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Passive treatment solutions for the reduction of vehicle exterior tire noise

  • Autoneum Holding AG - Thibault Lafont, Jan Horak, Roberto D'Amico, Rainer Stelzer, Claudio Bertolini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1571
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The recently updated pass-by noise measurement procedure prescribes a mix of acceleration tests and constant speed tests. This has led to an increased relevance of tire noise relative to the past, when the procedure prescribed only acceleration tests. In addition, the next phase of the roadmap for pass-by noise limits for passenger vehicles is 70dB(A) by 2020, later followed by 68dB(A). In this context, exterior tire noise has drawn increasing attention. OEMs, suppliers of passive acoustic treatments, road manufacturers and tire manufacturers are, at the moment, devoting strong efforts to the definition of solutions for the control of exterior noise. This paper is concerned with the potential of existing passive exterior treatments to reduce the exterior noise generated by the tires. Different countermeasures are analyzed, namely wheelhouse liners, under-engine shields, under-body panels and under-trunk panels. The goal is to provide a sensitivity analysis with respect to the absorption characteristics and a ranking of the relevance of these treatments in the perspective of taking rational decisions to lessen the exterior noise. Results are based, on one…

In-situ Characterization of Vibrations from a Door Mounted Loudspeaker

  • Volvo Car Group - David Lennström
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1511
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive industry, there is an increasing need for gaining efficiency and confidence in the prediction capability for various attributes. A typical case is one component or sub-system being used in a number of car models of one vehicle platform. Many of these components are potential sources of noise, vibration and squeak and rattle. In order to provide an early prognosis, vibro-acoustic source characterisation in combination with the source-to-response transfer behaviour are required. This paper describes the process of predicting the vibrational behaviour due to a woofer, which could induce squeak and rattle, on a door panel. Blocked forces, determined indirectly by frequency response functions and operational accelerations in-situ, were used for quantifying the source activity. These forces, transferred to the time domain, were in a second step loaded on to a finite element model in order to predict the response with the same speaker mounted to another position in an upcoming car model. Prior to this, comparisons between the measured and simulated response for the same car model were made, with satisfying agreement.

NVH analysis of lightweight steel components in full vehicle.

  • ACOEM Group - Henrique Agreli, Jean-Yves DISSON, Benjamin Robin
  • ArcelorMittal - Matthieu Amblard
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1546
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
With tighter environmental regulations, as well as political and public opinion pressure, the reduction of automotive polluting gas emissions is subject of intense debates and interests. Before a potential transition to full electrical vehicles as the long term solution the reduction of mass remains of prime importance to permit direct reduction of emissions in internal combustion engines. In addition to the challenges of structural integrity and safety issues, the acoustical and vibration performance of vehicles is greatly influenced by the mass reduction. This article presents a case study of lightweight design of an automotive door with a high strength steel outer panel. An experimental comparison between a reference and the lightweight doors was conducted in complete vehicle, allowing assessing the potential effect of the mass reduction of the acoustic and vibrational performance. Several conditions were assessed : rolling on different surfaces, transient events such as heavy vehicle crossing and door closing events. The comparison method included the determination of main transfer paths on the full vehicle. The study indicated that the different acoustic and vibration…

An Application of Acoustic Metamaterial for Reducing Noise Transfer Through Car Body Panels

  • Hyundai Motor Co. - Kyoung-Jin Chang
  • Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology - Jaesoon Jung, Hyun-Guk Kim, Dong Rak Choi, Semyung Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1566
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to present an additional structure based on acoustic metamaterial for reducing the vibro-acoustic transfer function of a car body panel. As a vehicle becomes lighter and an excitation force becomes bigger due to high performance engine, it has become more difficult to minimize the vibration and noise transfer through body panels by using conventional NVH countermeasures. In this research, a new approach based on acoustic metamaterial is tried to reduce the vibration and noise transfer of firewall panel. First, a unit cell structure based on the local resonant type of acoustic metamaterial is devised and the design variables of a unit cell are optimized to have strong wave attenuation in the stop band of a dispersion curve, where the theorem of Bloch equation is used to estimate the response of a two-dimensional periodic system. Also, the vibration transfer and the radiated sound power are predicted with a FE model of meta-plate which is composed of periodic system of the devised unit cell. Next, the transmission loss of the meta-plate is tested in…

Trimmed Body Static stiffness identification using dynamic measurements: test methodology and correlation with CAE model results

