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Performance of Switched Reluctance Motor for Small Electric Vehicle in Urban Mobility

ARAI Academy-Vignesh S, Yogesh Krishan Bhateshavar, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2501
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Small electric vehicles are challenging in nature while designing the power train and especially the mounting of batteries within the volume available. In this research, power train of small electric vehicle is designed and it is compared with the electric vehicles. The designed vehicle should meet the requirements of urban car so that it can be preferred in urban mobility. Emphasis is given on studying performance parameters such as motor speed, torque for different urban driving cycles by altering the motor and its no. of poles. Battery pack is designed to fit under the front hood of the vehicle whereas motor is fitted at the rear. Range is estimated using Simulink and it is validated with mathematical calculation using Peukert method performed in MATLAB. It is concluded that the designed vehicle with Switched Reluctance Motor 6/4 configuration of 15 kW, 110 Nm is sufficient to meet the urban car in 2020 targets. NCA battery is preferred for range improvement. Retro fitment is given higher priority while designing battery pack.
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Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell

Sushant Manohar Mutagekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2579
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
“NuGen Mobility Summit-2019” Paper Title : Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell Authors: Sushant Mutagekar, Ashok Jhunjhunwala, Prabhjot Kaur Objective Cells age with life. This aging is dependant on various factors like charging/discharging rates, DOD of operation and operating temperature. As the cell ages it undergoes power fade (ability to deliver required power at particular State of Charge [SOC]) and capacity fade (the charge storage capacity of cell). In an Electric Vehicle it is important to know what power shall be demanded from a battery irrespective of what its current SOC is and number of cycles it has undergone. With minimal accuracy and less computational power, it is difficult for a Battery Management System [BMS] to accurately determine SOH; the paper proposes a a precise model that may help. Methodology To understand different cells aging at different conditions, an experiment was setup to simulate various conditions of a cell. • Cycling: Cells of different form factors were cycled continuously at different ambient temperatures, different discharge rates and Depth of discharges. •…
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Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

Deki Electronics-Shubham Rai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…
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Design improvements in advanced automotive batteries using AI

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Devesh Pareek Sachin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2505
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and with this comes challenges to improve the performance of battery to optimize power consumption in electric vehicles. Objective: This paper would focus on the optimization of battery performance incoherent with vehicle power consumption behavior in terms of efficiency using decision-making ability based on given input signals
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Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System For Hot Climate Regions

Pranav Vikas India Private Limited-Tarun Rana, Yuji Yamamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2507
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ELECTRIC VEHICLE THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR HOT CLIMATE REGIONS Rana Tarun*, Yamamoto Yuji, Kumar Ritesh, Bhagatkar Shubhada Pranav Vikas India Private Limited, India Key Words Electric Vehicles (EV); Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS); COP; Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System (EVTMS); BTMS and HVAC System Integration; Thermal System Performance Comparison; Active Liquid Cooling; EV Battery Cooling Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Electric Vehicles is the need of time to limit global warming and it is in application at a wide scale in colder or mild climate regions where ambient temperature is limited to mild or moderate level. Its application (Heat pump, CO2) is constrained to cold climates only due to securing better COP for heating function, sacrificing cooling COP of the existing system when operated in Hot Climate Regions, thus limiting its application to nearly half of the automotive user-base. This study is aimed to develop a new Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System (EVTMS) limited to active liquid cooling for application of Electric Vehicle in Hot Climate Regions with higher system COP targets when compared to existing…
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EV Cell Chemistry for the Indian Market

Robert Bosch Engineering & Business Solutions, Ltd.-Prabhakar G, Tarang Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2479
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Chemical reaction inside a cell, converts chemical energy into electrical energy and causes electric current to flow. If electric current passes backwards in a cell, it charges the cell. In a Li-Ion battery Lithium ions move from negative electrode to positive electrode during discharge and backwards when charging. The characteristics of a good Li-Ion Battery are: - High no of Cycle Times (Recharge) - High C Rating (Charging & Discharging), causing no degradation to performance - High Energy Density - Low Heat dissipation - Safe during operation against hazards - No impact of Overcharging or Undercharging - Reasonable cost For the EV Space in Indian region, top 3 most important requirements are as follows: - much higher cycle times than available in the most popular NMC cell chemistry - battery performance not impacted by charging or discharging at higher temperatures - Lowest cost that can drive the market adoption In this paper we will detail our the proposed solution for the Cell Chemistry which is suitable for Indian Market and also can be adopted by…
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Numerical Simulation of Battery Cooling Systems in Electric Vehicles

Pranav Vikas, Ltd.-Bharat Kumar Nuthi, Vijayaraghavan S, D. Govindaraj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2481
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
As electric vehicles are working on stored energy in batteries or cells. These units needs to be regulated by cool down or heat up to perform utmost and to ensure individual cell life. Battery cooling systems are installed on vehicles to regulate the temperature around these packs. To ensure maximum performance of these units, numerical simulation is performed. Optimization (includes study of cover design, number of openings, area & position of openings around the cover in which unit is mounted) of flow rate as well as flow path into battery cooling systems is carried out. This study is carried to design a stable unit.
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Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
Hybrid Vehicle-Jaipal Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2495
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement. For Parallel hybrid configuration, Comprehensive approach was developed for selection & optimization of degree of hybridization required as per Off-Highway tractor application requirement. Architecture selection approach considers the way to take care of % increase of cost price with conventional tractor, market availability of components, Integration constraints, fuel consumption, and efficiency of transmission & smooth delivery of power as required by operator. 2.For above…
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Design and Development of Industrial Automotive Battery Management system

Dipali Dange, Radhika Ballal L
Assistant professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle need accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of charge (SOC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for its safe working. So, the main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SOC, predict degradation parameters, balance individual cells, manage cell temperature, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SOC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery, also performing inductive Active balancing on cells to equalize the charge. proposed algorithms communicate with the vehicle ECU through CAN to assist the driver for runtime estimation, time for battery swapping, Alerts. Li-ion cells undergo current tests like pulsed charge-discharge, and transient response is effectively captured with parameter estimation with various degraded cells. Estimated model used in system and build battery stack. Balancing algorithm designed…
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Estimating drive cycle for E-rickshaws using real world operating scenarios and for overall powertrain improvements.

Ola Electric Mobility Pvt. Ltd.-Nishit Jain, Smit Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2497
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
E-Rickshaws are popular and convenient mode of transportation for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance(<10Km) commute. As per recent reports there are more than 1.5million e-rickshaws plying on Indian roads and approx. 10,000 vehicles are adding every month. Owners of these vehicles are inclined towards the overall range these vehicles can give on a single charge. Range can be improved by using efficient powertrain. Range can also be improved by optimized Battery Management systems and Controllers. Though there are certain evaluation criteria (such as curtailed Indian Drive Cycles) which can be used for efficiency estimations, manufactures are more interested in extending the range in real world scenarios. Hence, availability of real-world drive cycle is imperative. Through this paper, we have attempted to derive a typical drive cycle by collecting road data of various types of e-Rickshaws under different environment conditions. The paper also attempted to present how these derived drive cycle can thus help in powertrain optimization and overall efficiency improvements.