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Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy models to predict cetane number of different biodiesels and their blends.

Indian Institute of Technology-Kiran Raj Bukkarapu, Anand Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0617
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ignition quality of a fuel is described by its Cetane number. Experimental methods used to determine cetane number employ Co-operative fuel research (CFR) engine and Ignition quality tester (IQT) which have less repeatability and require skilled operation, and hence least preferred. There are many prediction models reported, which involve number of double bonds and number of carbon atoms whose determination is not-direct. Usage of models relating biodiesel composition to its cetane number is limited by the range of esters involved. Hence, a model to predict cetane number of biodiesels that addresses the limitations of the existing models, without ignoring the influence of factors such as degree of unsaturation and number of carbon atoms is needed. Employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) could be one such method. Five biodiesels with significant compositional variations were prepared from Camelina, Coconut, Karanja, Linseed and Palm oils which were blended in different volume proportions to 70 samples. The range of cetane number covered was from 42.2 to 66.6. Peak absorbance of different functional groups of these samples was determined…
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Development of Dual Fuel Engine Fuelled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Ethanol-an Experimental Study on performance and combustion characteristics

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Ramanathan Velmurugan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Vijayabalan Palanimuthu, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Vamshidhar Busireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0803
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper is to investigate the performance and combustion characteristics of compression ignition engine fuelled with ethanol enhanced used cooking oil biodiesel. In this study, used cooking oil biodiesel was injected through a regular fuel injection system and ethanol of various flow rates was inducted through the intake manifold to improve the air-fuel homogeneity in the cylinder. This injection flow rate was metered by an electronic control unit. The engine test was conducted in different load conditions from no load to full load in a fully instrumented direct injection water-cooled compression ignition engine. The results indicated that the engine produced higher brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, carbon dioxide emissions, cylinder peak pressure, peak heat release rate, ignition delay and lower combustion duration at higher rated power condition. However, the combustion characteristics of ethanol enhanced used cooking oil biodiesel was found marginal decrease at low rated power conditions in comparison to that of diesel.
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Analysis of performance and emission of diesel engines operating on palm oil biodiesel

University of South Australia-Saiful Bari, Chi Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0336
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fast consumption of fossil fuels is quickly demanding researchers to find few potential alternative fuels that meets sustainable energy demand in near future with least environmental impact. Future energy system needs to be cost efficient, renewable, and safe. Biodiesel is expected to be future energy source that meets all environmental norms. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion (IC) engine represents an alternative clean energy source compared to hydro carbon fuels that generate emissions such as CO2, CO, and PM. This paper describes the importance on Palm Oil biodiesel (POB) as an alternative fuel source for IC engines. Simulations are carried out with ANSYS Fluent software with POB. The engine chosen is a 26 kW diesel-gen-set. The actual engine geometry is drawn in SOLIDWORS using the dimension of the diesel-gen-set. Then, the geometry is imported in ANSYS FORTE and simulations are carried out with diesel and compared with the experimental data which shows around 95% accurate. Then, a CHEMKIN file is created to use POB in ANSYS FORTE. Thereafter, simulations are carried out with POB…
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Development of a method to measure soft particles in drop-in fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is a fuel produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Drop-in fuels in case of low fuel qualities can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified chemicals were characterized as soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates, since metal carboxylates were found to be one of the components of soft particles and it is associated with other engine malfunctioning as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuels effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with…
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Influence of Nozzle opening pressure, fuel injection timing and compression ratio on the performance of compression ignition engine fueled with biodiesel-diesel-butanol blends

Hindustan Institute of Engrg Tech.-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0299
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel from vegetable waste can be utilized as fuel for compression ignition engine. This experimental study used biodiesel extracted from the cauliflower outer leaves and butanol as property enhancer to fuel the diesel engine. This study consists of two stages: Solubility and properties test of various proportions of diesel biodiesel butanol blends to obtain a fuel blend that possesses closer properties to that of diesel; followed by testing the optimal blend in a modified engine for nozzle opening pressure (180, 190, 200 and 210 bar), fuel injection timing (23, 26, 29 and 32⁰ before top dead centre) and compression ratio (16:1, 17.5:1, 19:1 and 20.5:1). The optimal level of these parameters was attained using L16 orthogonal array and Taguchi method. Test results showed that the blend containing 40% biodiesel 20% diesel and 40% butanol can be used as fuel for diesel engine operated under 210 bar of nozzle opening pressure, 26⁰before top dead center of fuel injection timing and 19:1 of compression ratio. This optimal blend produced closer brake thermal efficiency, in-cylinder peak pressure, peak…
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Comparison and Evaluation of Engine Wear, Performance, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Diesel, Karanja and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel in a Military720kW, heavy duty CIDI Engine Applying EGR with Turbo Charging.

