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SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19TOFHP12
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-duty engine design What are the most significant factors influencing the way engine developers approach near-term design and development cycles? Two experts provide their insights from recent programs.Reducing winter range loss for electric trucks Researchers at the Austrian Institute of Technology have developed an air exchange system that's capable of reducing heat load by 37% in real-world tests.Narrower focus, bigger payoff Design teams are targeting focused markets for their commercial electric-vehicle programs to combat challenges like range and infrastructure.Removing complexity for autonomous trucks Narrowing the operating domains for driverless commercial vehicles reduces the requirements of autonomous technology and speeds time to market.Plastics innovations 2019 The 49th annual SPE Automotive Awards highlight the ongoing benefits of lightweight polymers and composites.Editorial Hop on the hydrogen highwayLeak testing of commercial-vehicle AC systems critical as move to HFO refrigerants loomsAkasol packs industry-leading energy density into new battery designMahle and partners develop super-efficient natural-gas engine for stationary powerHow battery technology will drive truck electrificationPlatinum nanoparticles for fuel-cell catalysts may cut costCaterpillar launches next-gen mini hydraulic excavator, skid steer and compact…
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Low-Bandwidth Radar Technology Provides Improved Detection of Objects

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35690
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Radar technologies were originally designed to identify and track airborne military targets. Today, they're more often used to detect motor vehicles, weather formations, and geological terrain. Until now, scientists believed that radar accuracy and resolution are related to the range of frequencies or radio bandwidth used by the devices. A new approach inspired by optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires little to no bandwidth to accurately create a high-resolution map of a radar's surrounding environment. The new technology has numerous applications, especially with respect to the automotive industry.

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Removing complexity for AUTONOMOUS TRUCKS

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_04
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Narrowing the operating domains for driverless commercial vehicles reduces the requirements of autonomous technology and speeds time to market.

Developers of driverless trucks are eliminating some of the complexity of automated driving in hope of hastening time to market. They are limiting the nearly immeasurable scope of circumstances - the operating design domain (ODD) - that face driverless vehicles by deploying a variant of platooning, or narrowing the operational parameters for transporting goods. Driver shortages, growth in shipments of online purchases and the never-ending push to trim costs are among the factors that have led many to predict that commercial trucking will be an early adopter of autonomy.

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Machine Learning considerations in the context of Automotive Functional Safety Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

General Motors LLC-Vijai K Gopalakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2519
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
We are currently in the age of developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV). Never before in history, the environment has been as conducive as today for these developments to come together to deliver a mass produced autonomous car for use by general public on the roads. Several enhancements in hardware, software, standards and even business models are paving the way for rapid development of AVs, bringing them closer to production reality. Safety is an indispensable consideration when it comes to transportation products, and ground vehicle development is no different. We have several established standards. When it comes to Autonomous Vehicle development, an important consideration is ISO 26262 for, Automotive Functional Safety. Going from generic frameworks such as Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) to Functional Safety, Safety of Intended Functionality, and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels specific is a natural progression. This, in specific to AV development context with a renewed perspective is the need of the hour. The fundamental assumption of a human driver being part of the vehicle, considered in…
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Telematics: Solution to Reduce Road Accidents on Indian Roads

Honda Cars India Pvt Ltd.-Saurabh Garg, Kazunaga Kasai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2446
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The number of fatalities due to road accidents in India is increasing at an alarming rate. Majorly road accidents are caused due to bad driving habits, road infrastructure problems, vehicle quality issues, unfavorable weather conditions and chaos on roads like public processions, stray animals, etc. Out of the bad driving habits, in 2017, over-speeding accounted for maximum number of the road accident deaths. A strong sense of responsibility lies on vehicle manufacturers part to help the government agencies to reduce road accidents in India. This paper highlights use of telematics to counter road accidents caused by bad driving habits of Indian drivers. Any connected vehicle solution is capable of capturing parameters like vehicle speed, Global Positioning System (GPS) location with time, regularly while the vehicle is in motion. Combining these anonymized vehicle parameters with geographic data of roads, speed hot spots can be prepared. These hot spots visualization will give the traffic police department information about the locations where over-speeding is happening at what particular time of the day. This will enable them to deploy…
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Enhanced Road condition monitoring for developing countries

