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A Control System for Maintaining Passenger Cabin Air Quality

Chulalongkorn University-Thanin Wangsawangkul, Thiti Maneepipat, Nattapong Sukumdhanakul, Porpin Pungetmongkol, Prabhath De Silva
DENSO International Thailand-Pradit Mahasaksiri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1243
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a control methodology to maintain vehicle cabin air quality within desirable levels, giving particular attention to gaseous contaminants carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The CO2 is generated by the occupant exhalation while the CO is assumed to be ingested with the incoming fresh air. The system is able to detect and improve cabin air quality by controlling the recirculation flap of the ventilation system to control the amount of fresh air intake. The methodology is demonstrated in the laboratory using controlled experiments with a production level automotive HVAC (Heating Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) module. The results indicated that the designed control system can work automatically and control the CO and CO2 gas concentrations within acceptable levels.
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Study on thermal management strategy of the exhaust gas of diesel engines based on in-cylinder injection parameters

Tongji University-Piqiang Tan, Lishuang Duan, Erfeng Li, Zhiyuan Hu, Diming Lou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0621
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to high thermal efficiency, reliability and durability, less fuel consumption, and less carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, diesel engines are widely used in both stationary and mobile applications. However, an inherent combustion mode of diesel engines results in harmful emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM), the emissions can cause substantial damage to the human health and environment, so there are strict emission regulations to limit the harmful emissions. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) are important exhaust gas aftertreatment devices to oxidizing the HC, CO and PM in order to meet the requirements of emission regulations. However, emission regulations become more stringent, the test procedure has been changed from New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) to Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP), most of the test operating conditions in the WLTP are under medium and low engine loads, so the temperature of exhaust gas of diesel engines is relatively low during the whole WLTP cycle. For the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, especially for the regeneration process of…
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Hybrid phenomenological and mathematical-based modeling approach for diesel engine emission predictio

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Christopher Hayduk, Emre Alkan, Thomas Kemski, Christoph Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0660
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the negative health effects associated with engine pollutants, environmental problems caused by combustion engine emissions and the current strict emission standards, it is essential to better understand and model the emission formation process in order to reduce them. Further development of emission models, improves the accuracy of the model-based optimization approach, which is used as a decisive tool for combustion system development and engine-out emission reduction. The numerical approaches for emission simulation are closely coupled to the combustion model. Using a detailed emission model, considering the 3D mixture preparation simulation incl. chemical reactions, demands high computational effort. Phenomenological models, used in 1-D approaches for model-based system optimization can deliver heat release rate and using a two-zone approach can estimate the NOx emissions. Due to the lack in modeling of 3D mixture preparation phenomena, such models are not capable to predict soot or HC emissions. However, employing physical-based air-path and combustion modeling, these models can predict the engine behavior outside of the training points. Mathematical models are very fast and accurate enough in the…
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A Holistic Approach to Develop a Common Rail Single Cylinder Diesel Engine for Bharat Stage VI Emission Legislation

Indian Institute of Technology-Vikraman Vellandi, A. Ramesh, Anand Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1357
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The upcoming Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation has put enormous pressure on the future of small diesel engines which are widely used in the Indian market. The present work investigates the emission reduction potential of a common rail direct injection single cylinder diesel engine by adapting a holistic approach of lowering the compression ratio, intake air boosting and engine down-speeding. Experimental investigations are conducted across the entire operating map of a mass production, light duty diesel engine to examine the benefits of the proposed approach and the results are quantified for the modified Indian drive cycle (MIDC). The compression ratio reduction from 18:1 to 14:1 could reduce the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions by 40% and 75% respectively. However, a significant penalty in the fuel economy, unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are observed. Intake air boosting using a mechanically driven supercharger could overcome the penalty in HC and CO emissions. However, the mechanical frictional losses of supercharger resulted in a further penalty in the fuel economy. The reduced…
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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Effect of different geometrical changes in the intake manifold of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends

JNTU, Anantapur-Devendra Uppara
NIT Rourkela, India-Niklesh P. Reddy, Naseem Khayum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0346
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this research work is to investigate on a single cylinder, 4-stroke DI diesel engine fuelled with waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME)-diesel blends by changing the intake manifold. Considering this, a research was carried out by fitting two different intake manifold. One is normal intake manifold, and other is internal buttress threaded intake manifold (IBTM), which is designated in this article as IBTM. In this experimental investigation, a suitable blends such as WCOME10 (10% of WCOME + 90% diesel) and WCOME20 (20% of WCOME + 80% diesel) were tested in a different intake manifolds as mentioned above. Based on the results obtained in this study, IBTM exhibits a better performance and emission results when compared to normal intake manifold. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions were decreased by about 26.5%, 36.76% and 24.09% respectively, whereas, NOx emissions were increased by about 23.03% for IBTM on compared to normal intake manifold when fuelled with diesel.
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Computational modeling of Diesel spray combustion with multiple injections

