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Dynamic oil pressure in connecting rod bearings and their influence on innovative cranktrain technologies

Institute for Combustion Engines VKA, RWTH Aachen University-Denis Pendovski, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2333
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to lower friction losses and hence ensure low fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, borderline design of hydrodynamic cranktrain bearings is often unavoidable. To realize this without the risk of failures, detailed modelling of hydrodynamic effects is gaining more and more relevance. In this publication, an approach using flow simulation to couple hydrodynamic bearings with each other, will be introduced. This allows the state variables of the fluid in the supply bore of the crankshaft to be calculated transiently. One important aspect of this concerns the solubility of gas in oil. This paper demonstrates that the gas fractions in the supply bore of the crankshaft influence the pressures at the hydrodynamic bearings. Additionally, simulation results will be shown and also validated with measurement data. Beside the application for conventional cranktrains, the developed methodology can also be applied to investigate lubrication systems, which include innovative technologies such as hydraulic, length adjustable connecting rods employed for variable compression ratio (VCR connecting rod).
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Advanced Model Experiment for the Research of Journal Bearings with Cavitation

University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hildesheim/Holzminde-Peter Reinke, Marcus Schmidt, Tom Beckmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2331
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The prediction of cavitation in journal bearings is one of the current challenges in the field of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamic journal bearings are used in a wide range of industrial applications because they provide low friction and minimal wear. Suction cavitation is one potential cause of bearing failures. The work on hand presents a new experimental approach to study suction cavitation in a scaled bearing model. Moreover, mechanical and fluid dynamic similarity laws are described which enable the transfer of bearing operation conditions into the laboratory experiment.
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Lubricants Technology Applied to Transmissions in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicles

Lubricants Research Laboratory, Idemitsu Kosan Co., LTd.Ichi-Keiichi Narita, Daisuke Takekawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2338
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study is to investigate how lubricants used for transaxles in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) give an impact on the cooling performance for electric motors. As a result, reducing lubricant viscosity improve heat transfer in both natural and forced convection conditions. Quantitative analysis could reveal that kinetic viscosity and heat conductivity of fluids are highly influential on the cooling performance. In addition, we investigated the effect of lubricant additive on fatigue life in bearing components by using a thrust needle roller bearing tester. Extreme pressure agent could control a morphology of the bearing raceway surface, playing a role in extending a fatigue life of the bearing.
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Functional Olefin Copolymers for Low Viscosity Energy Efficiency HDEO and PCMO

Afton Chemical Corporation-Carranza A., Jiang S., Devlin M. T., Sheldon B., Hux K., Walker C., Wyatt W.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2201
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
There is still a need in the industry for engine oils that have low viscosities to improve vehicle fuel efficiency but also protect engines from wear. Viscosity modifiers (VMs) are chief additives responsible for adjusting the viscometric characteristics of automotive lubricants. Most notably, VMs have a significant impact on a lubricant's viscosity-temperature relationship as indicated by viscosity index (VI), cold cranking simulator (CCS) viscosity, and high temperature high shear (HTHS) viscosity of engine oils. Functional copolymers bearing branched, linear, or anti-wear functionalities have been synthesized and evaluated for viscometric and wear protection performance. The resulting polymers improved tribofilm formation, shear stability and CCS viscosities. Indirect benefits including Noack improvement and trim oil reduction were observed.
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BEARING, ROLLER, NEEDLE, TRACK ROLLER, CROWN RADIUSED OD INTEGRAL STUD, TYPE VII ANTIFRICTION, INCH

ACBG Rolling Element Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS21447C
  • Current
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Damage Matching Criterion for Development of Accelerated Duty Cycle from Road Load Data, and Achieving Right Duty Cycle to Determine Gear and Bearing Durability

Romax Solutions-Amol Korde
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
While designing the transmission, designer needs to have a duty cycle which is a set of load cases against which he wants to confirm the durability of the same. This is done through data acquisition by running a vehicle on various terrains and converting those data points to a concise set of load cases which we term as duty cycle. This concise set of load cases required because data acquired has millions of data points giving value of torque and RPM at every millisecond which cannot be directly used to assess the fatigue durability of gears and bearings. Converting these millions of road load data points into fewer number of load cases is always a challenge. For a transmission designer, it is being a major hurdle to determine as what is the scientific way of converting these millions of data points into a concise duty cycle. The road load data is taken for few hundred or few thousand kilometres covering enough types of terrains on which vehicle is expected to run. The methods available with…
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Fault Detection in Single Stage Helical Planetary Gearbox Using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Decision Tree with Histogram Features

BSACIST-Syed Shaul Hameed, Muralidharan Vaithiyanathan, Mahendran Kesavan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Drive train failures are most common in wind turbines. Lots of effort has been made to improve the reliability of the gearbox but the truth is that these efforts do not provide a lifetime solution. Majority of failures are caused by bearing and gearbox. It also states that wind turbine gearbox failure causes the highest downtime as the repair has to be done at Original Equipment Manufacturer [OEM]. This work aims to predict the failures in planetary gearbox using fault diagnosis technique and machine learning algorithms. In the proposed method the failing parts of the planetary gearbox are monitored with the help of accelerometer sensor mounted on the planetary gearbox casing which will record the vibrations. A prototype has been fabricated as a miniature of single stage planetary gearbox. The vibrations of the healthy gearbox, sun defect, planet defect and ring defect under loaded conditions are obtained. The signals show the performance characteristics of the gearbox condition. These characteristics and their number of occurrences were plotted in a histogram graph. Predominant statistical features which represent…
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Rectangular Cross Section Polymeric Sealing Rings

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2310_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-09 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish guidelines for the automatic transmission and hydraulic systems engineer to design rectangular cross section seals for rotating and static grooved shaft applications. Also included are property comparisons of polymeric materials suitable for these applications. Historically, material covered in this document is not intended to include aluminum contact applications.
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Setting Preload in Heavy-Duty Wheel Bearings

Truck and Bus Wheel Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2535_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the four primary, large volume applications in the class 7-8 heavy-duty market place, as specified in SAE J1842: a “N” trailer axle b “R” powered rear axle c “FF / FG” nonpowered front axle d “P” trailer axle This document applies to on-highway applications. It is not applicable to those applications that exceed the GAWR ratings or the load line restrictions listed in columns “A,” “B,” and “C” of Table 1. Load lines are measured from the inboard bearing cup backface as shown in 3.4. This document establishes preload force values only. The methodology to obtain these force values must be determined by the fastener supplier and/or axle assembler. This document reviews the bearing system. It is NOT intended to prescribe (new or existing) axle and/or hub manufacturers’ ratings and/or specifications.
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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Engines

Université de Lyon-Charlotte Fossier, Christophe Changenet, Fabrice Ville
Volvo Group-Denis Barday, Vincent Berier
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-01-0004.1
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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