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Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

  • Book
  • B-STAPP2018
Published 2019-04-30 by The Stapp Association in United States
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Effect of restraints on chest deflection • Thoracic response in dynamic front loading • Side impact assessments and comparisons • Front airbag deployment rates and implications • Reanalysis of experimental brain strain data • Modeling pedestrian impacts • Short communications o New data on the biomechanics of injury and human tolerance, new methods and tools to study the biomechanics of injury, new developments in occupant protection systems, and new concepts on the biomechanics of injury based on experimental and analytical studies.

Thoracic Spine Extension Injuries in Occupants with Pre-Existing Conditions during Rear-End Collisions

Exponent, Inc.-Mathieu Davis, Jessica Isaacs, Martin Graber, Jacob Fisher
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Certain ankylosing spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) can substantially alter clinicopathologic spine biomechanics as well as injury mechanisms in rear-end motor vehicle collisions. AS is an inflammatory disease which can lead to structural impairments of the spine secondary to flowing ossification along the spinal column, including ossification across the spinal discs, facet joints, and ligaments, and it has also been associated with diffuse osteoporosis of the spine. DISH is characterized by excess bone formation along the spinal column, encompassing the annulus and forming the thickest and strongest bridging osteophytes over adjacent vertebral bodies at the level of the disc space. In both conditions the spine is mechanically stiffened and generally more kyphotic than a healthy spine. This paper presents a series of case studies in which a front-seat occupant with ankylosing spondyloarthropathy experienced a moderate- or high-speed rear-end collision and sustained a thoracic spine fracture/dislocation, often with spinal cord injuries. Forward acceleration of the occupant by the seat back in each case resulted in straightening of the kyphotic…
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Development of Subject-Specific Elderly Female Finite Element Models for Vehicle Safety

Chongqing University-Yunlei Yin, Junming Li, Qingmiao Wang
State Key Lab of Veh NVH & Safety Technology/Chongqing Univ-Wenxiang Dong, Zhenfei Zhan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Previous study suggested that female, thin, obese, and older occupants had a higher risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. Human body finite element models were a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. The mesh deformation method based on radial basis function(RBF) was an attractive alternative for morphing baseline model to target models. Generally, when a complex model contained many elements and nodes, it was impossible to use all surface nodes as landmarks in RBF interpolation process, due to its prohibitive computational cost. To improve the efficiency, the current technique was to averagely select a set of nodes as landmarks from all surface nodes. In fact, the location and the number of selected landmarks had an important effect on the accuracy of mesh deformation. Hence, how to select important nodes as landmarks was a significant issue. In the paper, an efficient peak point-selection RBF mesh deformation method was used to select landmarks. The multiple peak points were selected to expand landmarks set, so as to improve the morphing quality compared…
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Analysis of Rear Seat Sled Tests with the 5th Female Hybrid III: Incorrect Conclusions in Bidez et al. SAE 2005-01-1708

ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Objective: Sled test video and data were independently analyzed to assess the validity of statements and conclusions reported in Bidez et al. SAE paper 2005-01-1708 [7].Method: An independent review and analysis of the test data and video was conducted for 9 sled tests at 35 km/h (21.5 mph). The 5th female Hybrid III was lap-shoulder belted in the 2nd or 3rd row seat of a SUV buck. For one series, the angle was varied from 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 deg PDOF. The second series involved shoulder belt pretensioning and other belt modifications.Results: Bidez et al. [7] claimed “The lap belts moved up and over the pelvis of the small female dummy for all impact angles tested.” We found that there was no submarining in any of the tests with the production lap-shoulder belts. Bidez et al. [7] claimed “H3-5F dummies began to roll out of their shoulder belt at… 30 degrees. Complete loss of torso support was seen at 45 degrees without significant kinetic energy dissipation.” We found that the shoulder belt remained…
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THOR Neck Moment Calculation at Atlanto-Occipital Joint

Humanetics Innovative Solutions Inc.-Zhenwen Jerry Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In biomechanics research of human neck injuries, the moment for the upper neck was calculated to the Atlanto-Occipital (AO) joint. In this paper, a mathematical method was presented to calculate the neck moment at AO for both Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) 50th male and THOR 5th female ATDs in neck flexion, extension and lateral bending directions. Detailed formula was derived according to the mechanical design and how parts functions in the ATD. The constant parameters for both THOR 50th and 5th were provided for the calculation. One THOR-50M neck test data was presented in this paper to illustrate the calculation results.
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Rider Stature Influence to Injury Risk in Motorcycle Rear Impact to Car

Tianjin University of Science and Technology-Wenle Lv
University of West Bohemia-Ludek Hyncik, Tomasz Bonkowski
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Road traffic accidents cause one of the highest numbers of severe injuries. Approximately 1.25 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes and between 20 and 50 million more people suffer non-fatal injuries, with many incurring a disability. Nearly half of those dying on the roads are so-called vulnerable road users, namely pedestrians, cyclists and two-wheeler riders including motorcyclists. Those vulnerable road users usually undergo complex kinematics and complex loading caused by the other vehicle impact.Virtual human body biomechanical models play an important role to assess the injuries during the impact loading especially for scenarios, where complex dynamical loading is taken into account. An additional benefit of some virtual human models is their scalability, so that they can assess the injury risk for the particular subject taking into account a wide spectrum of the whole population.The presented work shows the motorcycle rider injury risk analysis during the rear motorcycle accident to the car using the virtual approach by the numerical simulation taking into account the variability of the human body. The…
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A Reanalysis of Experimental Brain Strain Data: Implication for Finite Element Head Model Validation

Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc., Farmington Hills, MI,-Chirag S. Shah
Neuronic Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sto-Zhou Zhou, Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Relative motion between the brain and skull and brain deformation are biomechanics aspects associated with many types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus far, there is only one experimental endeavor (Hardy et al., 2007) reported brain strain under loading conditions commensurate with levels that were capable of producing injury. Most of the existing finite element (FE) head models are validated against brain-skull relative motion and then used for TBI prediction based on strain metrics. However, the suitability of using a model validated against brain-skull relative motion for strain prediction remains to be determined. To partially address the deficiency of experimental brain deformation data, this study revisits the only existing dynamic experimental brain strain data and updates the original calculations, which reflect incremental strain changes. The brain strain is recomputed by imposing the measured motion of neutral density target (NDT) to the NDT triad model. The revised brain strain and the brain-skull relative motion data are then used to test the hypothesis that an FE head model validated against brain-skull relative motion does not guarantee its…
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Artificial Intelligence Senses People Through Walls

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32848
Published 2018-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been used to teach wireless devices to sense people's postures and movement, even from the other side of a wall. RF-Pose uses a neural network to analyze radio signals that bounce off people's bodies, and creates a dynamic stick figure that walks, stops, sits, and moves its limbs as the person performs those actions.


Transparent Eel-Like Soft Robot Swims Silently Underwater

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28999
Published 2018-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

An eel-like robot was developed that can swim silently in salt water without an electric motor. Instead, the robot uses artificial muscles filled with water to propel itself. The foot-long robot, which is connected to an electronics board that remains on the surface, is also virtually transparent.


Soft Robotic Fish Swims Alongside Real Ones in Coral Reefs

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28900
Published 2018-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A team from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) unveiled “SoFi,” a soft robotic fish that can independently swim alongside real fish in the ocean. During test dives in the Rainbow Reef in Fiji, SoFi swam at depths of more than 50 feet for up to 40 minutes, nimbly handling currents and taking high-resolution photos and videos using a fisheye lens.