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Unsettled Technology Domains in Robotics for Automation in Aerospace Manufacturing

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019010
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Cost reduction and increasing production rate are driving automation of aerospace manufacturing. Articulated serial robots may replace bespoke gantry automation or human operations. Improved accuracy is key to enabling operations such as machining, additive manufacturing, composite fabrication, drilling, automated program development and inspection. New accuracy standards are needed to enable process- relevant comparisons between robot systems. Accuracy can be improved through calibration of kinematic and joint stiffness parameters, joint output encoders, adaptive control that compensates for thermal expansion and feed- forward control that compensates for hysteresis and external loads. The impact of datuming could also be significantly reduced through modelling and optimization. High dynamic end-effectors compensate high-frequency disturbances using inertial sensors and reaction masses. Global measurement feedback is a high-accuracy turn-key solution, but it is costly and has limited capability to compensate dynamic errors. Local measurement feedback is a mature, affordable and highly accurate technology where the robot is required to position or align relative to some local feature. Locally clamped machine tools are an alternative approach that can utilize the flexibility of industrial robots…
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Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

Silicon Valley Mobility-Sven Beiker
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019007
Published 2019-12-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest:First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk.Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors.Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models.SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies. The three technical issues identified in this report need to be discussed in greater depth with the aims of, first, clarifying the scope of the industry-wide alignment needed; second, prioritizing the issues requiring resolution; and, third, creating a plan to generate the necessary frameworks, practices, and protocols.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies of interest to the mobility industry. The goal of…
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Electrification System Modeling with Machine/Deep Learning for Virtual Drive Quality Prediction

General Motors Technical Center India-Brijesh Borkar, John Bosco Maria Francis, Pankaj Arora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2418
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A virtual 'model' is generally a mathematical surrogate of a physical system and when well correlated, serves as a basis for understanding the physical system in part or in entirety. Drive Quality (DQ) defines a driver's 'experience' of a blend of controlled responses to an applied input. The 'experience' encompasses physical, biological and bio- chemical perception of vehicular motion by the human body. In the automotive domain, many physical modeling tools are used to model the sub-components and its integration at the system level. Physical Modeling requires high domain expertise and is not only time consuming but is also very 'compute-resource' intensive. In the path to achieving 'vDQP (Virtual Drive Quality Prediction)' goal, one of the requirements is to establish 'well-correlated' virtual environments of high fidelity with respect to standard test maneuvers. This helps in advancing many developmental activities from a Analysis, Controls and Calibration standpoint. Recently, machine/deep learning have proven to be very effective in pattern recognition, classification tasks and human-level control to model highly nonlinear real world systems. This paper investigates the effectiveness…
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Composite Steering Strategy for 4WS-4WD EV Based on Low-Speed Steering Maneuverability

Tongji University-Yang Yang Wang, Zhi Guang Liu, Yuan Xing Jiang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
A composite steering control strategy, which combines four-wheel steering (4WS) and differential steering, is proposed in this paper, to optimize steering maneuverability in the conditions where the vehicle speed is below 15 Km/h, mainly for U-turning and parking conditions. A dynamic model is developed for the steering system and the tire system. Taking different steering wheel inputs into consideration, a 4WS control strategy proportional to the front wheel steering angle is quoted to improve the steering maneuverability in the low speed conditions and guarantee the manipulability by controlling the side slip of the vehicle. Based on the 4WS system, this paper explores the possibility of further improving the low-speed maneuverability of the vehicle through differential steering. And the differential steering control strategy is developed, including four hub-motor output modes. A composite steering controller is designed based on the 4WS-4WD electric vehicle platform. Through the real vehicle calibration tests, the output torque distribution coefficient of the hub motor in the differential steering control strategy is obtained, and the composite steering control strategy optimal for maneuverability is…
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Corrosion Test Master Establishment

Wheel Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2636_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-21 by SAE International in United States
This SAE lab recommended practice may be applied to corrosion test methods such as salt spray, filiform, Corrosion creep back, etc. This procedure is intended to permit corrosion testing to be assessed between Laboratories for correlation purposes.
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Emission and Noise Optimization of CRDe Engine with Pilot Injection Strategies

Mahindra Research Valley-Pranav Kumar Sinha, Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norus. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise. Calibration was employed to meet the emission and noise targets of the points achieving effective noise - Soot trade off and HC- PM trade-off.
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A New Parallel Hybrid Concept for Microcars: Propulsion System Design, Modeling and Control

ENEA-Fernando Ortenzi
Positech Consulting s.r.l.-Erminio Maria Ursitti
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Technological and commercial development of vehicles specifically conceived for urban use would certainly be a crucial aspect in making mobility sustainable in urban contexts thanks to their limited in size and low fuel consumption and emissions. Hybrid drive trains are particularly suited to this purpose: if properly designed, very small-sized thermal engines can give all the energy and power required for the application, also making pure electric driving possible when required. The authors are involved since a decade in proposing new low-cost solutions to address this market sector. Market itself explored these possibilities and nowadays offers some BEV solutions in this market share, but it is still lacking in proposing solutions for a parallel full hybrid drive. The main reason must be searched in the complexity of normally applied parallel-hybrid propulsion systems which is not compatible with the limited costs of the application.Taking the lead from these considerations, the authors here propose a simple concept for a parallel-hybrid kit for quadricycles called Hybrid Power Pack (HPP) which is now installed and under long-range testing on…
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Film Analysis Guides for Dynamic Studies of Test Subjects

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J138_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide guidelines for the identification of subjects used in dynamic tests. It establishes recommendations for location and description of target areas on test subjects or test devices, as well as recommendations for photographic calibration and timing.
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Analytical Model for Calibration Results Performances Enhancement, Resulting in Automated Prescription for Equipments

Airbus-Juan Manuel García Lasanta, Damian Mendez-Huelva
SAICA SL-Jose Enrique Garofano
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Most of the decisions taken every day are based on the results of measurements of all different events that occur around us. The reliability of these measurements depends basically on the environment in which they are carried out, the procedure defined and the equipment used, evaluating their different contributions through the uncertainty of measurement. In the case of the measuring equipment, the calibration process associated with adequate traceability provides part of the information necessary to contribute positively to the generation of reliability. However, the physical nature of the instruments means that all of them have a certain degree of drift in their metrological characteristics, which requires users to establish time intervals to confirm the maintenance of the goodness of measurement of such equipment. In this article, a methodological proposal for the processing of calibration data, which makes it possible to establish a systematic approach for the dynamic and flexible establishment of calibration intervals for measuring equipment in industrial environments, is introduced. Finally, the results of a practical experience with this methodology carried out in the…
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A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Jie Huang, Long Yu, Yuhan Wang
Shanghai Top NC Tech Co Ltd-Yilian Zhang
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and positioners. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system will drive the pistons to move to the specified location. Meanwhile, the amount of compression of a set of springs has changed, so the steel balls are compelled to compress, contact or…
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