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Rework of an in-line two-cylinder engine for the application in Formula Student

FH JOANNEUM Graz, Department of Automotive Engineering-Michael Feigl B.Sc, Dominik Rößmann B.Sc, FH-Prof. DI Michael Trzesniowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0532
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Formula Student is an international design competition, where students all over the world develop, design and build their own race car and afterwards compete with each other at different disciplines at events worldwide. The development process includes every module of the race car and the team of joanneum racing graz has focused on the powertrain since the beginning.The following paper contains an overview of the reworking process of an in-line two-cylinder engine for the application in Formula Student. The intention was to increase the BMEP and at the same time reach a desired power/weight ratio of the engine. The process of selecting the most appropriate turbocharger by means of experimental testing on an engine dynamometer, as well as its optimization by means of numerical simulation, is outlined. Subsequently, the paper discusses the challenges regarding valve timing and finding the best trade-off between power and residual gas with the help of 1D-simulations. The necessary implementation of an intercooler and its efficiency optimization is also addressed. Finally, the calibration and optimization of the setup on the engine…
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Application of Porous Material as Heat Storage Medium to a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

Chiba University, Chiba, Japan-Dongsheng Dong, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Fuchao Shen, Naohiro Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0541
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Porous materials, which have large surface areas, have been used for heat storage. However, porous Si-SiC material, as heat storage medium to be applied to a turbocharged gasoline engine has not been investigated extensively. In this study, porous Si-SiC material was used in the upstream of the turbine as heat storage medium and a model was thereby developed for further study. Substrate surface area and substrate volume of Si-SiC were calculated for structure model calibration. Following these calculations and test results, the pressure loss and thermal model were validated. Results show that the weaken exhaust gas pulsation amplitude by porous Si-SiC leads to better turbine performance and BSFC in steady engine condition for a turbocharged gasoline engine. In addition, its transient operation response needs to be improved under transient engine conditions. Hence the possibility of improving the transient response is investigated with characteristics of porous Si-SiC material. It was observed that less time was required for the engine to reach the target torque in transient conditions.
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Analysis of an automotive vibration issue through bond-graphs

Ford Motor Company – MSXi-Luis Guilherme, Mariano Viana Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0280
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Modal coupling phenomena are one of the most sensitive issues to the vehicle occupant perception. Commonly understood as a vibrational transfer function (VTF) problem only, those events not rarely are the root cause of noise transfer function (NTF) issues too, increasing exponentially its potential to degrade the vehicle comfort performance. As result, when not solved through computer aided engineering (CAE) tools along initial project phases, the vehicle must use expensive masses and dampers to fix, with delay, a design issue that could have be solved earlier. The use of bond graph modeling technique makes possible to segregate and evaluate only a specific part of the vehicle structure, calibrating its mass and stiffness separately. The results of this analysis allows to design a modal decoupled system faster and accurately than using a complete finite element model (FEM), in order to feedback the design conception parameters with the optimized modal responses, improving its development time and cost besides the final product quality.
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Engine calibration and driveability evaluation of a racecar

Federal University of Santa Maria-Aleff Goulart, Alexandre Piccini, Alice Müller, Felipe Balbom, Mario Martins, Pedro Carvalho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0126
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The passenger car automakers are always competing to excel in vehicle characteristics related to passenger comfort and driveability aspects. The engine calibration is a theoretical and experimental procedure with the intention to extract maximum efficiency from the engine and guarantee satisfactory levels of driving for both conventional and racing cars. This paper describes the calibration procedure of a Formula SAE race car engine. The engine was a four cylinder 600 cm3 four-strokes with modified intake and exhaust systems, controlled by an engine control unit (Motec M800 ECU). These engines present optimized characteristics for high speed, in exchange for some combustion degradation in some specific operating conditions at low speed that may impair vehicle driveability. Therefore, good tip-in reaction and the progression of the torque delivery are fundamental criteria to increase the vehicle performance, specially, to those submitted to short acceleration distances. The related criteria to the vehicle dynamic comfort has objective values to measure the abrupt engine speed transactions, jerks and acceleration variability related to torque variation. Improvement on such parameters can be obtained by…
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Unsettled Technology Domains in Robotics for Automation in Aerospace Manufacturing

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019010
Published 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Cost reduction and increasing production rates are driving automation of aerospace manufacturing. Articulated serial robots may replace bespoke gantry automation or human operations. Improved accuracy is key to enabling operations such as machining, additive manufacturing (AM), composite fabrication, drilling, automated program development, and inspection. New accuracy standards are needed to enable process-relevant comparisons between robotic systems.Accuracy can be improved through calibration of kinematic and joint stiffness parameters, joint output encoders, adaptive control that compensates for thermal expansion, and feedforward control that compensates for hysteresis and external loads. The impact of datuming could also be significantly reduced through modeling and optimization. Highly dynamic end effectors compensate high-frequency disturbances using inertial sensors and reaction masses. Global measurement feedback is a high-accuracy turnkey solution, but it is costly and has limited capability to compensate dynamic errors. Local measurement feedback is a mature, affordable, and highly accurate technology where the robot is required to position or align relative to some local feature. Locally clamped machine tools are an alternative approach that can utilize the flexibility of industrial robots while…
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Influence to the PN Emissions in Calibration Procedure for Portable and Stationary Solid Particle Number Measurement Systems

