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A Reverse Engineering Method for Powertrain Parameters Characterization Applied to a P2 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Automatic Transmission

FEV Group GmbH-Alessandro Perazzo
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Federico Millo, Giuseppe DiPierro, Mauro Velardocchia, Gianluca Mari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0021
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant but unknown powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle modelling. The main estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency maps, torque converter and lock-up clutch operating maps, internal combustion engine and electric motor mass moment of inertia, and finally front/rear brake torque distribution. This activity introduces a list of limited and dedicated experimental tests, carried out both on road and on a chassis dynamometer, aiming at powertrain characterization thanks to a suitable post-processing algorithm. In this regard, the methodology was tested on a P2 architecture Diesel Plug-in HEV equipped with a 9-speed AT. voltage and current sensors are used to measure the electrical power exchanged…
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Research on Factors to Influence Coasting Resistance for Electric Vehicles

Changan Mazda Auto Company-Yong Ren
Chongqing Changan New Energy Auto Co., Ltd.-Guan Gong, Chen Zhao, Xiaohang Zhou, Chenghao Deng, Cheng Yu, Fuyong Yu, Anjian Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1068
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The research on coasting resistance is vital to electric vehicles, since the smaller the coasting resistance, the longer the coast-down distance. Vehicle coast resistance consists of rolling resistance, vehicle inner resistance and the aerodynamic drag. The vehicle inner resistance is mainly caused by driveline’s friction loss and oil splash loss. The rolling resistance is decided by tire resistance coefficient, which is influenced by tires and road conditions. And the aerodynamic drag is affected by vehicle’s shape and air. In this paper, four factors including tire pressure, road surface condition, atmosphere temperature, and recirculation on or off are examined. Experimental tests have been conducted on three different vehicles: one subcompact sedan, one compact sedan and one subcompact SUV. Then experimental results have been imported to simulation model to investigate the corresponding influence on NEDC range. The outcome shows that, when the tire pressure is 20% less, the average coasting resistance is increased by 1% to 3% depending on vehicle types, which indicates a decrease in NEDC range by around 2%. And with atmosphere temperature in 6…
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Design and Testing of Custom Brake Caliper of a Formula Student Race Car

Vellore Institute of Technology-Mosam Ugemuge, Sreethul Das
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
A Formula Student race car is a car designed and manufactured for speed, performance, and competition. For a car to have high speed and performance, their parts also need to be lighter with being able to sustain the dynamically occurring stresses. Effective braking is a crucial factor which determines the performance of the car. This paper focuses on designing a brake caliper on the basis of calculations done with respect to a Formula Student race car, selecting a material which is of low density but with higher strength which can be easily manufactured with low cost and analyzing the design. Further, the manufactured part is also tested statically to ensure proper working before being tested on an actual formula student race car. The caliper is again tested dynamically, where the caliper is mounted on rear wheels of the car. To ensure proper working, brake pressure sensors are being mounted which also helps to validate the calculations. The computer-aided design model is created in Solidworks 2017 and is analyzed for the factor of safety, stress, and…
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Benefits and Application Bandwidth of Phenolic Piston Material in Opposed Piston Calipers

General Motors LLC-David B. Antanaitis, Mark Riefe
SBHPP-Chris Ciechoski
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The use of reinforced phenolic composite material in application to hydraulic pistons for brake calipers has been well established in the industry - for sliding calipers (and certain fixed calipers with high piston length to diameter ratios). For decades, customers have enjoyed lower brake fluid temperatures, mass savings, improved corrosion resistance, and smoother brake operation (less judder). However, some persistent concerns remain about the use of phenolic materials for opposed piston calipers. The present work explores two key questions about phenolic piston application in opposed piston calipers. Firstly, do opposed piston calipers see similar benefits? Do high performance aluminum bodied calipers, where the piston may no longer be a dominant heat flow path into the fluid (due to a large amount of conduction and cooling enabled by the housing), still enjoy fluid temperature reductions? Are there still benefits for judder with the much shorter length to diameter ratio the pistons have in these applications? Secondly - it is clear that the much shorter length to diameter ratio of the piston in opposed piston calipers will…
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First Smile, Last Smile

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP05_09
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

May Mobility is building a unique business model around AV shuttle services, explains COO and co-founder Alisyn Malek.

Entering the busy headquarters of May Mobility, my eyes fix almost immediately on a huge red Corvette brake caliper sitting on a tool cart beside an engineer's work station. “You guys must be planning some really fast self-driving shuttles,” I quip to COO and co-founder Alisyn Malek moments later, when she greets me for our interview.

