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Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines – Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Berner Fachhochschule TI AFHB-Danilo Engelmann
University of Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski, Hervé Nauroy lng, Pierre Comte, Andreas Hüssy lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for Gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than Ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like Ethanol, Butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources. In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and Butanol) addition of Butanol to Diesel fuel was investigated from the points of view of engine combustion and of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and emissions. One investigated engine (E1) was with emission class “EU Stage 3A” for construction machines, another one, engine (E2) was HD Euro VI. The operation of engine (E1) with Bu30 was instable at lower part load due to the lower Cetane Number of the blend fuel. The electronic control system of the engine (E2) compensated very well the varying properties of fuels. With higher Butanol content, there is a lower heat value of the fuel and there is…
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A MATLAB Simulink Based Co-Simulation Approach for Vehicle Systems Model Integration

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Brian C. Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Tim Deppen, Charles Lucas, Rodney Yeu, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0005
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a MATLAB-Simulink based general co-simulation approach is presented which supports multi-resolution simulation of distributed models in an integrated architecture. This approach was applied to simulating aircraft thermal performance in our Vehicle Systems Model Integration (VSMI) framework. A representative advanced aircraft thermal management system consisting of an engine, engine fuel thermal management system, aircraft fuel thermal management system and a power and thermal management system was used to evaluate the advantages and tradeoffs in using a co-simulation approach to system integration modeling. For a system constituting of multiple interacting sub-systems, an integrated model architecture can rapidly, and cost effectively address technology insertions and system evaluations. Utilizing standalone sub-system models with table-based boundary conditions often fails to effectively capture dynamic subsystem interactions that occurs in an integrated system. Additionally, any control adjustments, model changes or technology insertions that are applied to any one of the connecting subsystems requires iterative updates to the boundary conditions. When evaluating a large set of trade studies, the number of boundary condition models and time to generate these models…
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EUROCAE/SAE WG80/AE-7AFC Hydrogen Fuel Cells Aircraft Fuel Cell Safety Guidelines

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6464
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
This document defines the technical guidelines for the safe integration of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems (FCS), fuel (considered to be liquid and compressed hydrogen storage types only), fuel storage, fuel distribution and appropriate electrical systems into the aircraft. Editorial Note: Today PEM systems and fuel storage represent the most mature FCS technology and currently forms the basis for this standard. Other types of fuel cell systems and fuels (including reforming technologies and electrolyzers), may be covered by a further update to this document.
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Application of Factor Analysis in the Determination of Carburetor Icing Tendency in Aviation Gasoline, RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and the Blends in Lycoming O-320 Engine

Royal Malaysia Police-Kumar Thanikasalam
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)-Mohsin Rahmat, Abdul Majid Zulkifli, Abdul Ghafir Mohammad Fahmi, Manickam Wash Ananth
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-6000
Published 2020-02-04 by SAE International in United States
Carburetor icing (CI) was the most commonly cited factors in general aviation accident category with 1,019 (34%) accidents. The objective of the study is to measure the CI tendency of selected fuels by the application of factor analysis (FA). All the test fuels were characterized based on chemical and physical properties of the fuels. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the tested fuels were categorized based on hydrocarbon types and basic fuel properties. The study considered sixteen variables for CI assessment, using the selected and calculated fuel properties. Twenty-three aviation fuels from literatures were collected and, using FA, model equations explaining the CI tendency of the aviation fuels were derived, and their respective factor scores were calculated. The model was applied to the 14 fuels in this study, and their respective factor scores were calculated. All the fuels were ranked using the factor score from the best to worst. Brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the fuels was derived experimentally. FA results showed that FA explain 94.246% of the variance for CI. Best CI tendency was shown…
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O-Ring Machined from AMS3617 Material

A-6C2 Seals Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS9772A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This standard establishes the dimensional and visual quality requirements, lot requirements, and packaging and labeling requirements for O-rings machined from AMS3617 polyamide material. It shall be used for procurement purposes.
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Combined Scattering and Imaging Diagnostics to Detect and Quantify Fuel Contaminants

Artium Technologies, Inc.-Julien Manin, William D. Bachalo, Reza Karami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2347
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Contamination from water and particulate matter in diesel or aviation fuel can cause complications even under normal operating conditions. Fuel contamination becomes a major problem in air transportation, where engine flame-out due to injection system blockage or malfunction might have catastrophic consequences. The presence of contaminants in fuel has been linked to several incidents including commercial and military aircraft over the past decade. Unless they are detected and separated from the fuel, water or solid particles have several ways to reach the engine and cause troubles. Aviation fuel is commonly stored in large tanks and transferred frequently before it reaches the aircraft, increasing the risk for contamination. At the same time, gas bubbles may be present in the system. While harmless to the aircraft, gas bubbles have been the reason why contamination monitoring systems would fail, as the system would be triggered by gas bubbles, instead of detrimental contaminants. We developed a set of optical diagnostics to detect the presence of contaminants in fuel, and quantify their size and concentration. The system consists of a…
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Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Optimization of Performance and Exhaust Emissions of RON 97, RON 98, and RON 100 (Motor Gasoline) and AVGAS 100LL (Aviation Gasoline) in Lycoming O-320 Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and Royal Malaysia Police (RMP), Malaysia-Thanikasalam Kumar
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia-Rahmat Mohsin, Zulkifli Abd. Majid, Je Young Kim, Ananth Manickam Wash
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0029
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)’s 20 years of research and development with 200 unleaded blends and full-scale engine tests on 45 high-octane unleaded blends has not found a “drop-in” unleaded replacement for aviation gasoline (AVGAS) 100 low lead (100LL) fuel. In this study, analysis of compatibility via optimization of Lycoming O-320 engine fuelled with RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and AVGAS was conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Test fuels were compositionally characterized based on Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis and were categorized based on types of Hydrocarbon (HC). Basic fuel properties of fuels in this research were analyzed and recorded. For optimization analysis, engine speed and fuel were considered as the input parameters. The output responses were Brake Horsepower (BHP), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTHE), Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), HC, and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The engine speed (RPM) was varied at 2000-2700, and the fuels were varied at four (04) levels, RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and AVGAS. The design matrix was selected based…
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Polyamide Type 6-6, Plastic Moldings and Extrusions

AMS P Polymeric Materials Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3617F
  • Current
Published 2019-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers one type of Polyamide Type 6-6 (nylon) thermoplastic resin in the form of moldings and extrusions.
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Rubber, Synthetic General Purpose, Fluid Resistant 55 - 65

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3220H
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a synthetic rubber in the form of sheet, strip, tubing, extrusions, and molded shapes.
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Aerospace Fuel System Specifications and Standards

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1408B
  • Current
Published 2019-05-24 by SAE International in United States
This report lists documents that aid and govern the design of aircraft and missile fuel systems. The report lists the military and industry specifications and standards and the most notable design handbooks that are commonly used in fuel system design. Note that only the principle fuel specifications for the U.S. and Europe (Military Specifications, ASTM, and Def Stan) have been included within this report. The specifications and standards section has been divided into two parts: a master list arranged numerically of all industry and military specifications and standards, and a component list that provides a functional breakdown and a cross-reference of these documents. It is intended that this report be a supplement to specifications ARP8615, MIL-F-17874, and JSSG 2009. Revisions and amendments which are correct for the specifications and standards are not listed. The fuel system design handbooks are listed for fuels and for system and component design.
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