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Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019005
To be published on 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components – which together represent almost $2 trillion of the United State economy – are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs. In this SAE Edge report, six senior industry leaders in the impacted ecosystems essay articles which describes sectors of the current automotive ecosystem and the manner in which AV technology can potentially reshape them – providing a mosaic of the massive infrastructure shifts which will be required to absorb autonomous vehicle technologies. NOTE:…
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Machine Learning considerations in the context of Automotive Functional Safety Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

General Motors LLC-Vijai K Gopalakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2519
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
We are currently in the age of developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV). Never before in history, the environment has been as conducive as today for these developments to come together to deliver a mass produced autonomous car for use by general public on the roads. Several enhancements in hardware, software, standards and even business models are paving the way for rapid development of AVs, bringing them closer to production reality. Safety is an indispensable consideration when it comes to transportation products, and ground vehicle development is no different. We have several established standards. When it comes to Autonomous Vehicle development, an important consideration is ISO 26262 for, Automotive Functional Safety. Going from generic frameworks such as Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) to Functional Safety, Safety of Intended Functionality, and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels specific is a natural progression. This, in specific to AV development context with a renewed perspective is the need of the hour. The fundamental assumption of a human driver being part of the vehicle, considered in…
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Telematics: Solution to Reduce Road Accidents on Indian Roads.

Honda Cars India Pvt Ltd.-Saurabh Garg, Kazunaga Kasai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2446
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The number of fatalities due to road accidents in India is increasing at an alarming rate. In 2017, around 4.6 lakhs road accidents were reported due to which around 1.48 lakh people lost their lives. The accident severity i.e. number of deaths per 100 road accidents is reported to be at 31.8 - worst in a period of more than two decades. Passenger vehicles (two wheeler & four wheeler) constituted maximum road accidents, 59% combined. So, a strong sense of responsibility lies on vehicle manufacturers part to help the government agencies to reduce road accidents in India. Majorly road accidents are caused due to bad driving habits, road infrastructure problems, vehicle quality issues, unfavorable weather conditions and India unique chaos on roads. This paper highlights use of telematics to counter road accidents caused by bad driving habits of Indian drivers. Out of the bad driving habits, in 2017, over-speeding accounted for 67% of the road accident deaths. Any connected vehicle solution is capable of capturing basic parameters like vehicle speed, Global Positioning System (GPS) location…
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Enhanced Road condition monitoring for developing countries

STMicroelectronics-Saurabh Rawat, Prashant Pandey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2462
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
"According to Data on Road accidents in India by Transport Research Wing of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, more than 4 Lakhs road accidents happened every year from year 2003 to 2017. Poor road conditions and badly designed roads are the common cause of road accidents besides the driver's negligence. Poor roads and badly designed speed breakers are common in developing countries. Apart from accidents, poor road conditions can cause excessive fuel consumption & damage to vehicles. Road condition monitoring solutions aim to warn the drivers of upcoming bad patch on the road and optionally report road conditions to authorities. There are multiple existing solutions that use motion sensors and GPS to detect a bad patch on the road. The presented solution builds over capability of existing solutions by adding useful features making it more practical and useful. The presented scheme is able to differentiate between a pothole and a speed breaker using a machine learning based approach. It also employs additional sensors like gyroscope and optionally a camera to detect on which side…
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Proposed Model to Implement a Blockchain for Secure Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

General Motors Technical Center India-Surya P. Palavalasa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2433
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a model to implement a blockchain network that can host a system of autonomous vehicles which communicate through generic V2V protocols like DSRC and CV2X. The blockchain will be designed to function like a global database for V2V communication. The purpose behind the proposal of this model was to ensure a transparent and secure network between all autonomous vehicles which indirectly leads to reduced traffic congestion and takes us a step closer to zero crashes. This is made possible by the blockchain ledger’s enhanced encryption systems.
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An Energy Harvesting E-SHOCK for Future Mobility

Schaeffler Group-Prajod Ayyappath
Schaeffler India, Ltd.-PS Satyanarayana, Kalyan Bhairi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2506
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
India has emerged as the world’s biggest market for Two-wheelers and Four-wheeler. Besides rising incomes and growing infrastructure in all areas, one big reason for the spurt in sales has been ease of zipping in and out of chaotic city traffic along with road irregularities and potholes. Furthermore, the efficiency increase in the Shock absorber within the vehicle have high demands to use of regenerative solutions, in which e-system can be employed as to recover part of the energy otherwise dissipated in form of heat. The Smart e-Shock can charge battery and illuminate accessories of vehicle. Also, the e-shock can provide the various damping characteristics by changing the Electric load on to it to make system as Semi-Active Suspension. This Smart e-Shock system is based on unique and patented concept of constraining the reciprocating motion of the shock absorber in to a single sense of rotation of e-system and the energy is recuperated and given to the battery from the e-system. This retrofittable design can provide better vehicle dynamics-with various driving modes (Comfort, Normal, Sport,…
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APPLICATION ORIENTED HYBRIDIZED DYNAMIC MODELS OF POWERTRAIN CONTROL FOR CONNECTED VEHICLES – A CASE STUDY ON TURBOCHARGER CONTROL

