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Characterisation of Brake Creep Groan Vibrations

Graz University of Technology-Peter Fischer, Manuel Pürscher, Severin Huemer-Kals
University of Ljubljana-Jurij Prezelj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1505
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Creep Groan is an impulsive brake noise at very low velocities of the vehicle. Generally, stick-slip between brake disc and brake pads is assumed as the most dominating vibration mechanism of creep groan. This contribution will show by sophisticated measurement techniques, that stick-slip and speed dependent friction is an important trigger of this annoying vehicle noise. However, the overall vibration is much more complex than common stick-slip vibration models. It turns out, that in typical brake systems of passenger vehicles creep groan occurs around 15-20 Hz and 70-90 Hz. The mechanism at 15-20 Hz is an impulsive noise. Transitions between stick and slip phases trigger complex nonlinear vibrations of the complete brake and suspension system. At 70-90 Hz, the vibrations show a more harmonic-like behaviour, caused primarily by speed-dependent friction characteristics. Flexibilities in the suspension bushings, elastic deformations of suspension parts, wheel and tyre support the growth of instable self excited vibrations. In practical vehicle operation, the range of 70-90 Hz is the most relevant one. In many cases, the 15-20 Hz vibrations are not…
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Aero-thermal analysis of ventilated passage in a brake disc

Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute-Akshay Mhaske, Sampattakumar Gunadal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0011
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, the numerical investigation of a brake disc is done for studying its aero-thermal behaviour and finding alternatives that perform better. In a disc brake, the heat generated due to friction has to be dissipated by one or the other modes of heat transfer. Out of the three modes of heat transfer, convection is to be maximized as others may cause deterioration of neighbouring parts. The disc is of ventilated type and hence the turbulence and mass flow rate through this ventilated area is to be optimized so as to improve the convective heat transfer coefficient. An in-depth study of various design changes previously done for improving heat transfer coefficient in ventilated disc is done and these changes are incorporated in the existing design. Various design combinations using different design tweaks for improving heat transfer coefficient are made and simulated in component testing like conditions, which are validated against previously done actual experiments. Total of 12 different design iterations were simulated and the one with the highest heat transfer coefficient was analysed in…
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Model-Based Brake Disc Temperature Prediction on High Speed Testing Mode and Circuit

AVL LIST GmbH-Mario Oswald, Stefan Kellner
Hyundai & Kia Corp.-PilYoung Jeong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0214
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits the motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most often accomplished by friction energy. Commonly, most brakes use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. If braking is repeated or sustained in high load or high-speed conditions, the motion will be unstable and can lead to a loss of stopping power because the disc capability for braking is not enough. These phenomena are generally defined as brake fading. Brake fade is caused by an overheating brake system. This paper describes the thermal modeling and process to predict the disk temperature under a condition which causes the fade characteristics. Also, the model of disc temperature prediction developed with consideration of acceleration and deceleration from the vehicle specification by combining the full vehicle modeling with thermal disc model. The disc temperature model…
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Flow Field Experimental Study in Brake Discs with Aerodynamic Ventilation Columns

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico-Jesús Eduardo Rivera López
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico-Guadalupe Juliana Gutiérrez Paredes, Abner Quintero Orozco, Pedro Alejandro Tamayo Meza, Gabriela Esmeralda Orozco Durán, José Luis Arciniega Martínez
  • Journal Article
  • 06-13-01-0004
Published 2020-02-27 by SAE International in United States
This work presents a new design of ventilation pillars in ventilated brake discs. The use of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) aerodynamic profiles is proposed. Of the references consulted, there is no standard or procedure that indicates how the pillars should be installed in the ventilated discs. Therefore, it is proposed using the Kaplan’s error triangles theory of turbo hydraulic machinery to have a geometrically orderly way of placing the NACA 66-209 profiles from the suction diameter to the discharge diameter. To validate this new design, a 1:1 scale acrylic disc model was constructed, and tests were conducted in water using the particle tracking velocimetry technique to characterize the water model. The water experiment was performed at test speeds of 35, 41, 48, and 54 rpm. From the experiment in water, it is possible to visualize the flow field from the suction diameter to the model discharge diameter and scale the results to the prototype in air. Being 54 rpm in water equivalent to N = 1020 rpm in air, the radial velocity is…
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Influence of Pads and Brake Disc wear on Brake Squeal Noise

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais / FCA - Fiat Chrysler A-Marco Túlio Batista dos Anjos, Juan Carlos Horta Gutiérrez, Cláudio Junior Ferreto, Felipe Dornellas Silva, Lázaro Valentin Donadon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0005
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The present work aims to investigate the influence of wear of the pads and brake disc on the brake squeal behavior with the help of the Finite Element tool. Brake discs basically work by the pressure of the brake pads against a rotating disc. The friction between the pads and the disc causes the latter to decelerate, but it can also cause dynamic instabilities of the system giving rise to noises. Among the main noise in vehicle brake systems, there is the squeal noise, which is usually associated with the coupling of two neighboring natural modes. One possible way to identify unstable modes is by extracting complex eigenvalues from the system. An unstable mode can be identified when, in the result of the extraction of the complex eigenvalues, the real part of the eigenvalue is positive. In the present work, a brake system (disc and positioned pads and their respective materials and friction coefficients) was duly modeled and validated. The validation was done by means of a correlation between the frequency of the noises found…
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A New Appraisal of the Thermomechanical Behaviour of a Hybrid Composite Brake Disc in a Formula Vehicle

