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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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Development of Ultra Low Viscosity 0W-8 Engine Oil

JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corp.-Shintaro Kusuhara, Yu Misaki
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazuo Yamamori, Yuta Uematsu, Kazuyoshi Manabe, Itsuki Miyata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1425
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Further fuel economy improvement of the internal combustion engine is indispensable for CO2 reduction in order to cope with serious global environmental problems. Although lowering the viscosity of engine oil is an effective way to improve fuel economy, it may reduce the wear resistance. Therefore, it is important to achieve both improved fuel economy and reliability. We have developed new 0W- 8 engine oil of ultra-low viscosity and achieved an improvement in fuel economy by 0.8% compared to the commercial 0W-16 engine oil. For this new oil, we reduced the friction coefficient under boundary lubrication regime by applying an oil film former and calcium borate detergent. The film former increased the oil film thickness without increasing the oil viscosity. The calcium borate detergent enhanced the friction reduction effect of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC). By applying these technologies, an engine oil was developed which successfully achieved desired fuel efficiency and reliability. The developed oil also met the new JASO GLV-1 specification.
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Calcium in Oil Effects on Pre-ignition of Two-stroke Engine

Yamabiko-Corp.-Kuniyoshi Eto, Masaki Kihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0579
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Investigations of the influence of calcium on pre-ignition in a two-stroke engine have shown that the lower the calcium concentration, the lower the frequency of pre-ignition. Pre-ignition problems can occur in small, air-cooled, two-stroke engines such as a chainsaw. In contrast, in a supercharged automobile engine, it has been reported that calcium, which is a detergent component in engine oil, causes low-speed pre-ignition. The oil for two-stroke engines also contains calcium and is mixed with the fuel and lubricated before being supplied to the combustion chamber. This makes, two-stroke engines more likely to be affected by oil components. Based on this, we investigated the influence of calcium on pre-ignition of a two-stroke engine. First, we investigated driving conditions in which pre-ignition is likely to occur, such as warming up the engine. Under this condition, oil with calcium concentrations ranging from 0 ppm to 1,500 ppm were tested at a mixing ratio of 2%. The results show that the lower the calcium concentration, the lower the incidence rate of pre-ignition. Which could also occur at 0…
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Alternative Engine Oil Formulating Solutions to Reduce Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Chevron Energy Technology Company-Amir Maria, Theresa Gunawan
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-Ian Elliott, Richard Cherpeck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2153
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Many modern engine platforms use turbochargers to meet higher fuel economy performance, which is often combined with downsizing the engine displacement. Operating downsized, turbocharged, direct injection engines at low speeds and high loads has led to an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), wherein the fuel-air mixture ignites before the spark occurs. LSPI can lead to extremely high pressures in the combustion chamber, which can damage hardware such as pistons, piston rings, and spark plugs.Lubricants, fuels, and engine operating conditions have been shown to impact LSPI. Any of these can be modified to improve LSPI performance. One solution which has been used widely in the industry is reformulating the lubricant additive package. In particular, calcium-based detergents have been shown to promote LSPI, while magnesium detergents appear neutral to LSPI. Reducing the usage of calcium detergents can impact other performance areas such as deposit control and fuel economy, and limits formulating flexibility. Finding an additive solution to LSPI which does not require a reduction in calcium allows for more component options in formulating…
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Ingestible, Expanding Pill Monitors the Stomach for Up to a Month

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34624
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

An ingestible pill was developed that, upon reaching the stomach, quickly swells to the size of a soft, squishy ping-pong ball big enough to stay in the stomach for an extended period of time. The inflatable pill is embedded with a sensor that continuously tracks the stomach's temperature for up to 30 days. If the pill needs to be removed from the stomach, a patient can drink a solution of calcium that triggers the pill to quickly shrink to its original size and pass safely out of the body.

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Standard Oil Filter Test Oil

Filter Test Methods Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1260_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-16 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard defines the requirements for an oil to be used in the SAE HS 806 Oil Filter Test Procedures.
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Ancient Pigment Can Boost Energy Efficiency

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33617
Published 2019-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Egyptian blue, derived from calcium copper silicate, was routinely used on ancient depictions of gods and royalty. Previous studies have shown that when Egyptian blue absorbs visible light, it then emits light in the near-infrared range. In fact, the pigment's fluorescence can be 10 times stronger than previously thought.

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Magnesium Alloy, Sheet and Plate 3.0Al - 1.0Zn – 0.20Mn (AZ31B-H24) Cold Rolled, Partially Annealed

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4377J
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of sheet and plate.
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Plate, Magnesium Alloy 3.0Al - 1.0Zn - 0.20Mn (AZ31B-H26) Cold Rolled and Partially Annealed

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4376H
  • Current
Published 2018-11-07 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a magnesium alloy in the form of plate.
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Enhancement of Thermal Fatigue Strength by the Addition of Calcium to Hypoeutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Kentaro Watanabe, Kojiro Motoyama, Tomokazu Watanabe, Kazuhiro Ishihara, Fujio Maeda
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Several elements affect the structure of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum alloys [1, 2, 3, 4]. Among them, calcium has been investigated to a lesser extent compared to the typically used sodium and strontium. In order to enhance the thermal fatigue strength of a small engine, the morphology of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys is controlled by the addition of calcium. In addition, the castability and mechanical properties are investigated. Hence, samples containing different amounts of calcium are prepared at different cooling rates during solidification. The results revealed that, with the increase in the calcium amount and the cooling rate, eutectic silicon exhibits a fine morphology in cross-sectional images. Particularly, with the addition of at least 62 mass ppm of calcium in a specific range of cooling rates, refined eutectic silicon is obtained. In order to clarify additional effects of the added calcium, the amount of dissolved gas, fluidity, and porosity defects are evaluated. The amount of dissolved gas and the fluidity do not change in the range of the investigated calcium amounts. However,…
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