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A Fundamental study on the effects of Electrically Heated Catalyst on State of Charge of the battery pack for a series hybrid electric vehicle at cold start.

NE Chemcat Corp-Makoto Nagata
Waseda Univ-Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Xieyang Yan, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0444
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery models are recently being developed as one of a component of the powertrain system of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) to predict the State of Charge (SOC) accurately. The electric components like the Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC) which is used to reach the catalyst light off temperature in advance are being employed in the powertrain of HEVs. The EHC draws power from the battery pack of the HEV. Therefore, sufficient energy should be stored in the battery pack of an HEV to power the auxiliary components in the powertrain. In a series hybrid electric vehicle system, the engine is primarily used to charge the battery pack. Therefore, it is important to develop a control strategy that triggers the engine start/stop conditions and reduces the frequency of engine operation to minimize the equivalent fuel consumption. A battery pack model was constructed in MATLAB-Simulink to investigate the SOC variation of a high-power lithium ion battery during extreme engine cold start conditions (-7°C) with and without the application of EHC. An electrically heated catalyst (EHC) was also simulated…
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“Omega” fin design for enhanced cooling capability on IGBTs

Senior Flexonics-Brian Costello, Ryan Collins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0597
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle electrification is a rapidly growing and developing technology. As with any new technology there are hurdles that must be overcome as development marches forward. Overcoming these obstacles will require new and innovative solutions. One area of electrification that is quickly developing is the ability to convert voltage from AC to DC and from DC to AC. This is important since the battery pack outputs a DC voltage which must be converted to AC to drive the electric motor. The reverse is true when braking, the AC voltage generated by the electric motor is converted to DC in order to charge the battery. The conversion of voltage back and forth is controlled through the use of an inverter. The inverter uses Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors or IGBTs which generate heat while in operation. As the IGBTs heat up there efficiency goes down. In order to maintain a high level of efficiency the circuity can be directly cooled through the use of a heat sink. A unique “omega” fin design has been developed for use in IGBT…
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Design and Thermal Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery for an Electric Racing Car

Hefei University of Technology-Shuhua LI, Bofu WU, Peng WANG, Yongjia WANG
Jilin University-Dawei QU
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0167
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that battery thermal management system (BTMS) has been paid more attentions with the development of lithium-ion batteries. To meet the requirements of electric vehicles to supply long driving range and adequate acceleration, lithium-ion battery packs are often arranged very compactly with small internal, which poses a challenge to the design of BTMS. BTMS has great influence on performance, lifespan and safety of the battery pack and is an essential part of battery pack design. For racing cars that are often in extreme conditions, thermal safety of the battery is very important. The battery pack in this study is consisted of 170 cells connected in series and/or in parallel, 5 boxes made of sheet molding compound (SMC) material and aluminum partition to provide the necessary power for electric racing car. In this work, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed to investigate the forced air cooling system. The thermal behavior of battery pack under different constant-current (CC) discharge was performed using CD-adapco's STAR-CCM+ solver. This study shows that passive air cooling…
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Electric Bike Conversion Methodology

Siemens PLM Corp.-Saeed Siavoshani
Wayne State Univ.-Matthew D. Lawrence
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1436
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the mass movement toward electrification and renewable technology, the scope of innovation of electrification has gone beyond the automotive industry into areas such as electric motorcycle applications. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology and complexities of converting an internal combustion motorcycle to an electric motorcycle. In developing this methodology, performance goals including, speed limit, range, weight, charge times, as well as riding styles will be examined and discussed. Based on the goals of this paper, parts capable of reaching the performance targets are selected accordingly. Documentation of the build process will be presented along with the constraints, pitfalls, and difficulties associated with process of the project. The step-by-step methodology that is developed can be used as a guideline for future build and can be enhanced as necessary. During the development & conversion process, the model of the electric motorcycle was developed in Simulink to size the battery pack, the electric motor, as well as the right control strategy for the battery management system. This model was also the focus of different design…
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Powertrain Thermal System Development for small BEV

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yoshikazu Ohnuma, Yosuke Yamagishi, Katsuya Minami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1383
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic performance of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is affected by battery output power, which depends on state of charge (SOC) and the temperature of battery cells. The temperature of the batteries varies in particular with the environment, in which the user stores the vehicle, and the battery output power. It is therefore necessary to employ thermal management systems that can control the battery temperature within the optimal range under severely hot and cold conditions in BEVs. A highly sophisticated thermal management system and its operation strategy were developed to fulfill the above requirements. The powertrain components to be thermo-controlled were located into two coolant circuits having different temperature range. The compact and efficient front-end heat exchangers were designed to optimally balance the cooling performance of powertrain, cabin comfort, vehicle aerodynamics and the vehicle design. The battery pack was optimally thermo-controlled by precisely controlling two 3-way valves in all driving and environmental conditions. To reduce the temperature variation between battery cells, the coolant passage including cooling plates in the battery pack were designed so that…
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Brake Power Availability Led Optimisation of P0 Versus P2 48V Hybrid Powertrain Architectures

