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Electronic Differential Control of Rear-Wheel Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

China-Hang Yun
Jiangsu University, China-Ren He
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0004
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
To track desired slip ratios and desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of driving wheels in the curve, this article proposes a hierarchical structured electronic differential control (EDC) of rear-wheel independent-drive electric vehicle (EV). In the high-level control, a fuzzy algorithm-based coefficient is computed according to the driver’s emotional intention of acceleration. The fuzzy algorithm-based coefficient is used to correct the desired driving torque of vehicle transmitting to the medium-level control. In the medium-level control, an optimization algorithm is developed to allocate the desired torques with requirement of as much accurate yaw moment as possible by the desired driving torque of the vehicle and yaw moment. And the desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of the rear left and right wheels are corrected twice, respectively, by Ackermann steering principle, considering the slip angle of the wheel and yaw moment. Based on the desired torques and desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of the rear left and right wheels from the medium-level control, desired slip ratios and desired angular speeds of the rear left and right…
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To establish the correlation in between Computer Aided Engineering & physical testing of automotive parts returnable case (Stacktainer).

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Ashish Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2569
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Automotive returnable cases (Stacktainers) are being used to transport the automotive parts through surface & seaways. No automotive manufacturer wants to spend money on woods, paper & cardboard again and again, it`s better to pay once for robust & reusable cases. these provide better protection to parts from its manufacturing to assembly line of vehicle. While transporting, any kind of crack or failure of returnable cases may lead to loss of money, human & time. To ensure the safety, these pallets have to be validated for vibrations coming from surface irregularities, sea waves & load due to stacking of cases one above other. The objective of this study is to establish a correlation in between the physical testing & simulation in Computer added Engineering (CAE) of automotive returnable case (Stacktainers). There are different types of tests considered to validate the returnable case, rough road evaluation, Multi-axial Vibration & strength evaluation. After conducting the physical test & CAE simulation, a correlation & confidence level up to 90% is established.
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A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

Mahindra and Mahindra, Ltd.-Ranga Srinivas Gunti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2424
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains. In the present work, lightweigting of the vehicle structure is achieved, considered the vehicular hardpoint locations and the gages of the vehicle structures as the design variables and performance parameters pertaining to vehicle dynamics, structural durability, front-end intrusions during an IIHS offset impact test and the modal frequencies of few critical structural members as the constraint variables. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based algorithms were used for developing the predictive models of various performance parameters. The predictive models were then used to…
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Ride-Comfort Analysis for Commercial Truck Using MATLAB Simulink

ARAI Academy-Sarnab Debnath
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2428
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ride Comfort forms a core design aspect for suspension and is to be considered as primary requirement for vehicle performance in terms of drivability and uptime of passenger. Maintaining a balance between ride comfort and handling poses a major challenge to finalize the suspension specifications. The objective of this project it to perform ride- comfort analysis for a commercial truck using MATLAB Simulink. First, benchmarking was carried out on a 4x2 commercial truck and the physical parameters were obtained. Further, a mathematical model is developed using MATLAB Simulink R2015a and acceleration- time data is collected. An experimentation was carried out on the truck at speeds of 20 kmph, 30 kmph, 40 kmph and 50 kmph over a single hump to obtain actual acceleration time domain data. The model is then correlated with actual test over a single hump. This is followed by running the vehicle on Class A, B & C road profiles to account for random vibrations. Similarly, a simulation is done on MATLAB Simulink and a correlation is established between simulated and actual…
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Performance of Switched Reluctance Motor for Small Electric Vehicle in Urban Mobility

ARAI Academy-Vignesh S, Yogesh Krishan Bhateshavar, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2501
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Small electric vehicles are challenging in nature while designing the power train and especially the mounting of batteries within the volume available. In this research, power train of small electric vehicle is designed and it is compared with the electric vehicles. The designed vehicle should meet the requirements of urban car so that it can be preferred in urban mobility. Emphasis is given on studying performance parameters such as motor speed, torque for different urban driving cycles by altering the motor and its no. of poles. Battery pack is designed to fit under the front hood of the vehicle whereas motor is fitted at the rear. Range is estimated using Simulink and it is validated with mathematical calculation using Peukert method performed in MATLAB. It is concluded that the designed vehicle with Switched Reluctance Motor 6/4 configuration of 15 kW, 110 Nm is sufficient to meet the urban car in 2020 targets. NCA battery is preferred for range improvement. Retro fitment is given higher priority while designing battery pack.
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Design optimization for Engine mount

