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Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

TMTL-Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2566
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature. By using the same hardware we are thus able to achieve higher power rating for same engine and also meet CPCB 2 emission norms comfortably.

Electrification System Modeling with Machine/Deep Learning for Virtual Drive Quality Prediction

General Motors Technical Center India-Brijesh Borkar, John Bosco Maria Francis, Pankaj Arora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2418
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A virtual 'model' is generally a mathematical surrogate of a physical system and when well correlated, serves as a basis for understanding the physical system in part or in entirety. Drive Quality defines a driver's 'experience' of a blend of controlled responses to an applied input. The 'experience' encompasses physical, biological and bio-chemical perception of vehicular motion by the human body. In the automotive domain, many physical modeling tools are used to model the sub-components and its integration at the system level. Physical Modeling requires high domain expertise and is not only time consuming but is also very 'compute-resource' intensive. In the path to achieving 'vDQP (Virtual Drive Quality Prediction)' goal, one of the requirements is to establish 'well-correlated' virtual environments of high fidelity with respect to standard test maneuvers. This helps in advancing many developmental activities from a Controls and Calibration aspect. Recently, machine/deep learning have proven to be very effective in pattern recognition, classification tasks and human-level control to model highly nonlinear real world systems. This paper investigates the effectiveness of deep learning…

Emission and noise optimization of CRDe engine with pilot injection strategies

Mahindra Research Valley-Pranav Kumar Sinha, Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0019
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
he combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norms. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise. Calibration was employed to meet the emission and noise targets of the points achieving effective noise - Soot trade off and HC- PM trade-off.

Analytical Model for Calibration Results Performances Enhancement, Resulting in Automated Prescription for Equipments

Airbus-Juan Manuel García Lasanta, Damian Mendez-Huelva
SAICA SL-Jose Enrique Garofano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1878
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The current aeronautical manufacturing sector is characterized by the high level of competence and the required requirement in its production processes, based on the objectives of profitability and safety (airworthiness). In recent years, there is a real revolution in the sector, where the most advanced tools for the organization and optimization of production are given priority, supported by the latest massively used techniques of automatic data collection. , their organized storage and their analytical classification. Metrology plays a key role in ensuring the quality and reliability of the information generated in these productive cycles. The provision of an analytical model of flexible measurement systems, capable and easily adaptable to the dynamics of the company, is presented as one of the pillars in which this new conception of production is based. The provision of an analytical model of flexible measurement systems, capable and easily adaptable to the dynamics of the company, is presented as one of the pillars in which this new conception of production is based. At the Airbus plant in Puerto Real, and in…

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Jie Huang, Long Yu, Yuhan Wang
Shanghai Top NC Tech Co Ltd-Yilian Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1883
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and Automated Alignment System. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, which combines the symmetry of the sphere and the principle of projection transformation, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system inside the ball-socket will drive the piston to move to the specified location. Meanwhile, the amount of…

A New Co-Simulation Approach for Tolerance Analysis on Vehicle Propulsion Subsystem

GM Global Propulsion Systems-Claudio Mancuso, Domenico Cavaiuolo, Giuseppe Corbo
Gamma Technologies LLC-Iakovos Papadimitriou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0079
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
An increasing demand for reducing cost and time effort of the design process via improved CAE (Computer-Aided Engineer) tools and methods has characterized the automotive industry over the past two decades. One of the main challenges involves the effective simulation of a vehicle’s propulsion system dealing with different physical domains: several examples have been proposed in the literature mainly based on co-simulation approach which involves a specific tool for each propulsion system part modeling. Nevertheless, these solutions are not fully suitable and effective to perform statistical analysis including all physical parameters. In this respect, this paper presents the definition and implementation of a new simulation methodology applied to a propulsion subsystem. The reported approach is based on the usage of Synopsis SABER as dominant tool for co-simulation: models of electronic circuitry, electro-mechanical components and control algorithm are implemented in SABER to perform tolerance analysis; in addition, a dynamic link with engine plant model developed in GT-SUITE environment has been established via a dedicated procedure. Moreover, a HPC Grid (High Performance Computing Grid) is used with…

