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Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Brake Design

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Vipul Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2499
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have come full circle from being primary vehicle type in 19th century (much before IC powered vehicles) to 21st century where major stake holders in mobility have announced plans towards vehicle electrification. Apart from battery & powertrain system, braking system is area which will undergo major changes because of vehicle electrification. But Why? Major keywords are regenerative braking, increased vehicle weight, no or insufficient vacuum from engine and silent powertrains. This paper tries to outline potential impact on hydraulic brake system & its component design for M1 and N1 category of four wheelers with advent of vehicle electrification. Needless to say extent of change will vary depending upon extent of electrification and extent of recuperation during regenerative braking. Extent of electrification depends upon whether vehicle is range extender type hybrid vehicle, plug in hybrid vehicle, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicle etc. Extent of electrification defines in turn extent of recuperation possible, extent of increase in vehicle weight, availability of vacuum and NVH of powertrains. Extent of recuperation is constrained by motor generator…
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Combi Brake System (CBS) design and tuning on an electric two wheeler for cornering maneuver

Ather Energy-Lokesh Soni, Shivaram Venkateswaran
Xitadel CAE Technologies India Pvt Ltd.-Dhanraj Domala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2399
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the number of traffic accidents, most of the governments have mandated to include Combi Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) in two wheelers. While most of the homologation requirements for CBS can be fulfilled by straight line motion, CBS behavior is crucial while cornering for safety aspects. When vehicle is in cornering motion, the lateral forces generated at the tire decreases the effective longitudinal force available, which implies lesser braking force at tire. This paper represents a design methodology for tuning CBS for various critical scenarios mainly during cornering maneuver. A detailed study has been made at various combination of vehicle lean angle, vehicle speed and friction coefficient of road in straight line and cornering maneuver to effectively decide on front to rear brake force distribution to avoid either of the tires’ lock-up. A co-simulation is done with BikeSim and Simulink softwares, where vehicle model is developed in BikeSim and CBS control algorithm in Simulink. Both the models are correlated against real test data. Keywords: Combi Brake System (CBS), wheel slip…
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A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle

Force Motors-Pradeep Chandrasakaran
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Shanthosh Gopal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2572
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle Research Objective This paper presents a hybrid composite brake disc with reduced Un Sprung Weight clearing thermal and structural analysis in a formula vehicle.Main purpose of this study is to analyse thermomechanical behaviour of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. Methodology In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodelled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of Silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work. In First Phase of this Project work, By varying slotting pattern and groove angles the transient thermal and structural analysis using ANSYS workbench ,the hybrid composite disc plate of disk brake is done.The…
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ELECTRIC BICYCLE WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

IIT Mandi-Aman Soni, Anshul Mehrotra, Ankit Joshi, Arpan Gupta, Narsa Tummuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2490
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
One of the significant challenges in the present scenario is the depletion of fossil fuels. As the use of conventional fuel is increasing day by day, it will lead to the complete depletion of fossil fuel in the future. So, an alternate solution to this problem is the use of electric vehicles which is independent of the dependence on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles (EVs) use batteries to power them and are electric motor driven. One advantage of using these electric vehicles is that they are pollution free and smokeless. One of the critical limitations of these electric vehicles is the low driving range per charge. The main proposal of this paper is the implementation of a regenerative braking system (RBS) which helps in recovering the kinetic energy that gets wasted during braking. RBS will be very useful in hilly terrain areas where much potential energy can get recovered while moving down the hill. This potential energy while going downhill is mostly wasted in brakes to regulate the speed of the vehicle. The present paper demonstrates…
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Parking Brake Drawbar Pull Test Procedure - Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1729_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice provides a test method and instructions for measuring performance of parking brakes on air- or hydraulic-braked vehicles equipped with in-wheel or drive-line parking brakes. This procedure applies to truck tractors, trailers, trucks, and buses.

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A Predictive Tool to Evaluate Braking System Performance Using Thermo-Structural Finite Element Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia-Wan Zaidi Wan Omar
University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, Algeria-Ali Belhocine
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0014
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The braking phenomenon is an aspect of vehicle stopping performance where with kinetic energy due to the speed of the vehicle is transformed into thermal energy produced by the brake disc and its pads. The heat must then be dissipated into the surrounding structure and into the airflow around the brake system. The thermal friction field during the braking phase between the disc and the brake pads can lead to excessive temperatures. In our work, we presented numerical modeling using ANSYS software adapted in the finite element method (FEM), to follow the evolution of the global temperatures for the two types of brake discs, full and ventilated disc during braking scenario. Also, numerical simulation of the transient thermal analysis and the static structural analysis were performed here sequentially, with coupled thermo-structural method. Numerical procedure of calculation relies on important steps such that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and thermal analysis have been well illustrated in three-dimensional form (3D), showing the effects of heat distribution over the brake disc. This CFD analysis helped us in the calculation…
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Characteristics of a Brake Disc’s Nonuniform Thermomechanical Responses to an Emergency Braking

