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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Models to Predict Cetane Number of Different Biodiesels and Their Blends

Indian Institute of Technology-Kiran Raj Bukkarapu, Anand Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0617
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ignition quality of a fuel is described by its cetane number. Experimental methods used to determine cetane number employ Co-operative fuel research (CFR) engine and Ignition quality tester (IQT) which are expensive, have less repeatability and require skilled operation, and hence least preferred. There are many prediction models reported, which involve number of double bonds and number of carbon atoms whose determination is not direct. Using models that relate biodiesel composition to its cetane number is limited by the range of esters involved. Hence, a model to predict cetane number of biodiesels that addresses the limitations of the existing models, without ignoring the influence of factors such as degree of unsaturation and number of carbon atoms, is needed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) could be one such method. Five biodiesels with significant compositional variations were prepared from Camelina, Coconut, Karanja, Linseed and Palm oils, and blended in different volume proportions to arrive at 70 samples. The range of cetane number covered was from 42.2 to 65.4. Peak absorbance of different functional groups of these…
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Development of Dual Fuel Engine Fueled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Ethanol-an Experimental Study on Performance and Combustion Characteristics

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Ramanathan Velmurugan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Vijayabalan Palanimuthu, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Vamshidhar Busireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0803
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the performance and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine (CI engine) fueled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel (UCOB) and ethanol in dual fuel mode. In this study, UCOB was injected as the main fuel through a conventional mechanical fuel injection system. Various mass flow rates of ethanol were inducted as primary fuel through the engine intake manifold using a separate fuel injection system. Mass flow rates of ethanol were metered by an electronic control circuit. The engine test was conducted under different load conditions from no load to full load in a fully instrumented direct injection, water-cooled compression ignition engine. The results indicated that the dual fuel engine produced higher brake thermal efficiency, cylinder pressure, heat release rate with lower specific fuel consumption at a higher load condition. However, it was found that combustion characteristics improved marginally at the lower load conditions.
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Analysis of Performance and Emission of Diesel Engines Operating on Palm Oil Biodiesel

University of South Australia-Saiful Bari, Chi Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0336
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fast consumption of fossil fuels is demanding researchers to find few potential alternative fuels that meet sustainable energy demand in the near future with least environmental impact. Future energy system needs to be cost-efficient, renewable, and safe to handle. Biodiesel is expected to be the future energy source that meets all the environmental norms. The use of biodiesel in Internal Combustion (IC) engines represents an alternative clean energy source compared to hydrocarbon fuels that generate emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), Sulfur Oxides (SO) and particulate matters (PM). This paper describes the importance of Palm Oil Diesel (POD) as an alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Simulations are carried out with ANSYS FORTE software with POD. The engine chosen is a 26-kW diesel-gen-set. The engine geometry is drawn in SOLIDWORKS using dimensions of the actual diesel engine. Then, the geometry is imported in ANSYS FORTE and simulations are carried out with diesel and compared with the experimental data which shows around 97% accuracy. Then, a CHEMKIN file is created…
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Study on the Effect of Manifold Induction of Acetylene in a Dual-Fuelled CI Engine

NIT Rourkela-Rakesh Kumar Sahoo, Akshat Jaiswal, Murugan Sivalingam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0817
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The utilization of gaseous fuels in internal combustion (IC) engines is receiving more significant greater interest in recent years because of their better fuel mixing characteristics. Apart from potential gaseous fuels such as liquefied natural gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen, other alternatives are being explored for their utilization in IC engines. The reason for this exploration is mainly because of the durability and robust nature of compression ignition (CI) engines, and more research focuses on the utilization of a variety of gaseous fuels in CI engines. However, gaseous fuels need to be used in CI engines on dual fuel mode only. In this investigation, a single-cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled diesel engine was converted into Acetylene run dual-fuel CI engine by changing the intake manifold of the test engine. Acetylene at three flow rates viz., 2lpm, 4lpm, and 6lpm were introduced into the intake port by manifold induction technique while Jatropha biodiesel/diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. In this paper, the effect of manifold induction of Acetylene on the performance and emission characteristics…
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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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Effect of Different Geometrical Changes in the Intake Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel-Diesel Blends

