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A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle

FORCE MOTORS, Pune , India.-Pradeep C
Sri Krishna College of Engg and Tech-Soundararajan R, Sathish Kumar K, Shanthosh G
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2572
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle Research Objective This paper presents a hybrid composite brake disc with reduced Un Sprung Weight clearing thermal and structural analysis in a formula vehicle.Main purpose of this study is to analyse thermomechanical behaviour of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. Methodology In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodelled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of Silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work. In First Phase of this Project work, By varying slotting pattern and groove angles the transient thermal and structural analysis using ANSYS workbench ,the hybrid composite disc plate of disk brake is done.The…

Design and Implementation of Digital Twin for Predicting Failures in Automobiles using Machine Learning Algorithms

VIT Universtity-Kalivaradhan Ramesh Babu
Vellore Institute of Technology-Ponnuraman Balakrishnan, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Muthaiyan Madiajagan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0159
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The drastic technological advancements in designing autonomous vehicles and connected cars lead to substantial progression in the commercial values of automobile industries. However, these advancements force the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to shift from feedback-based reactive business analysis to operational-data based predictive analysis thereby enhancing both the customer satisfaction as well as business opportunities. The operational data is nothing but the parameters obtained from several parts of an automobile during its operation such as, temperature in radiator, viscosity of the engine oil and force applied over the brake disk. These operational data are gathered using several sensors implanted in different parts of an automobile and are continuously transmitted to backend computers to develop Digital Twin, which is a virtual model of the physical automobile. Later, the gathered operational data are analysed using data mining algorithms to predict the failures of an automobile well in advance, better insights into performance of an automobile thereby recommending alternative design choices and remote service management of failures by a professional technician. This research work primarily focuses towards the creation…

Characteristics of a Brake Disc’s Nonuniform Thermomechanical Responses to an Emergency Braking

Winhere Auto Parts Mfg Co.-Qianjin Yang, Fulin Gai, Liqiang Song, Hui Yu, Baozhi Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2118
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Brake discs in service are subjected to the combined thermal and mechanical loadings. Due to the complex interactions of different parts in operating brake systems and various thermal and mechanical boundary conditions, the thermomechanical responses of brake discs are highly nonuniformly distributed across the brake discs. In this paper, a detailed finite element analysis model was developed to understand the thermomechanical responses of a solid brake disc to an emergency braking. The temperature and the stress in the brake disc were then characterized thoroughly in the radial, circumferential and thickness direction of the disc, and it was found that they were all nonuniformly distributed in the three directions. Furthermore, the stress responses of the disc due to the combined thermal and mechanical loadings were separated into thermal stress and mechanical stress, and their particular characteristics to the individual thermal or mechanical loading were identified. That is: the amplitude of the total stress in the disc was predominately determined by the thermal loading; however the high cycle fluctuations were mainly due to the mechanical loading. All…

Brake Rotor Corrosion and Friction Cleaning Effect on Vehicle Judder Performance

Applus IDIADA-Narcís Molina Montasell, Bernat Ferrer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2115
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Brake disc corrosion has emerged as an important field of study within the automotive industry due to the wide range of lining materials that are currently used worldwide, and their inherent rust-cleaning properties. The presence of oxide layers irregularly deposited on the cast iron disc surfaces usually leads to a forced, braking-induced vibration that can reach the driver’s position as a pronounced annoyance. Hence, the friction material composition directly impacts on the judder performance during the early corrosion-removal stage.This study incorporates both dynamometer and vehicle tests into the definition of a predictive methodology that allows corrosion-induced vibrations to be investigated at both system and vehicle levels. The oxide film is artificially generated by means of a salt spray chamber under steady-state climate conditions in order to guarantee a repetitive and robust procedure. The vibration response of the system is objectively evaluated in the form of caliper accelerations and pressure (BPV) / torque (BTV) oscillations throughout a reduced rust-removal test sequence composed of 30 snubs; basic spectral and order analyses are conducted with the gathered data.…