Virtual Chassis Dyno for Diesel Engine Tuning and Calibration

RENAULT SAS-Damien Maroteaux
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0076
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Since WLTP introduction, Exhaust Emission standards are now based on real driving conditions. The tuning and calibration work for Engine-out Emissions and Exhaust After-treatment Systems must therefore include all driving conditions in real life use of the vehicle. This includes temperature conditions, altitude, vehicle load and driving style. As a consequence the workload, cost and duration of the engine and after treatment system calibration activities, based on physical tests as today , are no more compatible with realistic development targets. The purpose of the methodology described in this paper is to replace chassis dyno vehicle tests by Hardware in the Loop, using only the Engine Electronic Control Unit as physical part. The vehicle, driver, engine, gearbox are all modeled by 0D/1D simulation running in real time. The methodology used to build the simulation models is described. A Design of Experiment Approach based mainly on steady state engine testing is used to build the engine-out emission model. A very extensive work has been done to validate the method, by comparing results from the model with vehicle…

Potential of 1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling in Reducing the Experimental Effort Through the Comparison of the Achievable Calibration Performance

Teoresi Spa-Francesco de Nola, Andrea Molteni, Roberto Tortora lng
Universita di Napoli Federico II-Giovanni Giardiello, Alfredo Gimelli, Massimiliano Muccillo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0013
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Over the last decades, internal combustion engines have undergone a continuous evolution to achieve better performance, lower pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. This evolution involved changes in the engine architecture needed to perform advanced management strategies. Therefore, Variable Valve Actuation, Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Gasoline Direct Injection, turbocharging and powertrain hybridization have wide application in the automotive field. However, the effective management of a such complex system is due to the contemporaneous development of the on-board engine electronic control unit (EECU). In fact, the additional degrees of freedom available for the engine regulation highly increased the complexity of engine control and management, resulting in a very expensive and long calibration process. To overcome the drawbacks related to extensive calibration process, this study proposes an effective methodology based on the adoption of 1D thermo-fluid dynamic modelling. In particular, a 1D CFD engine model, properly calibrated starting from a reduced number of experimental data adopted to solve specific vector optimization problems, is used as in a virtual test bench to provide a detailed engine data sheet and then…

Development and Validation of a Control-Oriented Analytic Engine Simulator

FERRARI S.p.A.-Matteo Cucchi, Nicola Silvestri
University of Bologna-Alessandro Brusa, Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0002
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Due to the recent anti-pollution policies, the performance increase in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is currently under the focus of automotive manufacturers. This trend drives control systems designers to investigate accurate solutions and build more sophisticated algorithms to increase the efficiency of this kind of engines.The development of a control strategy is composed of several phases and steps, and the first part of such process is typically spent in defining and investigating the logic of the strategy. During this phase it is often useful to have a light engine simulator, which allows to have robust synthetic combustion data with a low calibration and computational effort.In the first part of this paper, a description of the control-oriented ANalytical Engine SIMulator (ANESIM) is carried out. The latest results about the zero-dimensional knock model presented in a previous paper and some interesting analytical equations which define the main mean-combustion indexes trends (for example maximum in-cylinder pressure, or Pmax, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burned angle, or MFB50, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, or IMEP) as functions of engine speed…

Assessing Viscosity in Hydro-Erosive Grinding Process via Refractometry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

UTFPR, Brazil-Bárbara R. Heidemann, Gustavo Scherpinski, Luís Fabris, Marcia Muller, José L. Fabris, Giuseppe Pintaude
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0012
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
The manufacturing of diesel injector nozzles requires precision processing to produce multiple micro-holes. An abrasive fluid containing a mixture of mineral oil and hard particles is used for rounding them, ensuring the hydrodynamics of the injection. As verified in a previous investigation, the viscosity of the fluid undergoes uncontrolled changes during hydro-erosive (HE) grinding. Such undesired viscosity changes are detrimental to the process and difficult to assess. The current investigation aims to study the possibility of using the refractive index of the oils used in the HE grinding for assessing their viscosities. A calibration curve correlating the refractive index and viscosity was obtained from the analysis of samples produced by mixing two distinct mineral oils in different proportions. The determined calibration curve was tested with 45 samples of filtered oil, collected directly from the tanks during the HE grinding. The results showed that refractometry is a potential technique for online control of grinding efficiency.