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Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Optimization of Performance and Exhaust Emissions of RON 97, RON 98, and RON 100 (Motor Gasoline) and AVGAS 100LL (Aviation Gasoline) in Lycoming O-320 Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and Royal Malaysia Police (RMP), Malaysia-Thanikasalam Kumar
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia-Rahmat Mohsin, Zulkifli Abd. Majid, Je Young Kim, Ananth Manickam Wash
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0029
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)’s 20 years of research and development with 200 unleaded blends and full-scale engine tests on 45 high-octane unleaded blends has not found a “drop-in” unleaded replacement for aviation gasoline (AVGAS) 100 low lead (100LL) fuel. In this study, analysis of compatibility via optimization of Lycoming O-320 engine fuelled with RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and AVGAS was conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Test fuels were compositionally characterized based on Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis and were categorized based on types of Hydrocarbon (HC). Basic fuel properties of fuels in this research were analyzed and recorded. For optimization analysis, engine speed and fuel were considered as the input parameters. The output responses were Brake Horsepower (BHP), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTHE), Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), HC, and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The engine speed (RPM) was varied at 2000-2700, and the fuels were varied at four (04) levels, RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and AVGAS. The design matrix was selected based…
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Polyamide Type 6-6, Plastic Moldings and Extrusions

AMS P Polymeric Materials Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3617F
  • Current
Published 2019-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers one type of Polyamide Type 6-6 (nylon) thermoplastic resin in the form of moldings and extrusions.
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Rubber, Synthetic General Purpose, Fluid Resistant 55 - 65

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3220H
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a synthetic rubber in the form of sheet, strip, tubing, extrusions, and molded shapes.
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Aerospace Fuel System Specifications and Standards

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1408B
  • Current
Published 2019-05-24 by SAE International in United States
This report lists documents that aid and govern the design of aircraft and missile fuel systems. The report lists the military and industry specifications and standards and the most notable design handbooks that are commonly used in fuel system design. Note that only the principle fuel specifications for the U.S. and Europe (Military Specifications, ASTM, and Def Stan) have been included within this report. The specifications and standards section has been divided into two parts: a master list arranged numerically of all industry and military specifications and standards, and a component list that provides a functional breakdown and a cross-reference of these documents. It is intended that this report be a supplement to specifications ARP8615, MIL-F-17874, and JSSG 2009. Revisions and amendments which are correct for the specifications and standards are not listed. The fuel system design handbooks are listed for fuels and for system and component design.
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Aircraft Fueling Adapter Wear Limits

AE-5C Aviation Ground Fueling Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5298
  • Current
Published 2019-05-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the wear limits allowed on certain features of Pressure Fuel Servicing Adapters which are crucial for safe interfacing of Pressure Fuel Servicing Nozzles and Pressure Caps. Wear limits as described herein represent the maximum amount of wear on certain features of the Adapter beyond which use of the Adapter for these purposes may contribute to an unsafe condition. Such wear is the result of the normal use of the Adapter for aircraft refueling and also, in some cases, for Nozzle stowage on refueling vehicles.
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Recommendations for Fuel and Oil System Schematics

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1482B
  • Current
Published 2019-05-07 by SAE International in United States
This document recommends and sets forth a set of symbols representing the components making up aircraft fuel and oil systems. The intended result is uniformity in system schematics so that they may be easily understood throughout the aerospace industry.
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Hose, Aircraft Fueling, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Double Wire Braid Reinforced, Chloroprene Covered, Noncollapsing

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3389E
  • Current
Published 2019-04-30 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a synthetic rubber in the form of a nonrigid, smooth bore, noncollapsing-type hose.
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Hose, Aircraft Fueling, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Single Wire Braid Reinforced, Chloroprene Covered, Noncollapsing

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3388E
  • Current
Published 2019-04-30 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a synthetic rubber in the form of a non-rigid, smooth bore, noncollapsing-type hose.
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Hose, Aircraft Fueling, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber, Textile Reinforced, Chloroprene Covered, Collapsing

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3386E
  • Current
Published 2019-04-30 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a synthetic rubber in the form of a soft wall, smooth bore, collapsing-type hose.
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Coupling Assemblies, Quick Disconnect, Automatic Shutoff

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS7413A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-23 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes requirements for automatic shutoff, quick-disconnect coupling assemblies for fuel and oil lines.
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