CVRDE-Suresh S
College of Engineering-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0618
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum crude oil reserves,stringent pollution legislations and global warming, has given us the opportunity to work on bio fuels. Biodiesel can be produced from edible and non-edible vegetable oils,waste bio mass and animal fats.Biodiesel is renewable,bio gradable,sulphur free, non-toxic, oxygenated and green alternative fuel. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non- edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatrophaoil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by transesterification process, using methanol. JOME and KOME have comparable performance with low gaseous emission characteristics, except higher NOx emission, in comparison to mineral diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict nano particle emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health.In the present study, performance, combustion and emissions of CO, CO2, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission characteristics, along with engine wear were compared for KOME, JOME and diesel fuels by applying 20% EGR with turbo charging, in a 12 cylinders, 720 kW, 38.8 liters heavy duty CIDI military diesel engine.Both KOME and JOME biodiesel fuel exhibit the ASTM standard properties within acceptable limits.…
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Waste Egg shell as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimization and Engine Characteristics study.

CK College of Engineering & Technology-R Krishnamoorthy
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Sriram Kamaraj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0341
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of our present work is preparation of low cost heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst from egg shell for the waste cooking oil biodiesel production and optimization. The egg shell catalyst was prepared by calcination at the temperature range of 300-900 and characterized using scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The transesterification process was catalyzed by calcinated egg shell catalyst and the biodiesel yield% was optimized by varying parameters such as reaction temperature and time, catalyst weight and methanol to oil molar ratio. The L9 orthogonal array was selected for the Taguchi optimization. Among the selected parameter's temperature and methanol to oil ratio were found to be maximum influencing parameters. The maximum biodiesel yield% was 94.3% and this was obtained at temperature of 60 ºC, 6wt% catalyst weight%, and 4 hrs. time and 12:1 methanol to oil ratio levels. The egg shell catalyst calcinated at 900ºC has shown good regeneration capacity. The biodiesel %yield was 76% even after the five transesterification cycles. This is an additional advantage…
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Study on the effects on Diesel LTC combustion of 2-EHN as cetane improver

Universite D'Orleans-Fabrice Foucher
Université d'Orleans-Richard Oung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1125
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A single cylinder Diesel engine was used to study Diesel and LTC combustion. We evaluated the 2-EthylHexyl Nitrate (2-EHN) as Cetane improver distributed by VeryOne@ on the combustion of six diesel fuel prepared from a low Cetane Number (CN) diesel fuel (CN of 43.7) and two biodiesel mixed at 20% with the low Cetane number diesel fuel : Soybean oil Methyl Ester (SME) and Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester (RME). Each fuels doped with the 2-EHN were prepared to meet the minimum European CN, 51. LTC strategies could provide low NOx emission without thermal efficiency deterioration. The study investigated engine operation at loads of 2, 6 and 10 bar IMEP at engine speed of 1250 rpm, 1500 rpm and 2000 rpm and the impact against synthetic EGR up to 30%. The low-temperature decomposition of 2-EHN, resulting in the oxidation of the fuel, makes it possible to achieve a very low cycle-to-cycle variation of the IMEP even at very low load or at a very high rate of EGR. From kinetic mechanism analysis, we had shown that…
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Influence of the Kind of Fuel Kind in the Ignition of Diesel Dual Fuel Operation with Introduced Natural Gas Combining EGR and Supercharging

Kagoshima University-Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka
Niigata Institute of Technology-Yasufumi Yoshimoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0581
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A number of studies in diesel dual fuel (DDF) operation which introduces natural gas from the intake pipe and ignites it by a diesel fuel injection in the combustion chamber have been conducted using conventional diesel engines. The present study investigated the influence of the ignition fuel on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions with a combination of EGR and supercharging in DDF operation. The experiments employed iso-pentanol blended fuels for the ignition. Isopentanol is a next generation bio-alcohol fuel produced from cellulosic biomass, and actual use can be expected. The experiments were conducted at two CNG supply rates, 0% (ordinary diesel operation) and at a 40±4% (DDF operation) energy basis, and with EGR rates varied from 0 to 26%. The boost pressure was set at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated, N/A) and 120 kPa (supercharged, S/C) with a supercharger. Four kinds of ignition fuels were used, JIS No.2 diesel fuel as a reference, neat methyl laurate (LME) which is a major component of coconut oil biodiesel, and two iso-pentanol blended fuels with 30%…
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Utilization of Castor Oil-Based Ethyl Ester Biodiesel in a Diesel Engine

National Metal and Materials Technology Center-Manida Tongroon
Ratchasima Wittayalai School, SCiUS-Suranaree University of-Disatorn Dejvajara, Phannathon Samaiklang, Somluethai Sanluecha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0606
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Biodiesel was prepared through transesterification of castor oil and ethanol. The optimization of parameters related to the yield of transesterification, such as oil to ethanol molar ratio, concentration of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time, was investigated. The results indicated that the optimum condition for castor oil ethyl ester (COEE) production was 1:12 oil to ethanol molar ratio, 1.5% catalyst concentration, 40 °C reaction temperature and 150 minutes reaction time. To avoid extremely high viscosity of castor oil which can affect the fuel injection system, COEE was blended with commercial diesel fuel at different concentrations ranged from 5%-15% volume and key properties of fuel blends, mainly focused on fuel lubricity and viscosity were evaluated. The presence of 8% COEE in diesel fuel was concluded as the optimum concentration because the smallest wear scar diameter was obtained after the lubricity test and its viscosity was within acceptable limits prescribed by the standard specification of diesel fuel. Consequently, the blend of 8% COEE and diesel fuel was selected in the engine test. The results showed that the…
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