University of Nottingham-Khaled Alnamasi, Simon Terry, Antonino La Rocca, Alasdair Cairns
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0439
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Through improving the 48V hybrid vehicle archetype, governmental emission targets could be more easily met without incurring the high costs associated with increasing levels of electrification. The braking energy recovery function of hybrid vehicles is recognised as an effective solution to reduce emissions and fuel consumption in the short to medium term. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods to maximise the braking energy recovery capability of the 48V hybrid electric vehicle over pre-selected drive cycles using appropriately sized electrified components. The strategy adopted was based upon optimising the battery chemistry type via specific power capability, so that overall brake power is equal to the maximum battery charging power in a typical medium-sized passenger car under typical driving. This will maximise the regenerative braking energy whilst providing a larger torque assistance for a lower battery capacity. Dynamic simulation models were developed using GT-DRIVE software, emulating a mid-sized car with a 48V battery, and different turbocharged gasoline engines with motor-generator unit positions along a drivetrain. The 1.3 kWh battery pack was developed using a…
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Comprehensive 3D thermal modeling of vehicle-ready battery module

Seres-Aditya Velivelli, Saeed Khaleghi Rahimian, Yifan Tang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1385
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal management of vehicle battery pack is crucial in determining the life / ageing of the battery pack, in establishing the range of the vehicle on a day to day basis and in determining the safety of the vehicle and occupants. An effective design of a thermal management system cannot be established solely through experimentation as it is time consuming and costly. Accurate computational models are required to aid in the design process. This study describes the development and validation of 3D computational model for simulating electrical and thermal characteristics of a vehicle-ready battery module. The modeling process starts with the full 3D CAD geometry of the module including the coolant channels and cold plate. As part of the study, an experimental test case was setup. This included a climate chamber for the initial soak of the module and to control ambient temperature. Coolant was pumped through channels underneath the cold plate atop which the cells sat in blocks. The cell bottom area conducted heat through a thermal interface material and through the cold plate.…
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48 V High-power Battery Pack for Mild-hybrid Electric Powertrains

MAHLE International, GmbH-Martin Berger
MAHLE Powertrain, Ltd.-Jonathan Hall, Stephen Borman, Benjamin Hibberd, Michael Bassett, Simon Reader
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0441
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mild hybridisation, using a 48 V system architecture, offers fuel consumption benefits approaching those achieved using high-voltage systems at a much lower cost. To maximise the benefits from a 48 V mild-hybrid system, it is desirable to recuperate during deceleration events at as high a power level as possible, whilst at the same time having a relatively compact and low cost unit. This paper examines the particular requirements of the battery pack for such a mild-hybrid application and discusses the trade-offs between battery power capabilities and possible fuel consumption benefits. The technical challenges and solutions to design a 48 V mild-hybrid battery pack are presented with special attention to cell selection and the thermal management of the whole pack. The resulting battery solution features a continuous-power capability of more than 10 kW and a peak-power rating of up to 20 kW. The paper will present the results from testing of the prototype pack which is currently underway.
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Modeling and Simulation of a Thermoelectric Generator with Various Thermal Conditions of Exhaust Gas

Yan Wang
Nanjing Univ of Science & Technology-Liangmo Wang, Tao Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0892
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As the main power source of automobile, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) only uses about 30% of the energy, but the amount of energy wasted through the exhaust is approximately the same as the mechanical power output of the engine. The high heat of these gases determines them essentially apt for energy recovery. The improvement of automobile power performance and economy will be exciting, even if a small percent of the exhaust energy could be recycled into electric power and applied to the battery pack of traditional vehicles and Hybrid or Extended Range Electric Vehicle by using Thermoelectric Generators (TEG). But in the process of automobile operation, the change of engine operating condition has an apparent influence on the thermoelectric power efficiency of commercial thermoelectric modules. This paper focuses on generation of electrical energy with the help of thermoelectric power generator. The most widely used and least complex exhaust power generation system, at present, is based on Seebeck effect. In this paper, a Thermoelectric Generators has been designed, and the mathematical models of exhaust system has…
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Research on Heat Dissipation Performance of Battery Pack Based on Vertical Arrangement of Flat Plate Heat Pipes

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan Univ. of Technology-Xingmang Zheng, Meng Sun, Fangyu Zhou, ZhiQiang Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0162
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Temperature is a direct factor affecting battery performance. If the temperature of the battery is too high or the temperature difference between cells is too large, it will accelerate the degradation of battery performance, reduce the battery life, and may cause safety problems such as thermal runaway in severe cases. Efficient thermal management of batteries is important to improve battery performance and safety. The flat plate heat pipe(FPHP) has high thermal conductivity, strong isothermal performance and light weight, it’s an ideal heat dissipating component for battery thermal management. In this study, the FPHP is used as the heat conduction component of the battery pack. Firstly, the position of the FPHP with minimum thermal resistance is obtained through experiments. Based on this, the heat dissipation effect of the FPHP on the battery pack is studied, and the purpose of reducing the maximum temperature of the pack and balancing the temperature difference between cells is achieved. In this study, a square LiFePO4 battery pack is taken as the research object. The one-dimensional heat model of the battery…