STMicroelectronics-Saurabh Rawat, Prashant Pandey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2462
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
"According to Data on Road accidents in India by Transport Research Wing of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, more than 4 Lakhs road accidents happened every year from year 2003 to 2017. Poor road conditions and badly designed roads are the common cause of road accidents besides the driver's negligence. Poor roads and badly designed speed breakers are common in developing countries. Apart from accidents, poor road conditions can cause excessive fuel consumption & damage to vehicles. Road condition monitoring solutions aim to warn the drivers of upcoming bad patch on the road and optionally report road conditions to authorities. There are multiple existing solutions that use motion sensors and GPS to detect a bad patch on the road. The presented solution builds over capability of existing solutions by adding useful features making it more practical and useful. The presented scheme is able to differentiate between a pothole and a speed breaker using a machine learning based approach. It also employs additional sensors like gyroscope and optionally a camera to detect on which side…
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Proposed Model to Implement a Blockchain for Secure Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

General Motors Technical Center India-Surya P. Palavalasa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2433
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a model to implement a blockchain network that can host a system of autonomous vehicles which communicate through generic V2V protocols like DSRC and CV2X. The blockchain will be designed to function like a global database for V2V communication. The purpose behind the proposal of this model was to ensure a transparent and secure network between all autonomous vehicles which indirectly leads to reduced traffic congestion and takes us a step closer to zero crashes. This is made possible by the blockchain ledger’s enhanced encryption systems.
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An Energy Harvesting E-SHOCK for Future Mobility

Schaeffler Group-Prajod Ayyappath
Schaeffler India, Ltd.-PS Satyanarayana, Kalyan Bhairi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2506
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
India has emerged as the world’s biggest market for Two-wheelers and Four-wheeler. Besides rising incomes and growing infrastructure in all areas, one big reason for the spurt in sales has been ease of zipping in and out of chaotic city traffic along with road irregularities and potholes. Furthermore, the efficiency increase in the Shock absorber within the vehicle have high demands to use of regenerative solutions, in which e-system can be employed as to recover part of the energy otherwise dissipated in form of heat. The Smart e-Shock can charge battery and illuminate accessories of vehicle. Also, the e-shock can provide the various damping characteristics by changing the Electric load on to it to make system as Semi-Active Suspension. This Smart e-Shock system is based on unique and patented concept of constraining the reciprocating motion of the shock absorber in to a single sense of rotation of e-system and the energy is recuperated and given to the battery from the e-system. This retrofittable design can provide better vehicle dynamics-with various driving modes (Comfort, Normal, Sport,…
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Neural Network Based Hybridized Dynamic Models for Connected Vehicles - A Case Study on Turbocharger Position Prediction

Continental Germany-Richard Kopold
Continental India-Vivek Venkobarao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2443
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Combustion engine driven vehicles operating in a connected and autonomous vehicle (CAVs) environment, the engine drive cycles are run in a regulated manner. This is due to synchronized movement of vehicles operating in connected environment. Hence, developing intelligent and faster control of airpath variable with smooth transient tracking, helps to achieve a synchronized drive cycle. With regards to this author discuss modeling of turbocharger. This is critical for airpath system variable calculation. Due to the hybridized nature of turbocharger models, predicting accurately the position of VTG without introduction of any sensing devices is key, as sensing device induces delay in action. Authors propose a model which improve the performance and capability of VTG position prediction. A neural network based supervised learning model is developed. This model is coupled with engine models which are in series application for performance evaluation. The model is trained and validated with field data. Based on performance analysis there is a strong correlation between the model and the data. The developed model is easily scaled up for various components and be…
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Computer Vision and Monocular Camera System for Cost Efficient Autonomous Vehicle

Ashish K. Pidurkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2518
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The positioning of the sensors on vehicle will play a critical role in autonomous cars, it improves the performance of overall system by all the means and make it cost effective by reducing a total system cost. This paper contributes in deciding the best position of camera location on the vehicle with complete geometric and system calculation based on the maximum speed of vehicle, hardware processing speed, camera parameters, actuation and control time, Blind spot detections, maximum Height of objects, etc. The paper presents the technologies and datasets used for lane lines and other object detections. It focusses on newly proposed technique and its calculations to decide the best location of monocular camera sensor on the vehicle by considering all other parameters of autonomous vehicle system. It enhances the performance of overall system as well as reduces the system cost which takes us closer to the futuristic dream of efficient and low-cost autonomous vehicle.