showed that the reasonable control of throttle opening and post injection (such as the adjustment of injection timing and injection quantity) can significantly improve the average temperature at DOC inlet from 237.8°C to 333.6°C in the WHTC, with an increase of 40.3%. On the contrary, the influence of main injection timing on the temperature at DOC inlet was very limited, and reducing injection pressure can slightly raise the temperature at DOC inlet, which,…
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Hybrid phenomenological and mathematical-based modeling approach for diesel engine emission predictio

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Christopher Hayduk, Emre Alkan, Thomas Kemski, Christoph Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0660
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the negative health effects associated with engine pollutants, environmental problems caused by combustion engine emissions and the current strict emission standards, it is essential to better understand and model the emission formation process in order to reduce them. Further development of emission models, improves the accuracy of the model-based optimization approach, which is used as a decisive tool for combustion system development and engine-out emission reduction. The numerical approaches for emission simulation are closely coupled to the combustion model. Using a detailed emission model, considering the 3D mixture preparation simulation incl. chemical reactions, demands high computational effort. Phenomenological models, used in 1-D approaches for model-based system optimization can deliver heat release rate and using a two-zone approach can estimate the NOx emissions. Due to the lack in modeling of 3D mixture preparation phenomena, such models are not capable to predict soot or HC emissions. However, employing physical-based air-path and combustion modeling, these models can predict the engine behavior outside of the training points. Mathematical models are very fast and accurate enough in the…
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A Holistic Approach to Develop a Common Rail Single Cylinder Diesel Engine for Bharat Stage VI Emission Legislation

Indian Institute of Technology-Vikraman Vellandi, A. Ramesh, Anand Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1357
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The upcoming Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation has put enormous pressure on the future of small diesel engines which are widely used in the Indian market. The present work investigates the emission reduction potential of a common rail direct injection single cylinder diesel engine by adopting a holistic approach of lowering the compression ratio, boosting the intake air and down-speeding the engine. Experimental investigations were conducted across the entire operating map of a mass-production, light-duty diesel engine to examine the benefits of the proposed approach and the results are quantified for the modified Indian drive cycle (MIDC). By reducing the compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions are reduced by 40% and 75% respectively. However, a significant penalty in fuel economy, unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are observed with the reduced compression ratio. Intake air boosting using a mechanically driven supercharger could overcome the penalty in HC and CO emissions. However, the mechanical frictional losses of the supercharger resulted in a further penalty…
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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of Methanol PPC under Low Load Operation

ISAE-ENSMA-Clarisse Pinto Dos Santos
Lund University-Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0556
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with partially premixed combustion provide clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, high unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load condition when using high octane fuel such as Methanol with single injection strategy. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to reduce HC, CO and simultaneously increase the gross indicated efficiency compared to single injection strategy. The work was performed with a single cylinder heavy duty engine, operated at 4 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure, and an engine speed of 1200 rpm. Double and triple injections were implemented with varying dwells, injection timings and fuel mass proportions. The experimental results were analyzed with…
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Effect of Pre-Chamber Enrichment on Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Spark Ignition Combustion Concept with a Narrow-Throat Geometry

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Ponnya Hlaing, Manuel Echeverri Marquez, Eshan Singh, Fahad Almatrafi, Moez Ben Houidi, Bengt Johansson
Saudi Aramco-Emre Cenker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0825
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Pre-chamber spark ignition (PCSI) combustion is an emerging lean-burn combustion mode capable of extending the lean operation limit of an engine. The favorable characteristic of short combustion duration at the lean condition of PCSI results in high efficiencies compared to conventional spark ignition combustion. Since the engine operation is typically lean, PCSI can significantly reduce engine-out NOx emissions while maintaining short combustion durations. In this study, experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty engine at lean conditions at mid to low load. Two major studies were performed. In the first study, the total fuel energy input to the engine was fixed while the intake pressure was varied, resulting in varying the global excess air ratio. In the second study, the intake pressure was fixed while the amount of fuel was changed to alter the global excess air ratio. At each global excess air ratio, the fuel injection to the pre-chamber was varied parametrically to assess the effect of pre-chamber enrichment on engine operating characteristics. Multi-chamber heat release analysis was performed to present the pre-chamber and main…
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Computational Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Multiple Injections

Eindhoven University of Technology-Noud Maes, Bart Somers
Politecnico di Milano-Qiyan Zhou, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1155
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Multiple injection strategies are commonly used in conventional Diesel engines due to the flexibility for optimizing heat-release timing with a consequent improvement in fuel economy and engine-out emissions. This is also desirable in low-temperature combustion (LTC) engines since it offers the potential to reduce unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. To better utilize these benefits and find optimal calibrations of split injection strategies, it is imperative that the fundamental processes of multiple injection combustion are understood and computational fluid dynamics models accurately describe the flow dynamics and combustion characteristics between different injection events. To this end, this work is dedicated to the identification of suitable methodologies to predict the multiple injection combustion process. Two different approaches: Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) and Tabulated Flamelet Progress Variable (TFPV) are compared and multiple n-dodecane Spray A injections from the Engine Combustion Network are simulated using the RANS methods with both standard k − ε and k − ω SST models. Evaluations of different turbulence and combustion models are carried out by comparing computed and measured data in terms of the mixing, penetration,…
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A Study of the Effect of Weather Data and Other Assumptions on MAC LCCP

Optimized Thermal Systems Inc.-Adam Rhoads
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0152
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Average temperatures on Earth have been on the rise due to excessive emission of man-made carbon dioxide (CO2). These emissions include contributions from automobiles and their air-conditioners, or mobile air-conditioners (MACs). The Improved Mobile Air Conditioner Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Climate Performance (IMAC-GHG-LCCP) tool is used to analyze the life cycle climate performance (LCCP) of a MAC system and calculates the resultant total lifetime CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions for the vehicle. The IMAC-GHG-LCCP tool is an adaptation and improvement of the automotive LCCP standard, GREEN-MAC-LCCP (Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental-MAC-LCCP) with a focus on simplicity and ease-of-use. The user has the option to choose which refrigerants to analyze, driving parameters/drive cycle, cities for comparison, and power consumption of the MAC system. The tool uses the latest weather data for the emissions calculations. The method used to bin temperature data has an impact on the CO2 emissions calculated by the tool. Previous versions used average temperatures for each hour of each month to develop temperature bin percentages. The newest version of the tool bins the weather data…
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An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOX Trap Using Dimethyl Ether

University of Windsor-Li Liang, Hua Zhu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Divyanshu Purohit, Xiao Yu, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1354
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever-stringent emission regulations are major challenges for the diesel fueled engines in automotive industry. The applications of advanced after-treatment technologies as well as alternative fuels [1] are considered as promising methodology to reduce exhaust emission from compression ignition (CI) engines. Using dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel has been extensively studied by many researchers and automotive manufactures since DME has demonstrated enormous potential in terms of emission reduction, such as low CO emission, and soot and sulfur free. However, the effect of employing DME in a lean NOX trap (LNT) based after-treatment system has not been fully addressed yet.In this work, investigations of the long breathing LNT system using DME as a reductant were performed on a heated after-treatment flow bench with simulated engine exhaust condition. The scope of the study covers the regeneration effectiveness of NOX on the LNT after-treatment system, the formation of the by-products, including ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide(N2O), methane (CH4). These by-products were measured and compared with the results when using other types of reductants, such as diesel, ethanol,…