Winhere Auto Parts Mfg Co.-Qianjin Yang, Fulin Gai, Liqiang Song, Hui Yu, Baozhi Zhang
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Brake discs in service are subjected to the combined thermal and mechanical loadings. Due to the complex interactions of different parts in operating brake systems and various thermal and mechanical boundary conditions, the thermomechanical responses of brake discs are highly nonuniformly distributed across the brake discs. In this paper, a detailed finite element analysis model was developed to understand the thermomechanical responses of a solid brake disc to an emergency braking. The temperature and the stress in the brake disc were then characterized thoroughly in the radial, circumferential and thickness direction of the disc, and it was found that they were all nonuniformly distributed in the three directions. Furthermore, the stress responses of the disc due to the combined thermal and mechanical loadings were separated into thermal stress and mechanical stress, and their particular characteristics to the individual thermal or mechanical loading were identified. That is: the amplitude of the total stress in the disc was predominately determined by the thermal loading; however the high cycle fluctuations were mainly due to the mechanical loading. All…
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The Influence of Differential Pad Wear on Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Brake Squeal

SKR Consulting Inc.-Seong K. Rhee
Technische Universitat Braunschweig-Johannes Otto, Georg-Peter Ostermeyer
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The NVH behavior of disc brakes in particular, is in the focus of research since a long time. Measurements at a chassis dynamometer show that brake pad wear has a significant influence on the occurrence of low- and high-frequency squealing [1]. It is suspected that high-frequency squealing is more likely to occur when the wear difference between the inner and outer brake pad is small. In the other case, if the differential wear rate between the inner and outer pads becomes higher, the prevalence of low-frequency squealing increases.In order to examine this hypothesis, this work focuses on a simplified model of a commercial brake system [2]. In a first step, the inner pad’s wear is iteratively increased, while the wear on the outer pad remains unaffected. In a second step, the coefficient of friction at the worn pad is iteratively increased to investigate the influence on the low and high-frequency squealing. With the aid of the Complex Eigenvalue Analysis (CEA), the real part of the eigenvalue is used as a quantification measure in order to…
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Stability of Wheel Tractors during Braking

Kharkiv Technical University of Agricult-Zadorozhnia Viktoriia
Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Mykhailo Kholodov, Dmytro Klets, Yevhen Dubinin, Borys Savchenkov, Alexander Koryak, Oleksandr Polianskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles of the wheeled tractor has a significant impact on the stability against skidding and the wheeled tractor braking effectiveness. At the same time, the clarification of the normal reactions distribution between the axles allows to choose more rational braking forces distribution between the axles.It is shown that the best way to ensure the highest braking efficiency is the braking mode when the rear wheels of the tractor are at the blocking limit. An assessment of the expediency of installing brake mechanisms on only one axle of the tractor was made.The increase of braking efficiency of wheeled tractors with all brake wheels provided that they ensure directional stability is considered. The laws of braking forces distribution between the axles of wheel tractors for different sequence of wheels locking are determined.Using the method of partial accelerations an improved method for estimating the effect of a brake system on the stability of wheeled tractor is proposed. The criterion in the form of angular acceleration in the road plane ώz,…
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Analysis of the Tractor-Trailer Dynamics during Braking

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Mykhailo Kholodov, Valeriy Klimenko, Anton Kholodov
Zhytomyr State Technological University-Volodymyr Rudzinskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The intensive development of tractor-building industry in the world has led to the widespread use of wheeled tractors and tractor trains in transportations on public highways. This requires an increase of engine capacity and speed of tractor trains, as well as strict demands for their braking systems.The formation of the necessary braking properties of wheeled tractors and tractor trains on their basis should be carried out at the design phase, taking into account a wide range of aggregated machines and tools.Blocking the wheels of the trailer with different sequence of their blocking and blocking the wheels of the tractor has significant impact on the total braking force, deceleration and stability of the tractor train. It is advisable to take this into account when modeling the braking process of a tractor train.The article deals with the braking dynamics of the tractor train and the impact of the dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles on the brake properties of the tractor train. The mathematical model of the braking process of the tractor-trailer train (consisting of…
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