Frequency Inspection of Brake System Components

Signalysis Inc.-Robert Cagle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2117
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Frequency inspection has long been a tool utilized by manufacturers of brake system components as a means of quality control. This is important to combat perceived defectiveness of a system that experiences issues, such as brake squeal, as well as to identify actual defects in the parts going out to customers. Every component has its own resonance frequencies based on the dynamics of that component. Knowledge of the resonance frequencies of each component provides insight that can prevent manufacturers from sending out defective units, whether they be perceived defects or actual defects. NVH engineers who understand these phenomena perform theoretical analysis and acquire experimental data in the lab to gain insight into their parts that will eventually be produced on the assembly line. Unfortunately, the frequency requirements, and the consequences thereof, defined by the NVH engineers can still remain somewhat of a mystery to the manufacturing engineers who are tasked with applying them. Oversights in specifications can lead to avoidable scares that lead to delays and downtime. For example, differences in accelerometer placement on a…

Development of Regenerative Brake Control Strategy to Remove Brake

Hyundai & Kia Corp-Sora Jang, Gwichul Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2125
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
This study is the development concept of regenerative braking cooperative control to reduce creep groan noise considering fuel efficiency. Creep groan noise is a traditional brake system noise that has been improved with advances in technology such as brake materials, surface treatment and transfer path. However, recently creep groan noise is again an issue in electronic vehicle which applied a drive motor. Generally, creep groan noise frequently occurs when rust occurs on the friction surface of the brake disc and the brake pad is humidified, but it is easily removed by friction braking several times. However, in the case of electric vehicles which applied regenerative braking system, it is hard to remove. In case of electric vehicle, instead of friction braking, most of brake toques are made by motor regenerative braking. Therefore, even if the same conventional brake system and chassis system are applied, the noise level of the electric vehicle is higher than gasoline or diesel vehicle, and the field claim is also higher. To improve the noise, regenerative braking cooperative control logic was…

Inertia Dynamometer Rotor Crack Test Procedure for Air Disc Brakes

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3080_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-17 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice applies to commercial vehicles equipped with air disc brakes and above 4536 kg of Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. Other assessments on the friction material or rotor related to wear, durability, correlation to product life, noise, judder, compliance to specific regulations, etc., are not part of this RP (Recommended Practice).
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Braking Performance - Rubber-Tired, Self-Propelled Cranes

Cranes and Lifting Devices Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1977_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-27 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard applies to machines as defined in Appendix A. Some of these machines can travel on-highway, but function primarily off-highway.
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Maintainability Recommendations for Aircraft Wheel and Hydraulically Actuated Brake Design

A-5A Wheels, Brakes and Skid Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP813C
  • Current
Published 2019-02-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends the maintainability features which should be considered in the design of aircraft wheels and brakes. The effect on other factors, such as, cost, weight, reliability, and compatibility with other systems should be weighed before the incorporation of any of these maintainability features into the design.
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Off-Vehicle Brake Testing for Service Brakes Over 10000 Pounds GVW Air, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Actuation

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2806_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Subject document is specifically intended for service brakes and service brakes when used for parking and/or emergency brakes (only) that are commonly used for automotive-type, ground-wheeled vehicles exceeding 4536 kg (10000 pounds) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Subject specification provides the off-vehicle procedures, methods, and processes used to objectively determine suitability of tactical and combat ground-wheeled vehicle brake systems and selected secondary-item brake components (aka, aftermarket or spare parts), including brake “block” for commercial applications only, specifically identified within subject document. Subject specification is primarily based on known industry and military test standards utilizing brake inertia dynamometers. Targeted vehicles and components include, but may not be limited to, the following: a Civilian, commercial, military, and militarized-commercial ground-wheeled vehicles such cargo trucks, vocational vehicles, truck tractors, trailers, and specialized support and engineering equipment under the generic heading of ground vehicle “dry” brake systems (GVDBS). b Hydraulic, air, and mechanical “dry” disc brake and drum brake systems, when used as service brakes, including service brakes (only), when used as emergency and/or parking brakes. c Hydraulic, air, and…
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