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Design and Development of Different Regenerative Braking Systems for a Commercial Electric Bus

Delhi Technological University-Lalit Kumar Choudhary, Kunal Mathur, Aditya Natu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0208
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
In today’s world, energy saving has become a crucial need for day to day operations. It is because of this need for development and enhancement of energy efficient technology, various industries and organizations are researching on ways to improve the energy savings, which would not only be holistic but also increase their own brand value in the market. A similar such method that can have an immense positive impact on conservation of energy is “Regenerative Braking”, which is now being implemented by various OEMs. With the help of this concept, a decelerating vehicle’s kinetic energy is harvested and stored for utilization at a later stage; instead of dissipating this useful energy as heat such as in the conventional braking system. Such a concept of extracting and storing energy can be utilized by the emerging electric vehicles to generate electric current that can be used for recharging the battery, powering the onboard appliances and increasing the range of these vehicles. The following paper describes the detailed study of a unique flywheel based regenerative braking system (f-RBS)…

Truck & Off-Highway Engineering 2019 Supplier Directory

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_07
Published 2019-06-01

Complete listing of industry suppliers categorized by technology area.

Brake Systems Inc.

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Prediction and Control of Response Time of the Semitrailer Air Braking System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Jiangsu University, China-Ren He, Chang Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-02-0011
Published 2019-05-09 by SAE International in United States
The response time of the air braking system is the main parameter affecting the longitudinal braking distance of vehicles. In this article, in order to predict and control the response time of the braking system of semitrailers, an AMESim model of the semitrailer braking system involving the relay emergency valve (REV) and chambers was established on the basis of analyzing systematically the working characteristics of the braking system in different braking stages: feedback braking, relay braking, and emergency braking. A semitrailer braking test bench including the brake test circuit and data acquisition system was built to verify the model with typical maneuver. For further evaluating the semitrailer braking response time, an experiment under different control pressures was carried out. Experimental results revealed the necessity of controlling the response time. As a result, a braking pressure compensation system was designed through adding intake and exhaust solenoid valves to the original braking system. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategy optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) was adopted to generate pulse width modulation (PWM) signals applied to the solenoid valves…
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Service Brake Structural Integrity Requirements—Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1404_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice presents requirements for the structural integrity of the brake system of all new trucks, buses, and combinations of vehicles designed for roadway use and falling into the following classifications: a Truck and Bus—Over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR b Combination Vehicles—Towing vehicle over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR The requirements are based on data obtained from SAE J294.
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Rapid Optimal Design of a Light Vehicle Hydraulic Brake System

Politecnico di Torino-Pier Giuseppe Anselma, Shirish Padmakar Patil, Giovanni Belingardi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Designing automobile brake systems is generally complex and time consuming. Indeed, the brake system integrates several components and has to satisfy numerous conflicting government regulations. Due to these constraints, designing an optimal configuration is not easy. This paper consequently proposes a simple, intuitive and automated methodology that enables rapid optimal design of light vehicle hydraulic brake systems. Firstly, the system is modeled through cascaded analytical equations for each component. A large design space is then generated by varying the operational parameters of each component in its specific reasonable range. The system components under consideration include the brake pedal, the master cylinder, the vacuum-assisted booster, the brake line and the brake pistons. Successful system configurations are identified by implementing the requirements of the two most relevant safety homologation standards for light vehicle brake systems (US and EU legislations). Ergonomics constraints and the compensation for the fluid losses are then retained as further design requirements. Finally, the optimal design identification is carried out based on overall system braking performance and the cost. Particularly, optimal braking performance is…
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Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

Indian Institute of Technology-Harsh Kumar Singh
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Babasaheb Shinde
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves. Debugging and inclusion of new modules was a major issue in old applications. Also, the previous applications lacked ABS module, which after the new government norms will be implemented in every vehicle. Thus, there was…
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Developing a Track Simulation Tool for Formula Student Race Cars Using Python

Ain Shams University-Sherif Khedr, Hashim Elzaabalawy, Mohamed Abdelaziz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Formula Student is a competition held on yearly basis in multiple countries around the world. Students from different universities participate in this competition implementing some of the most sophisticated techniques in design and analysis of Formula Student car performance. In this research a track simulation tool is developed using Python to analyze the effect of different systems on the car performance, and to test the performance of the car on the Autocross track. For simplicity, the car is modeled as point mass in straight roads and corners. Intensive studies were carried out leading to a conclusion that, in some cases, point mass modeling leads to some inaccuracy and in others it provides the solution. Therefore, to achieve simulation accuracy, the point mass model was replaced with four degrees of freedom, or “bicycle”, model counterpart when it couldn’t provide an accurate solution, and the difference between both models results are discussed. The brake bias ratio selected for the brake system versus human force applied on the brake pedal was optimized and the optimization technique is discussed…
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Development and Verification of Control Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor of the Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

Haoran Zhang, Zhicheng Chen
Jilin University-Jian Wu, Rui He
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet the new requirements of braking system for modern electrified and intelligent vehicles, various novel electro-mechanical brake boosters (Eboosters) are emerging. This paper is aimed at a new type of the Ebooster, which is mainly consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission and a servo mechanism. Among them, the PMSM is a vital actuator to realize the functions of the Ebooster. To get fast response of the Ebooster system, a novel control strategy employing a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control with current compensation decoupling and current-adjusting adaptive flux-weakening control is proposed, which requires the PMSM can operate in a large speed range and maintain a certain anti-load interference capability. Firstly, the wide speed control strategy for the Ebooster’s PMSM is designed in MATLAB/Simulink. Then, to quickly verify the development algorithm in more real environment, dual dSPACE hardware tools are used to build a rapid control prototype (RCP) real-time test platform to create operational scenarios, in which MicroAutoBox-II is served as the "controller" and dSPACE HiL simulator is served…
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Brake Vacuum Booster Characterization

Carr Engineering, Inc.-James Walker, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Brake vacuum booster characteristics are of great importance to understanding overall brake system operation in light vehicles so equipped. In recent years, engineering reports relevant to traffic crash reconstruction have discussed, among related areas, the operation of brake booster systems at high applied brake pedal force levels and with various levels of vacuum available within the booster. A vehicle-testing framework is presented for characterizing and understanding the operation of a vacuum booster with pedal force ranging above the vacuum runout point, as well as booster operation relative to varying levels of available vacuum and patterns of depletion of stored vacuum. Concepts are illustrated with measurements of exemplar vehicles. The objective of this paper is to promote improved understanding of brake booster operation and to advance more precise articulation of related concepts within the crash reconstruction community.
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Accurate Pressure Control Strategy of Electronic Stability Program Based on the Building Characteristics of High-Speed Switching Valve

Jilin University-Zhicheng Chen, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Electronic Stability Program (ESP), as a key actuator of traditional automobile braking system, plays an important role in the development of intelligent vehicles by accurately controlling the pressure of wheels. However, the ESP is a highly nonlinear controlled object due to the changing of the working temperature, humidity, and hydraulic load. In this paper, an accurate pressure control strategy of single wheel during active braking of ESP is proposed, which doesn’t rely on the specific parameters of the hydraulic system and ESP. First, the structure and working principle of ESP have been introduced. Then, we discuss the possibility of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control based on the mathematical model of the high-speed switching valve. Subsequently, the pressure building characteristics of the inlet and outlet valves are analyzed by the hardware in the Loop (HiL) experimental platform. After that, the single closed loop pressure control strategy for the inlet valve and the cascade control strategy for the outlet valve are designed. Finally, the parameters of the control strategy are set and verified through the HiL…
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