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Simultaneous optimization of real-time control strategies and powertrain design for fuel cell hybrid vehicles

University of Salerno-Marco Sorrentino, Dario Capaldo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0199
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Developing successful fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs) is nowadays considered as a highly strategic target to fully meet well known environmental and regulatory constraints. This is due to the potentially superior features of fuel cell propulsion as compared to both electric and hybrid vehicles, such as high fuel-economy, reduced tank-to-wheel environmental impact and appreciably long ranges. Successful achievement of the above-introduced challenging goal fully motivates the development of advanced mathematical tools featuring co-optimization capabilities, so as to adequately account for the strong interactions and mutual influence between design criteria and selected control strategies. To this aim, a comprehensive model of a generic FCHV architecture and a specification independent control strategy were integrated within a modular constrained optimization algorithm, which was conceived in such a way as to simultaneously find the optimal FCHV powertrain design and associated real-time applicable control strategies. Suitable design and energy management criteria, accounting for also the impact of a-priori knowledge of driving mission on proper management of available power sources, were selected. The proposed co-optimization procedure aims at determining both key…
 

Development of a hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application: packaging optimization and thermomechanical design of the electric motor case

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Fabio Berni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0197
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the development of a parallel hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480 cc internal combustion engine developed on the basis of the Ducati “959 Superquadro” V90 2-cylinder engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The performance of the ICE has been optimized through CFD-1D simulation (a review of this activity is reported in a parallel paper). The main design goal is to get the maximum amount of mechanical energy from the fuel, considering the car typical usage: racing on a windy track. The Ducati “959 Superquadro” engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, as well as for its V90 2-cylinder layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is subsequently replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. The mechanical behaviour of the original chain is investigated for…
 

A coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume method for the thermal transient modeling of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module for electric vehicles

Univ. Tor Vergata-Gino Bella
Univ. di Roma Niccolo Cusano-Daniele Chiappini, Laura Tribioli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0207
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Due to their ability to store higher electrical energy, lithium ion batteries are the most promising candidates for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, whose market share is growing fast. Heat generation during charge and discharge processes, frequently undergone by these batteries, causes temperature increase and thermal management is indispensable to keep temperature in an appropriate level. In this paper, a coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume model for the three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module is presented. As it has already been successfully used to deal with several fluid dynamics problems, the Lattice Boltzmann method is selected for its simpler boundary condition implementation and complete parallel computing, which make this approach promising for such applications. The standard Lattice Boltzmann method, here used only for the fluid-dynamic evolution, is coupled with a Finite Volume approach for solving the energy equation and recovering the temperature field throughout the whole domain (air, aluminum and battery). This coupled approach allows having a fully reliable control of the transient phase in conjugate heat transfer problems without introducing any…
 

Potential of electrification applied to non-road Diesel engines

Kohler Engines-Paolo Fregni, Simone Gaioli
UNIMORE-Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini, Francesco Scrignoli, Giovanni Franceschini, Davide Barater
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0202
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The new Stage 5 European regulation for Non Road Mobile Machinery has introduced a set of challenging limits on pollutant emissions, for all the categories of internal combustion engines (<19 kW; 19-56 kW; >56kW). The improvement of combustion may not be sufficient to comply with these limits, even for those engines already equipped with modern Common Rail injection systems: as a result, the after-treatment plant is bounded to become much more complex and expensive, both in terms of installation and lifetime management and service. Besides the technical aspects, the new components may have a negative impact also on the perception of customers, used to run their machinery without any particular care in very challenging environments. A viable alternative to the implementation of sophisticated after-treatment systems is to downsize the engine, when possible below the limit of 19 or 56 kW, and provide the extra power for peak demands with an electric motor, installed in place of the flywheel. Thanks to the electric assistance, the engine can skip the more critical conditions for pollutant emissions (high…
 
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The New Challenges of NVH Package for BEVs

Autoneum Holding AG-Grégoire Lepoittevin, Jan Horak, Davide Caprioli
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) bring new challenges when it comes to NVH package development, which are affected by many new factors. The noise sources from the powertrain are different, for instance due to the presence of tonal components, strong harmonics and potential whining noise. Another important aspect is the missing effect of masking noise from a combustion engine. As a consequence, other noise sources, such as tires, become more predominant. This means that the NVH package has to be re-engineered considering new noise sources and cannot just be significantly decontented in general. At the same time, NVH package weight reduction should at least partly counterbalance the vehicle weight increase due to the presence of a large and heavy battery pack in order to maximize the driving range. In the early days of BEVs, OEMs mostly carried over technologies used on combustion engine vehicles to electric cars. With the development growth of specific vehicle platforms for electric cars, NVH strategies and technologies might strongly change.The aim of this paper is to discuss the future NVH package…
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Design of a Grid-Friendly DC Fast Charge Station with Second Life Batteries