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Development of Parametrically Integrated Software Platform for Passenger Car Brake System

Wuhan University of Technology-Xuexun Guo, Wei Zhou, Xiaofei Pei, Hao Pan
Zhejiang Wanxiang Precision Industry Co.-Jin Pan, Jie Zhang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The hydraulic servo brake system for passenger car plays a central role in occupant protection, which directly affects the automotive active safety and road handling. In this paper, an integrated parameterized software platform of hydraulic servo brake systems is proposed to realize fast and efficient braking system development. At first, according to the structure and working principle of the hydraulic servo brake system, the relationship among amount of fluid required for brake caliper, pedal feel and performance of the brake system is analyzed. Then, based on kinematics and dynamics of the hydraulic servo brake system, a simulation model for analyze pedal feel and amount of fluid required for brake caliper is built in AMESim, which is composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake hoses and brake calipers, etc. In addition, the accuracy of the simulation model is verified by bench tests, and the significantly influential factors on the amount of fluid required for brake calipers are analyzed through orthogonal experimental design. The ranking of their influence is diameter of brake wheel cylinder…
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Off-Vehicle Brake Testing for Service Brakes Over 10000 Pounds GVW Air, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Actuation

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2806_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Subject document is specifically intended for service brakes and service brakes when used for parking and/or emergency brakes (only) that are commonly used for automotive-type, ground-wheeled vehicles exceeding 4536 kg (10000 pounds) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Subject specification provides the off-vehicle procedures, methods, and processes used to objectively determine suitability of tactical and combat ground-wheeled vehicle brake systems and selected secondary-item brake components (aka, aftermarket or spare parts), including brake “block” for commercial applications only, specifically identified within subject document. Subject specification is primarily based on known industry and military test standards utilizing brake inertia dynamometers. Targeted vehicles and components include, but may not be limited to, the following: a Civilian, commercial, military, and militarized-commercial ground-wheeled vehicles such cargo trucks, vocational vehicles, truck tractors, trailers, and specialized support and engineering equipment under the generic heading of ground vehicle “dry” brake systems (GVDBS). b Hydraulic, air, and mechanical “dry” disc brake and drum brake systems, when used as service brakes, including service brakes (only), when used as emergency and/or parking brakes. c Hydraulic, air, and…
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FMVSS 105 Inertia Brake Dynamometer Test Procedure for Vehicles Above 4540 kg GVWR

Truck and Bus Hydraulic Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2684_201812
  • Current
Published 2018-12-05 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice is derived from the FMVSS 105 vehicle test and applies to two-axle multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR above 4540 kg (10000 pounds) equipped with hydraulic service brakes. There are two main test sequences: Development Test Sequence for generic test conditions when not all information is available or when an assessment of brake output at different inputs are required, and FMVSS Test Sequence when vehicle parameters for brake pressure as a function of brake pedal input force and vehicle-specific loading and brake distribution are available. The test sequences are derived from the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 105 (and 121 for optional sections) as single-ended inertia-dynamometer test procedures when using the appropriate brake hardware and test parameters. This recommended practice provides Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), brake and component manufacturers, as well as aftermarket suppliers, results related to brake output, friction material effectiveness, and corner performance in a laboratory-controlled test environment. The test sequences include different dynamic conditions (braking speeds, temperature, and braking history as outlined in the FMVSS 105);…
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High-Preload Deflection and Compressibility Test Procedures for Friction Materials

Brake Linings Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2468_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This standard specifies a method for testing and measuring the deflection of friction materials assemblies and compressibility of friction materials. This standard applies to disc brake pad assemblies and its coupons or segments, brake shoe lining and its coupons or segments, and brake blocks segments used in road vehicles. This SAE test method is consistent in intent with the ISO 6310 and the JIS 4413.
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Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles

On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3016_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice describes motor vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis. It provides a taxonomy with detailed definitions for six levels of driving automation, ranging from no driving automation (level 0) to full driving automation (level 5), in the context of motor vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways. These level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on motor vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner. “On-road” refers to publicly accessible roadways (including parking areas and private campuses that permit public access) that collectively serve users of vehicles of all classes and driving automation levels (including no driving automation), as well as motorcyclists, pedal cyclists, and pedestrians. The levels apply to the driving automation feature(s) that are engaged in any given instance of on-road operation of an equipped vehicle. As such, although a given vehicle may…