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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine 6000 rpm Stepped Power Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2488_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a 6000 rpm stepped power test for the evaluation of wet friction system performance variation as a function of power level. This procedure uses an initial engagement speed of 6000 rpm and is intended as a standard procedure for common use by both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction material b Fluid c Reaction plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of using this test. If any of the test parameters or system…
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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine μPVT Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2490_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-31 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, which may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a μPVT Test for the evaluation of the variation of wet friction system performance as a function of speed, temperature, and pressure. This procedure is intended as a standard for both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction material b Fluid c Reaction plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of this test. If any of the test parameters or system hardware as described in this document are changed, other than the friction material,…
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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine 3600 rpm Stepped Power Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2487_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a 3600 rpm Stepped Power Test for the evaluation of wet friction system performance variation as a function of power level. This procedure uses an initial engagement speed of 3600 rpm and is intended as a standard procedure for common use by both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction Material b Fluid c Reaction Plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of using this test. If any of the test parameters or system…
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Implementation of Torque Hole Filling for Transmission Shift Control

Ford Motor Company-Christopher Teslak, Eric Tseng, Stephen Cicala, Bradley D. Riedle, Yuji Fujii, Jianping Zhang, Chad Griffin, Joseph Slayton, Brian O'Neil
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Torque Hole Filling (THF) is a model based approach for controlling the automatic transmission clutches and input torque during a part-pedal upshift or zero-pedal downshift. A desired transmission output torque is first calculated and then the clutches and input torque are controlled to achieve that output torque. This is a system design approach with drivability as one of the direct design objectives.This paper presents the control design and implementation of Torque Hole Filling. First, the paper introduces the topic, defines the terms, and explains the basic operation and intended result. Next, it describes how it works with one instance of implementation and its corresponding dynamics equations, for both torque transfer and ratio change phases. Lastly but most importantly, it covers the various robustness considerations for real-world applications.
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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine µPVT Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2490_201208
  • Historical
Published 2012-08-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, which may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a µPVT Test for the evaluation of the variation of wet friction system performance as a function of speed, temperature, and pressure. This procedure is intended as a standard for both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction Material b Fluid c Reaction Plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of this test. If any of the test parameters or system hardware as described in this document are changed, other than the friction material,…
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Glossary of Terms - Lubricated Friction Systems

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1646_201203
  • Current
Published 2012-03-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice defines the principal terms and equations pertaining to automotive automatic transmission clutch plate, band, or other wet-friction systems. The terms apply directly to friction-system testing as is typically conducted on inertia-stop test equipment. Some terms can be directly applied to the analysis of friction in the transmission or brake assembly and other friction-test equipment. The glossary presents terms used to describe the set-up, testing, and results of tests as shown in Figure 1, which were taken on a clutch SAE No. 2 machine. The glossary is intended to provide a collection of definitions in the hope of eliminating confusion in development and their application to passenger cars and trucks. This document focuses on the terminology of friction-system testing. References for this type of testing are shown in Section 2.
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Spin Loss Computation for Open Clutch Using CFD

SAE International Journal of Engines

GM Technical Center India Ltd. - General Motors Company-Anand K. Jammulamadaka, Prajal Gaokar
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1238
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Open clutch spin loss computation is of interest for new clutch designs. It is desirable to minimize open clutch spin loss. Spin loss in automatic transmission clutches is mainly due to the viscous shear of the transmission fluid. Depending on the relative rotational speed of the plates the spin loss varies. At low rotational speeds the gap between the plates is filled with ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid) and spin loss increases linearly with the rotational speed. At higher speeds the ATF layer, which is held together primarily by surface tension, begins to breakdown due to higher centrifugal forces and air pockets form at outward radial locations of the clutch plates. This results in a decrease in spin loss for the open clutch. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modeling is an attractive option in calculating the spin loss for an open clutch. Not only can a CFD model give an accurate estimation of the magnitude and trend of spin loss variation but it can also compare various groove designs. This is a significant advantage compared to some…
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Fluid for Passenger Car Type Automatic Transmissions

Fuels and Lubricants TC 3 Driveline and Chassis Lubrication
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J311_200002
  • Current
Published 2000-02-22 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report details some of the equipment and procedures used to measure critical characteristics of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in current automatic transmissions. It is intended to assist those concerned with the design of transmission components, and with the selection and marketing of automatic transmission fluids for the use in passenger car and light-duty truck automatic transmissions. The information contained herein will be helpful in understanding the terms related to properties, designations, and service applications of automatic transmission fluids.
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Fundamental Studies on ATF Friction I.

Lubrizol Corp.-C. D. Tipton, E. A. Schiferl
Published 1997-05-01 by SAE International in United States
Automatic transmission clutches are complex tribological systems. Frictional performance is controlled by the interaction of base fluids, additive components, composition clutches, and steel reaction plates with varying energy inputs and thermal stresses in an oxidizing environment. This paper, rather than addressing fully formulated fluid performance in such a system, takes a more fundamental approach where the number of system variables is reduced and the relative effects of formulation variables on system performance can be better examined. Relationships among observed friction performance, system oxidation, friction member condition, and representative performance additives are explored using a synthetic base fluid and a conventionally refined mineral base fluid.
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The Effects of Water on Cellulose-Based Frictional Surfaces in Automatic Transmission Clutch Plates

International Lubricants IILLEGIBLE-Will Williamson, Blaine RhodILLEGIBLE
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
A bench scale apparatus and accelerated test protocol were developed to evaluate the effect of contamination of automatic transmsission fluid by mg/kg levels of water on cellulose frictional clutch surfaces. The testing indicated that water added at levels as low as 600 mg/kg migrated to the surface of untreated paper frictionals and contributed to loss of the paper coating and erratic torque transfer properties. Treated, “high performance” paper frictional surfaces showed less physical damage but the same torque transfer effects from water contaminated ATF. A mechanism of the water coating, swelling and weakening the hydrophillic cellulose fibers, with subsequent destruction due to hydrodynamic shear was proposed.
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