Continental Germany-Richard Kopold
Continental India-Vivek Venkobarao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2443
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In a connected vehicle environment, the engine drive cycles operate in synchronized and regulated manner. This requires smooth transitions for improved CO_2 footprint. To arrive at this, there is need for intelligent and faster airpath control at transients. Authors aim to model and control every actuator of a coupled system in a synchronized manner with faster dynamic response. The turbocharger control is vital and forms heart of the system; This demands accurate position prediction of VTG. Deriving a control law for turbocharger is challenging due to the hybridized nature of turbocharger models in engine management system. It becomes extremely critical to estimate accurately, the position of VTG without introduction of any sensing devices. The control engineer always need to solve the trade-off between the controller performance KPI’s – rise time, transient response, controllability, observability and capability – stability and dynamics response etc. Author propose a model which improve the performance and capability of VTG control. Author presents a novel technique to model VTG position. A neural network based supervised learning model is derived. The model…
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Computer Vision and Monocular Camera System for Cost Efficient Autonomous Vehicle

Ashish K. Pidurkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2518
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The positioning of the sensors on vehicle will play a critical role in autonomous cars, it improves the performance of overall system by all the means and make it cost effective by reducing a total system cost. This paper contributes in deciding the best position of camera location on the vehicle with complete geometric and system calculation based on the maximum speed of vehicle, hardware processing speed, camera parameters, actuation and control time, Blind spot detections, maximum Height of objects, etc. The paper presents the technologies and datasets used for lane lines and other object detections. It focusses on newly proposed technique and its calculations to decide the best location of monocular camera sensor on the vehicle by considering all other parameters of autonomous vehicle system. It enhances the performance of overall system as well as reduces the system cost which takes us closer to the futuristic dream of efficient and low-cost autonomous vehicle.
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Snowmobii 2.0 (Snow mobility Unmanned Vehicle)

Harshil Patel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2516
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper we propose the snow mobility vehicle in order increase the mobility and decrease the risk of accidents for carry food and medicines on snow bounded areas using unmanned tracked vehicle called as snowmobii 2.0. Our unmanned tracked vehicle can transport Food/medicines as well as Defence in snow bounded areas. This unmanned robot can run in loose as well as hard snow due to it have specific featured technology in base wheel(track wheel system) such as hub with outer seals that improve its durability. The proposed snow mobility vehicle is consist of many sophisticated-designed systems such as navigation system, obstacle detection system, communication system, temperature sensing system. Snowmobii 2.0 is easy to get command and enable significant reduction in losses of many solder’s precious lives due to unavailability of food and medicines at that place. An unmanned tracked vehicle (snowmobii 2.0) is actively being developed for military use to perform various task like mobility on snow surface, carry food/medicines, defence etc.Predominantly this vehicle is used to replace human movement at hazardous place. It…
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THE NEED OF PERSONALIZATION AND OPPORTUNITIES IN AUTONOMOUS VEHICELS AND SHARED MOBILITY

General Motors Tech Center India-Suresh Dayakar, Vijayasarathy Subramanian, Keshava Reddy, Vijaykumar Shiramgond
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2520
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Shared mobility and Autonomous shared mobility take major share in Mobility 4.0. Personalization in a shared mobility will play a significant role in customer engagement in Autonomous world. In case of personal vehicle each customer will have their own personal settings in their own vehicle; in case of Autonomous shared mobility or shared mobility, we can satisfy individual customer need only by personalizing the vehicle for each individual user needs. This will give a cognitive feel of personal vehicle in a shared environment. We need technologies in improving vehicle interior and exterior systems and design to address personalization. We will be discussing on feasible opportunities of personalization and with illustrations in Vehicle Interior Cabin Space, Seat comfort, Compartments, Vehicle interior & Exterior Access / Controls. The summary will have design concept that will have personalization solutions satisfying each critical customer integration for all identified zones of vehicle exterior and interior. This approach of Design Thinking of identifying personalization need and enabling integrated design solution will help to improve customer satisfaction and engagement in Autonomous /…