  • Siemens Industry Software - Simona Anna Ottaiano, Theo Geluk
  • Volkswagen AG - Elmar Teipen
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1496
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
A key metric of a car body structure is the body stiffness, which shows significant correlation with different vehicle performance attributes as NVH, comfort and vehicle handling. Typical approaches to identify static stiffness characteristics are the use of a static stiffness test bench or the ‘static-from-dynamic’ approach in which free-free acquired transfer functions are used to build a modal model from which the static stiffness characteristics are extracted. Both of these approaches have limitations, the static stiffness bench with respect to clamping conditions and reproducing those in CAE, the static-from-dynamic with respect to the modal analysis (EMA) that needs to be performed. EMA is a subjective process, which can limit result robustness. In addition, performing EMA on a trimmed body is difficult due to the high modal density and the high level of damping. Strong benefit however of the static-from-dynamic approach is the ability to characterize the body stiffness without need for clamping of the structure. In this paper a robust static-from-dynamic approach is described that allows static stiffness identification not only for Body-in-White but…

Trimmed door audio response hybrid modeling assessment

  • PSA Group - Laurent Gagliardini
  • Vibratec - Aurélien CLOIX
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1508
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

The door response to audio excitation contributes to the overall performance of a vehicle audio system on several items: acting as a cabinet, it influences the loudspeaker response, but it also radiates unwanted sound through the inner door panel. Associated design issues are numerous, from the loudspeaker design to door structure and inner pannel definition. Modeling then appears as an unavoidable tool to handle the acoustic response of the loudspeaker in its actual surrounding as well as the door extra radiation. In the low frequency range (<300 Hz), the loudspeaker is conveniently modelled using the classical Thiele&Small 1 D model. The interaction with the door and the acoustic surroundings requires a more detailed Finite Element modeling considering the acoustic loads on both sides of the loudspeaker membrane and the force at the loudspeaker frame interface with the door structure. The proposed hybrid modeling is first assessed by comparison of the computed and the measured membrane's displacement. An update of the T&S parameters is performed in order to exhibit the in-vacuo loudspeaker's parameters since the acoustic load of the membrane is already accounted by the model. Then, the computed loudspeaker frame displacement and the acoustic loads may be checked against measurement. Finally, the computed vibrational response of the trimmed door is compared to an extensive 3D LASER measurement. Such an analysis allows the loudspeaker membrane displacement control as well as the inner door panel's motion that may radiate unwanted sound. Previously proposed indicators are used to quantify the door audio performance.


  • Audi AG - Antoine Guellec
  • Free Field Technologies - Marie Cabrol, Jonathan Jacqmot, Benoit Van den Nieuwenhof
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1547
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The acoustic trim components play an important role in NVH designs for reducing the structure borne noise transmission and participate to the acoustic absorption inside the car. Over these past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise transmission through trim packages has grown, leading to the development of CAE tools focused on trim modelling. The finite element based methods are preferred for studying the low and medium frequency ranges. Their strength relies on the accurate representation of multiphysic interactions between the car structure, the trim (including highly dissipative mechanisms) and the car cavity. The incrementally restrictive weight and space constraints force today CAE engineers to seek for optimized trim package definition for reducing noise transmission. This paper presents a two step procedure which targets a reduction of the noise transmission thought the car body floor using a coupled simulation with MSC NASTRAN and Actran. The material properties of porous material, thickness of visco-elastic patch, embossment of supporting steel structure and heavy layer thickness are the design variables of the optimization process. The…

Aeroacoustics of Heavy Duty Truck Side Mirrors –an Experimental Study

  • Escenda Engineering AB - Mikael Karlsson
  • Volvo Group Trucks Technology - Robert Larsson, Torbjörn Ågren, Zenitha Chroneer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1516
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Side mirrors are a known source of aerodynamically generated noise on vehicles. In this work we focus on mirrors for heavy duty trucks, they are large, often not designed with main focus on aero-acoustics and are located in a cumbersome position on the up-right A-pillar of European trucks. First the test method itself is discussed. To allow fast and cost effective design loops a bespoke vehicle, where the powertrain is separated from the cab, is developed. This vehicle can be run on a standard test track. While running the tests the wind speed is monitored, any variations are then compensated for in the post processing allowing averaging over longer time periods. For the mirror tests the door of the vehicle was especially trimmed to reduce other transmission paths into the cab than the side window. Additionally other possible aeroacoustic sources were reduced as much as practically possible. The generated wind noise was monitored with surface microphones both on the mirror (in the wake) and on the window. Additionally arrays of microphones were placed inside the…

Plain Bearing Selection for Landing Gear Applications

  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1594D
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

This document is intended to give advisory information for the selection of plain bearings and bearing materials most suitable for aircraft landing gear applications. Information included herein was derived from bearing tests and service experience/reports. Airframe/landing gear manufacturers, commercial airlines, the U.S. Air Force and Naval Air Systems Command provided input for the document.


Inflator Assembly and Gage Elements, Pneumatic Pressure, Remote Control, Direct Reading

  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85352A
  • Current
Published 2018-04-09 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers a direct reading, remote control, pneumatic pressure inflator assembly, for use on aircraft tires and struts having pneumatic pressure requirements up to 600 psi. It includes pressure relief provisions for safe inflation. Also included are dual chuck stem gages for measuring tire pressure.