Force Motors-Pradeep Chandrasakaran
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Shanthosh Gopal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2572
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work promotes a hybrid composite brake disc for thermal and structural analysis of a formula vehicle. In order to reduce the un-sprung weight without compromising the strength, hybrid composite materials were incorporated in the disc plates of the braking system. In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodeled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of 15wt% Silicon carbide (SiC) and 3wt% Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work. By varying slotting pattern and groove angles the transient thermal and structural analysis using ANSYS workbench on the hybrid composite disc plate of disk brake is done. The main purpose of this study is to analyse the thermomechanical behavior of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. To…
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A Predictive Tool to Evaluate Braking System Performance Using Thermo-Structural Finite Element Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia-Wan Zaidi Wan Omar
University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, Algeria-Ali Belhocine
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0014
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The braking phenomenon is an aspect of vehicle stopping performance where with kinetic energy due to the speed of the vehicle is transformed into thermal energy produced by the brake disc and its pads. The heat must then be dissipated into the surrounding structure and into the airflow around the brake system. The thermal friction field during the braking phase between the disc and the brake pads can lead to excessive temperatures. In our work, we presented numerical modeling using ANSYS software adapted in the finite element method (FEM), to follow the evolution of the global temperatures for the two types of brake discs, full and ventilated disc during braking scenario. Also, numerical simulation of the transient thermal analysis and the static structural analysis were performed here sequentially, with coupled thermo-structural method. Numerical procedure of calculation relies on important steps such that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and thermal analysis have been well illustrated in three-dimensional form (3D), showing the effects of heat distribution over the brake disc. This CFD analysis helped us in the calculation…
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Design and Implementation of Digital Twin for Predicting Failures in Automobiles Using Machine Learning Algorithms

VIT Universtity-Kalivaradhan Ramesh Babu
Vellore Institute of Technology-Ponnuraman Balakrishnan, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Muthaiyan Madiajagan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The drastic technological advancements in the field of autonomous vehicles and connected cars lead to substantial progression in the commercial values of automobile industries. However, these advancements force the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to shift from feedback-based reactive business analysis to operational-data based predictive analysis thereby enhancing both the customer satisfaction as well as business opportunities. The operational data is nothing but the parameters obtained from several parts of an automobile during its operation such as, temperature in radiator, viscosity of the engine oil and force applied over the brake disk. These operational data are gathered using several sensors implanted in different parts of an automobile and are continuously transmitted to backend computers to develop Digital Twin, which is a virtual model of the physical automobile. Later, gathered operational data are analyzed using data mining algorithms to predict the failures of an automobile well in advance, better insights into performance of an automobile thereby recommending alternative design choices and remote service management of failures by a professional technician. Firstly, this research work illustrates the platform…
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Characteristics of a Brake Disc’s Nonuniform Thermomechanical Responses to an Emergency Braking

Winhere Auto Parts Mfg Co.-Qianjin Yang, Fulin Gai, Liqiang Song, Hui Yu, Baozhi Zhang
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Brake discs in service are subjected to the combined thermal and mechanical loadings. Due to the complex interactions of different parts in operating brake systems and various thermal and mechanical boundary conditions, the thermomechanical responses of brake discs are highly nonuniformly distributed across the brake discs. In this paper, a detailed finite element analysis model was developed to understand the thermomechanical responses of a solid brake disc to an emergency braking. The temperature and the stress in the brake disc were then characterized thoroughly in the radial, circumferential and thickness direction of the disc, and it was found that they were all nonuniformly distributed in the three directions. Furthermore, the stress responses of the disc due to the combined thermal and mechanical loadings were separated into thermal stress and mechanical stress, and their particular characteristics to the individual thermal or mechanical loading were identified. That is: the amplitude of the total stress in the disc was predominately determined by the thermal loading; however the high cycle fluctuations were mainly due to the mechanical loading. All…
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Brake Rotor Corrosion and Friction Cleaning Effect on Vehicle Judder Performance

Applus IDIADA-Narcís Molina Montasell, Bernat Ferrer
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Brake disc corrosion has emerged as an important field of study within the automotive industry due to the wide range of lining materials that are currently used worldwide, and their inherent rust-cleaning properties. The presence of oxide layers irregularly deposited on the cast iron disc surfaces usually leads to a forced, braking-induced vibration that can reach the driver’s position as a pronounced annoyance. Hence, the friction material composition directly impacts on the judder performance during the early corrosion-removal stage.This study incorporates both dynamometer and vehicle tests into the definition of a predictive methodology that allows corrosion-induced vibrations to be investigated at both system and vehicle levels. The oxide film is artificially generated by means of a salt spray chamber under steady-state climate conditions in order to guarantee a repetitive and robust procedure. The vibration response of the system is objectively evaluated in the form of caliper accelerations and pressure (BPV) / torque (BTV) oscillations throughout a reduced rust-removal test sequence composed of 30 snubs; basic spectral and order analyses are conducted with the gathered data.…
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