Prateek Sharma
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Mahendra Parwal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2540
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The mounting of an engine plays important role in controlling the vibration transmissibility, alignment of transmission unit within specific limit. Design of any mounting system mainly depends on stiffness, allowed deformation and transmissibility of force, natural frequency and size w.r.t space constraints etc. This paper helps to study the behavior of engine mount with different layer of rubber with defer stiffness. Firstly the design of front engine mount with single rubber layer according to space constraint in vehicle and then analysis is done to determine the deformation and various results using CAE technique. As per the results, design is modified with varying layer of rubber pad and again analysis is done with same boundary condition followed by improved results.
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Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

College of Engineering Pune-Rahul Muley
Hella India Automotive Private Limited-Ravi Marravula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2473
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions. Methodology: The machine geometry and design are first completed in ANSYS Maxwell 2-D software. Then Non-linear magnetization data is…
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Light-Weighting of Additive Manufactured Automotive Fixtures through Topology Optimization Techniques

General Motors Technical Center India-Abhijith Naik, T Sujan, Suraj Desai, Saravanakumar Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2544
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent times. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques like injection molding, casting etc.; AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the parts. This paper reports the case studies of 3D-printed Automotive Fixtures which utilize computational methods (CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part. These methodologies were used to validate the current operating conditions, optimize the design, increase the stiffness of the original part and reduce the material costs. The newly optimized designs were verified successfully passing the Finite Element Analysis tests. The components have been printed and…
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IMPROVE NVH CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGINE OIL PAN BY OPTIMIZATION & LIGHT WEIGHING WITH DEEP LEARNING PROCESS

Altair Engineering-Srinivas Tangudu, Padmaja Durgam
Altair Engineering India Pvt , Ltd.-Muralidhar Gumma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2552
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Recent Years “NVH” is gaining lots of attention as the perception of vehicle quality by a consumer is closely aligned to NVH Characteristics. Demand on Vehicle Light weighting to compliance the environmental norms with powerful engines challenging the “Vehicle NVH”, powertrain induced noise will be continued to be a primary factor for all IC engine vehicles. Component level NVH refinement is necessary to control the overall NVH characteristics of vehicle with lighter Vehicle goal. Current Paper works starts with physical testing the Engine oil pan of the most popular vehicle and build an equivalent simulation model by reverse engineering the design and match similar performance trend in simulation model. After building baseline simulation model, conduct shape, topology, gauge and material optimization to improve weight and performance of Oilpan. In addition to the Simulation DVPS to study the complete NVH characteristics oil pan models, a deep Learning model developed with power of GPUs to disrupt oil pan design methodology as well as optimizing the weight, Performance and cost . Every design engineer would like to optimize…
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Finite Element Simulation and co-relation with automotive certification testing

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2558
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Automotive industry needs to exhibit compliance of their product with respect to the Automotive Industry Standards (AIS) at government approved test agencies. CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) plays a vital role in achieving the compliance for the same. With physical testing being more expensive for design iterations, CAE simulations are being considered as vital option. Considering the importance of time for approval, simulation tools are used to understand the physics of testing and failure. This paper deals with FE(Finite Element) simulation and co-relation of following certification tests as per respective AIS standards: 1) Bus passenger Seat Static Strength test as per AIS-023 2) Bus passenger seat anchorage test as per AIS-023 3) Strength test of Side under run protection device for trailers as per IS: 14682 4) Strength test of Rear Under run protection device for trailers as per IS:14812 Paper will discuss comparative study of engineering results in terms of force, displacement, strain , critical joints etc. between simulation and physical testing for each tests mentioned above along with description of co-relation level with physical…