JNTU, Anantapur-Devendra Uppara
NIT Rourkela, India-Niklesh P. Reddy, Naseem Khayum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0346
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One of the major challenges of biodiesel run diesel engines is poor mixture formation. This problem can be overcome by inducing the turbulence into the engine cylinder, thereby a proper mixing of air-fuel occurs. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the engine behavior in terms of its combustion, performance and emission characteristics by replacing the normal intake manifold with the internally buttress threaded manifold, which is designated as IBTM throughout the manuscript. This investigation was further carried out to run the engine with suitable blends such as WCOME10 (10% of WCOME + 90% diesel) and WCOME20 (20% of WCOME + 80% diesel). Based on the results obtained in this study, IBTM exhibits a higher BTE of about by 2.8% for WCOME20-b than that of diesel operation (at normal intake). At the same time, the carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions were decreased by about 1%, 30.3%, and 20.4% respectively, whereas, NOx emissions were increased by about 21.9% for IBTM run on same blend (WCOME20-b) on compared to the normal intake…
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Effect of n-Butanol Addition on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of HTL and Diesel Blends

Beijing Institute of Technology-Ziming Yang
University of Illinois-Timothy Lee, Chia-Fon Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0393
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
HTL is a kind of biodiesel converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), which has drawn increasing attention in recent years due to its wide range of raw materials (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste). However, from the previous experiments done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend produced as much soot as pure diesel at in chamber environment oxygen ratio of 21%, and even more soot at low oxygen ratios. It was also observed that n-butanol addition could reduce the soot emission of diesel significantly under all tested conditions. In this work, the spray and combustion characteristics of HTL and diesel blends with n-butanol added were investigated in a constant volume chamber. The in-chamber temperature and oxygen ranged from 800 to 1200 K and 21% to 13%, respectively, covering both conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. Time-resolved images of the spray and natural flame luminosity (an indicator of soot) were captured by a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser…
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Influence of Nozzle Opening Pressure, Fuel Injection Timing and Compression Ratio on the Performance of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel-Diesel-Butanol Blends

Hindustan Institute of Engrg Tech.-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0299
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel from vegetable waste can be utilized as fuel for compression ignition engine. This experimental study used biodiesel extracted from the cauliflower outer leaves and butanol from vegetable waste as property enhancer to fuel the diesel engine. This study consists of two stages: Solubility and properties test of various proportions of diesel biodiesel butanol blends to obtain an optimal fuel blend that possesses closer properties to that of diesel; followed by testing the optimal blend in a modified engine for nozzle opening pressure (180, 190, 200 and 210 bar), fuel injection timing (23, 26, 29 and 320 before top dead centre) and compression ratio (16: 1, 17.5:1, 19:1 and 20.5:1). The optimal level of these parameters was attained using L16 orthogonal array and Taguchi method. Test results showed that the blend containing 40% biodiesel 20% diesel and 40% butanol can be used as fuel for diesel engine. The diesel engine was operated under 210 bar of nozzle opening pressure, 260before top dead center of fuel injection timing and 19:1 of compression ratio. This optimal blend…
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Comparison and Evaluation of Engine Wear, Performance, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Diesel, Karanja and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel in a Military720kW, heavy duty CIDI Engine Applying EGR with Turbo Charging.

CVRDE-Suresh S
College of Engineering-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0618
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum crude oil reserves,stringent pollution legislations and global warming, has given us the opportunity to work on bio fuels. Biodiesel can be produced from edible and non-edible vegetable oils,waste bio mass and animal fats.Biodiesel is renewable,bio gradable,sulphur free, non-toxic, oxygenated and green alternative fuel. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non- edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatrophaoil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by transesterification process, using methanol. JOME and KOME have comparable performance with low gaseous emission characteristics, except higher NOx emission, in comparison to mineral diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict nano particle emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health.In the present study, performance, combustion and emissions of CO, CO2, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission characteristics, along with engine wear were compared for KOME, JOME and diesel fuels by applying 20% EGR with turbo charging, in a 12 cylinders, 720 kW, 38.8 liters heavy duty CIDI military diesel engine.Both KOME and JOME biodiesel fuel exhibit the ASTM standard properties within acceptable limits.…
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Waste Egg shell as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimization and Engine Characteristics study.

CK College of Engineering & Technology-R Krishnamoorthy
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Sriram Kamaraj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0341
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of our present work is preparation of low cost heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst from egg shell for the waste cooking oil biodiesel production and optimization. The egg shell catalyst was prepared by calcination at the temperature range of 300-900 and characterized using scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The transesterification process was catalyzed by calcinated egg shell catalyst and the biodiesel yield% was optimized by varying parameters such as reaction temperature and time, catalyst weight and methanol to oil molar ratio. The L9 orthogonal array was selected for the Taguchi optimization. Among the selected parameter's temperature and methanol to oil ratio were found to be maximum influencing parameters. The maximum biodiesel yield% was 94.3% and this was obtained at temperature of 60 ºC, 6wt% catalyst weight%, and 4 hrs. time and 12:1 methanol to oil ratio levels. The egg shell catalyst calcinated at 900ºC has shown good regeneration capacity. The biodiesel %yield was 76% even after the five transesterification cycles. This is an additional advantage…