Eindhoven University of Technology-Noud Maes, Bart Somers
Politecnico di Milano-Qiyan Zhou, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1155
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Multiple injection strategies are commonly used in conventional Diesel engines due to the flexibility for optimizing heat-release timing with a consequent improvement in fuel economy and engine-out emissions, which is also desirable in low temperature combustion (LTC) engine since it offers the potential to reduce UHC and CO emissions. To better utilize these benefits and find optima calibrations of split strategies, it is imperative that the fundamental processes of multiple injection combustion are understood and CFD models accurately describe the flow dynamics and combustion characteristics between different injection events. To this end, this work is dedicated to the identification of suitable methodologies to predict the multiple injection combustion process. Two different approaches: Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing different numbers of flamelets and Tabulated Flamelet Progress Variable (TFPV) are compared and Spray A conditions with multiple injections of Engine Combustion Network are simulated using the RANS methods with both standard k-ε and k-ω SST models. Evaluations of different turbulence and combustion models are carried out by comparing computed and measured data in terms of the…
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Analysis of Polar Organic Compounds Condensed on Engine Particulate Matter Formed during Advanced Compression Ignition Combustion

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sam Lewis, John Storey, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran, Melanie Moses-DeBusk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0395
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) combustion has been the subject of many recent studies due to the high thermal efficiencies that can be achieved in internal combustion engines. ACI can also be used in multi-mode combustion engines, which combine spark ignition (SI) operation at high loads with ACI operation at low loads. ACI can limit the emissions of both soot carbon and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from engines due to lower peak temperatures of combustion, but hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) tend to increase. While all ACI combustion strategies are lean, fuel-air stratification levels span a range from completely homogeneous mixtures to highly stratified mixtures. The presence of fuel aromatic compounds and the lean, low temperature combustion environment provide the opportunity for the formation of carboxylic acids and nitro-aromatic compounds. These polar species tend to be non-volatile and condense on exhaust particles. To better understand these polar species, a capillary electrophoresis /electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI MS) method has been developed to identify nitrophenols and carboxylic acids on exhaust PM extracted from sample filters. Results…
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Engine-Out Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Vehicle Operating on a Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Renewable Diesel

University of California-Cavan McCaffery, George Karavalakis, Tom Durbin, Heejung Jung, Kent Johnson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0337
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) is a promising biofuel that can be produced by means of a refinery-based process that converts animal fats and vegetable oils into paraffinic hydrocarbons. The purpose of this work is to investigate the engine-out emissions characteristics of HVO from a current technology diesel vehicle to better understand the emissions performance of HVO as a drop-in fuel. Two fuels were used in this study, including an Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) and a neat HVO to evaluate one light-duty diesel truck equipped with common rail direct injection. The HVO fuel contained 98.5 vol % of HVO and 1.5 vol % petroleum; and is hereinafter, the fuel denoted as HVO. Although the vehicle was equipped with a diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems, all emissions sampling occurred before the catalyst. The vehicle was tested at least twice on each fuel using the LA-92 drive cycle and at steady-state conditions at 30 miles per hour (mph) and 50 mph at different loads. Engine-out emissions measurements were made for total…
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Control of Ignition Timing and Combustion Phase by means of Injection Strategy for Jet-Controlled Compression Ignition Mode in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

CATARC-Li Bo
Dalian University of Technology-Jingyu Zhu, Wuqiang Long
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0555
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Premixed charge low temperature combustion such as PCCI (Premixed charge compression ignition) and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) has been considered as a promising way to simultaneously improve the fuel economy and reduce the NOx/soot emissions compared to the traditional combustion mode. However, how to realize the stable combustion phasing is still one of the main challenges since reaction of the premixed charge is sensitive to the intake air properties (temperature, oxygen concentration) and chemical kinetics. In this work, effects of multi-injection strategy on the controllability of premixed charge compression ignition were investigated in a light duty prototype diesel engine. Cylinder head was modified to ensure the configuration of two common rail direct injectors. One is for delivering the blended fuel of diesel and ethanol-gasoline to form the premixed charge, another is for injecting the jet-injection diesel fuel in order to trigger the ignition. Piston cavity shape was also optimized to reduce the THC and CO emission resulted from wall-wetting and incomplete combustion in the crevice. Several important factors including pre-injection timing, jet-injection timing, stratified…