HORIBA Europe GmbH-Yoshinori Otsuki
HORIBA, Ltd.-Kenji Kondo, Kentaro Kojima, Takeshi Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2196
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The Real Diving Emissions (RDE) regulation has been introduced since September, 2017 by utilizing the Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). For the PEMS for the solid Particle Number (PN) measurement (PN-PEMS), the validation tests are required by comparing to the stationary PN measurement system on a chassis dynamometer prior to the on-road emissions testing. However, there are some cases that the emission results of PN-PEMS have big difference for that of the PMP system as the PN-PEMS does not have the same system configuration and calibration procedures as a PMP system. In this paper, the influence of the calibration procedure to the PN emissions results was observed by applying the calibration procedure of the PN-PEMS to the PMP system. The current systems configurations for PMP system and PN-PEMS, and the differences of them were described. And, the calibration procedure of the PN-PEMS was applied to the PMP system to adjust the system detection efficiency at 23 nm. Finally, the influence of the calibration protocol was investigated by compared the PN emissions of PMP system and…
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Improvement of motor calibration by using deep learning

Toyota Motor Corporation-Toshiki Terabe, Toshio Watari, Hiroshi Yoshimoto, Kenji Yamada
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2310
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Knowledge of experts is necessary for judging motor current waveforms. Here, we develop an automatic judgement system for motor current waveform by establishing an AI model trained by knowledge of experts and CAE technology.
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Diesel Engine Combustion Control with Onboard Calibration by Using Feedback Error Learning

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo-Motoki Takahashi, Yudai Yamasaki, Shigehiko Kaneko
School of Integrated Design Engineering, Graduate school of-Makoto Eguchi, Naoki Fukuda, Hiromitsu Ohmori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2318
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we propose an onboard calibration method based on the feedback error learning (FEL). This controller is 2 degree of freedom controller. We use a cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) as the feedforward controller. By using this, fast learning will be possible. Due to the online learning of this controller, it becomes possible to correspond to changes in the environment such as aging. In this paper, we constructed FEL considering the premixed diesel combustion with dual peak heat release rate under transient operation. To confirm the effectiveness of this control system, experimental results will be shown.
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Real-time Long Horizon Model Predictive Control of a Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Power-Split Utilizing Trip Preview

KForce-Shengqi Zhang
Toyota Motor Corporation-Yushi Shibaike
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2341
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Given a forecast of speed and load demands during a trip, a hybrid powertrain power-split Trajectory Optimization Problem (TOP) can be solved to optimize fuel consumption. This can be done on desktop to set performance benchmarks; however, it has been believed that the TOP could not be solved in real-time and is not a realizable controller. As such, several approximations of the TOP have been made in the interest of obtaining a real-time near-optimal controller, for example, Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategies (ECMS) and their adaptive counterparts. These strategies decide on the power-split by, at each sampled time instant, minimizing a Horizon-0 (without predicting forward in time) composite function of fuel consumption and equivalent battery energy. The fuel economy that results from these strategies is highly sensitive to the calibration of the associated equivalence factor, and furthermore, must be chosen differently for different drive cycles. This paper presents a strategy for solving the TOP in real-time, i.e., as an Economic Model Predictive Controller (MPC) with horizon length sufficiently long to cover the entire trip. Unlike ECMS,…
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Experimental Proof-of-Concept of HiL Based Virtual Calibration for a Gasoline Engine with a Three-Way-Catalyst

FEV Europe GmbH-Pietro Gardini, Thomas Scheel, Vitali Walter, Jaykumar Kansagara Raul Tharmakulasingam, Marius Böhmer, Martin Nijs
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Feihong Xia, Frank Dorscheidt, Stefan Lücke, Jakob Andert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2301
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The increasing complexity of modern combustion engines together with the substantial variability of hybrid electric powertrains, lead to new challenges in function development, system integration and vehicle calibration processes. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulations have been introduced to front-load part of the testing and calibration tasks from the vehicle to a virtual environment. With this approach, the simulation quality and the cost-benefit ratio are strongly dependent on the accuracy of the plant modelling and the computational effort.This paper introduces a novel HiL simulation platform for an engine control unit (ECU) with a crank-angle resolved real-time model (GT-Power) for a gasoline engine with direct fuel injection, single stage turbocharging and a three-way catalyst. By simplifying the fluid dynamics simulation model from the concept phase, a good compromise between model accuracy and computation speed can be achieved with relatively low effort. The coupling of the engine model and the hardware ECU has been implemented using a realtime workstation with a co-simulation platform (xMOD) coupled to a HiL-simulator with the necessary I/O boards (dSPACE). The closed-loop boost pressure and the…
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