Ohio State University-Matilde D'Arpino, Massimo Cancian
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
DC-fast charge (DCFC) may be amenable for widespread EV adoption. However, there are potential challenges associated with implementation and operation of the DCFC infrastructures. The integration of energy storage systems can limit the scale of grid installation required for DCFC and enable more efficient grid energy usage. In addition, second-life batteries (SLBs) can find application in DCFC, significantly reducing installation cost when compared to solutions based on new battery packs. However, both system architecture and control strategy require optimization to ensure an optimal use of SLBs, including degradation and thermal aspects. This study proposes an application of automotive SLBs for DCFC stations where high power grid connection is not available or feasible. Several SLBs are connected to the grid by means of low power chargers (e.g. L2 charging station), and a DC/DC converter controls the power to the EV power dispenser. The architecture of the DC bus, the size and state of health of the battery system determine efficiency, cost, and reliability of the station. A technical and economic comparison is proposed, evaluating solutions with…
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SOC Estimation of Battery Pack Considering Cell Inconsistency

Tongji University-Chaofan Yang, Xuezhe Wei, Qiaohua Fang, Haifeng Dai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Range anxiety problem has always been one of the biggest concern of consumers for pure electric vehicles. Accurate driving range prediction is based on accurate lithium-ion battery pack SOC (State of Charge) estimation. In this article, a complete SOC estimation algorithm is proposed from cell level to battery pack level. To begin with, the equivalent circuit model (ECM) is applied as the model of battery cell. ECM parameters are identified every 10% SOC interval through genetic algorithm. The dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF) algorithm is adopted for cell-level SOC and ohmic resistance R0 estimation. The estimation accuracy of cell SOC and R0 is verified under NEDC dynamic working condition. The cell-level SOC estimation error is below 1%. However, cell inconsistency can always result in inaccurate cell SOC estimation inside the battery pack. The impact of initial SOC inconsistency and internal resistance inconsistency between cells on battery pack SOC is specifically analyzed. Considering cell inconsistency, dual time-scale dual extended Kalman filtering (DTSDEKF) algorithm based on “Specific Cell and Difference Model” (“S&D model”) is introduced to help…
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Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Jun Machida, Naoyoshi Madoka, Shogo Hayase
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions. The number of series-connected cells in each lithium-ion battery module was increased from 18 to 36, making it possible to reduce the number of modules from four to two, reducing the size of the battery pack against…
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High Frequency Impedance and Electromagnetic Interference Suppression of Lithium-Ion Power Battery Pack

Tongji University-Ji Zhang, Yu Lv
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
When electric vehicle speeds up or slows down, rapidly changing current and voltage (di/dt and du/dt) would occurs in its lithium-ion power battery. In this way, the impedance of power battery would changes with parasitic parameters because that the ion transport in electrolytes would influence diffusion effect and polarization effect of battery. Thus, the lithium-ion battery cannot be regarded as ideal component in high frequency, which could cause unpredictable problem in electromagnetic interference (EMI). However, most previous studies took lithium-ion power batteries as disturbed objects or transmission routes, which ignore the electromagnetic interference of battery itself. Based on it, this paper analyses the internal mechanism of EMI in lithium-ion power battery, and simulates the distribution of electromagnetic field as well as it corresponding interference suppression measures. Firstly, the test platform for parameter extraction of battery cell is built. The parasitic parameters are extracted through testing. The high-frequency equivalent circuit of power battery is consequently established. Secondly, peripheral circuit of lithium-ion battery (DC/AC system) is established to obtain the current at DC bus, which would be…
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Full Battery Pack Modelling: An Electrical Sub-Model Using an EECM for HEV Applications

Queen's University Belfast-Ryan Rolt, Roy Douglas, Peter Nockemann
WrightBus-Robert Best
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With a transition towards electric vehicles for the transport sector, there will be greater reliance put upon battery packs; therefore, battery pack modelling becomes crucial during the design of the vehicle. Accurate battery pack modelling allows for: the simulation of the pack and vehicle, more informed decisions made during the design process, reduced testing costs, and implementation of superior control systems. To create the battery cell model using MATLAB/Simulink, an electrical equivalent circuit model was selected due to its balance between accuracy and complexity. The model can predict the state of charge and terminal voltage from a current input. A battery string model was then developed that considered the cell-to-cell variability due to manufacturing defects. Finally, a full battery pack model was created, capable of modelling the different currents that each string experiences due to the varied internal resistance. The model was then validated with real-life data from the “Hill Route” section of the First Group Millbrook Fuel Economy Test Version 5.0 drive cycle of a mild hybrid electric bus. Results showed a strong correlation…
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