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BEARING, ROLLER, NEEDLE, TRACK ROLLER, CROWN RADIUSED OD INTEGRAL STUD, TYPE VII ANTIFRICTION, INCH

ACBG Rolling Element Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS21447C
  • Current
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States

SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.

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Damage Matching Criterion for Development of Accelerated Duty Cycle from Road Load Data, and Achieving Right Duty Cycle to Determine Gear and Bearing Durability

Romax Solutions-Amol Korde
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
While designing the transmission, designer needs to have a duty cycle which is a set of load cases against which he wants to confirm the durability of the same. This is done through data acquisition by running a vehicle on various terrains and converting those data points to a concise set of load cases which we term as duty cycle. This concise set of load cases required because data acquired has millions of data points giving value of torque and RPM at every millisecond which cannot be directly used to assess the fatigue durability of gears and bearings. Converting these millions of road load data points into fewer number of load cases is always a challenge. For a transmission designer, it is being a major hurdle to determine as what is the scientific way of converting these millions of data points into a concise duty cycle. The road load data is taken for few hundred or few thousand kilometres covering enough types of terrains on which vehicle is expected to run. The methods available with…
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Fault Detection in Single Stage Helical Planetary Gearbox Using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Decision Tree with Histogram Features

BSACIST-Syed Shaul Hameed, Muralidharan Vaithiyanathan, Mahendran Kesavan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Drive train failures are most common in wind turbines. Lots of effort has been made to improve the reliability of the gearbox but the truth is that these efforts do not provide a lifetime solution. Majority of failures are caused by bearing and gearbox. It also states that wind turbine gearbox failure causes the highest downtime as the repair has to be done at Original Equipment Manufacturer [OEM]. This work aims to predict the failures in planetary gearbox using fault diagnosis technique and machine learning algorithms. In the proposed method the failing parts of the planetary gearbox are monitored with the help of accelerometer sensor mounted on the planetary gearbox casing which will record the vibrations. A prototype has been fabricated as a miniature of single stage planetary gearbox. The vibrations of the healthy gearbox, sun defect, planet defect and ring defect under loaded conditions are obtained. The signals show the performance characteristics of the gearbox condition. These characteristics and their number of occurrences were plotted in a histogram graph. Predominant statistical features which represent…
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ERRATUM

Université de Lyon-Charlotte Fossier, Christophe Changenet, Fabrice Ville
Volvo Group-Denis Barday, Vincent Berier
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-01-0004.1
Published 2019-10-07
No Abstract Available.
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Bearings, Sleeve, Plain and Flanged, Self-Lubricating

ACBG Plain Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS81934C
  • Current
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States

This standard covers plain and flanged sleeve bearings which are self-lubricating by incorporating polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in a liner in the bore for use in the temperature range of -65 to +325 °F.

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Bearing, Fiber Reinforced Plastic, Sleeve, Flanged, Self-Lubricating, +250 °F

ACBG Plain Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85560/2C
  • Current
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States

Scope is unavailable.

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Study on Application Methods to Mitigate Galvanic Corrosion between Wheel Bearing and Aluminum Knuckle

Iljin Global-Sewoong Kim, Seonho Lee, Hyounsoo Park
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The substitution of aluminum for steel is an effective weight reduction solution where the application permits it; aluminum knuckles have been widely used for this reason. However, when an aluminum knuckle is assembled with the steel outer-ring of a wheel bearing without any means for galvanic corrosion prevention, the aluminum knuckle may severely corrode. Galvanic corrosion products can make it difficult to remove a wheel bearing from the aluminum knuckle during vehicle maintenance. Prevention of this problem is the focus of this paper. In this study, several concepts were examined to prevent or mitigate galvanic corrosion between a wheel bearing and its mating aluminum knuckle. One set of concepts involves using surface treated metal sleeves (using ferritic nitro-carburizing or a special coating). The sleeves were then inserted onto the outer-ring diameters of the wheel bearings prior to assembly into the steering knuckle. Another set of concepts that were investigated involves the application of thin coatings having high anti-corrosion properties. The coatings were applied directly to the bearing outer-ring knuckle piloting surfaces and bearing knuckle mounting…
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Orbital Forming of Automotive Wheel Bearings

Orbitform-Jake Sponsler
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Orbital forming is considered an optimal assembly process for many designs of automotive wheel bearing assemblies. More specifically, this process involves forming the spindle over the inner race of the wheel bearing to maximize surface area contact on the inner ring for retention, and to maintain bearing preload. The unique forming properties and precise controls allow orbital forming to produce an ideal finished retention feature and form for these types of bearings. This paper discusses the specific benefits of orbital forming of automotive wheel bearings. Forming basics, the physics behind the benefits of orbital forming, as well as pre-form lip geometry and other part design considerations are presented. Advanced machine control methodologies and historical machine process improvements are also reviewed concluding with next steps in process control and in-machine quality assurance.
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Development of a Low Friction High Performance Wheel Bearing Seal

ILJIN USA Corporation-Seungpyo Lee
Iljin Bearing GmbH-Reinhold Mahr
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The ever tightening of fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards globally continues to challenge bearing companies toward lower torque, lower mass products. This paper focuses on improving fuel efficiency by considering the torque of automotive wheel bearing seals. This study establishes the level of drag torque reduction achieved through the structural design of the bearing seals. Wheel bearing seals are a critical component that must pass stringent torque, water exclusion, and other critical OEM and supplier performance specifications. They are designed as non-serviceable and must maintain full performance through the life of the vehicle.As a result of the application of specialized structural design, the drag torque, per the study, is reduced by more than 50% compared to existing bearing specifications. Electric vehicle companies are also seeking low friction wheel bearing solutions to further reduce CO2 (indirect or wheel-to-wheel) emissions. This research findings can assist the OEM’s in meeting the rigid emissions and fuel economy standards through drag reduction in the wheel bearings.
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Bearing Life Optimization for Automotive Wheel Bearings

ILJIN USA Corporation-Seungpyo Lee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Automotive wheel bearings have primary functions of translating the rotating motion of the wheels into linear vehicle motion while bearing the vehicle weight. Bearing life is affected by many parameters such as bearing geometry, vehicle and bearing technical specifications, driving conditions, lubrication conditions, material properties, and so on. In this paper, the optimization of bearing life was performed. Optimization formulation with no constraints was established to solve this problem. The large scale generalized reduced gradient, LSGRG, algorithm was applied to calculate the basic rating life and modified rating life proposed by ISO 281:1990 and ISO 281:2007, respectively. The optimization history for design variables and cost function were investigated. The results showed that the optimized basic rating life and modified rating life increased about 15% and 31% comparing with those of initial life, respectively.
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