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Effects of Helical Carbon Nanotubes on Mechanical Performance of the Composite Bonded Joints

Wichita State University-Ramanan Sritharan, Davood Askari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0029
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Most composite assemblies and structures generally fail due to the poor performance of their bonded joints that are assembled together with an adhesive layer. Adhesive failure and cohesive failure are among the most commonly observed failure modes in composite bonded joint assemblies. These failure modes occur due to the lack of reinforcement within the adhesive layer in transverse direction. The overall performance of any composite assembly largely depends on the performance of its bonded joints. Various techniques and processes were developed in recent years to improve mechanical performance of the composite bonded joints, one of which includes the use of nanoscale reinforcements within the adhesive layer in between the adherends. However, most prior research have been focused on use of straight carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanomaterials in particle forms. The goal was to improve the properties of the adhesive film and their interfacial bonding effectiveness. Because CNTs are inert in nature, they should be covalently functionalized, before incorporating them into adhesive resins. CNTs can be functionalized using different chemicals to improve their interactions with…
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Tapered Hole Automation for Hard Metals – Enabling Producibility

Electroimpact Inc.-Russell DeVlieg
The Boeing Company-Trevor Hartnagel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0006
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Assembly of the F-15 wing utilizes the Taper-Lok fastening system which requires precise preparation of conical holes to enable tapered fasteners to provide a uniform interference fit. The controlled interference fit directly affects fastener preload to reduce stress and improve fatigue life. Traditional methods for generating tapered holes in thick aluminum and titanium structures require heavy duty tooling. Fixtures are clamped to aircraft structure which hold large power feed to complete the hole generation processes in multiple steps. Manual drilling for Taper-Loks is labor intensive, non-ergonomic, and requires extreme care to ensure quality holes are produced. Automated hole generation was a logical solution to the complex Taper-Lok fastening system, however replicating traditional drilling methods proved challenging. Extensive testing was completed to ensure hole quality generated with automation would meet or exceed existing power feed equipment. Once process capabilities were proven and equipment requirements were generated, an articulated arm-based drilling system was developed and implemented. The automation was designed to accurately position and complete the hole preparation process in a single pass by the use of…
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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of A Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, demanding a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the FAL in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by its production capacity, versus its list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition evolution, factory environmental conditions…
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A Study on the development of Aerostructures Design for Assembly guidelines and their effective use to proactively identify opportunities for improvement in mitigating common defects of the Aerostructures Assembly.

GITAM School of Technology, Hyderabad-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0009
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Aircraft’s assembly process plays a vital part in its design, development and production phases and contributes to about half of the Total cost spent in its entire product lifecycle. DFA principles have been one of the proven effective methodologies in Automotive and Process industries. Use of DFA principles have resulted in proactively simplifying and optimizing engineering designs with reduced product costs, and improved inefficiencies in product design and performance. Standardization of Assembly guidelines is vital for “Design and Build” and “Build-To-Print” manufacturing supplier organizations. However, Standardizing design methodologies, through use of proven tools like Advanced Product Quality Planning, (APQP) are still in the initial stages in Aerospace part and process design processes. Thus, there is a tremendous opportunity for research on the application of the existing DFA guidelines to optimize Engineering Aerospace Assembly processes aiming to simplify, standardize design methodologies by building on existing industry practices which have a common platform for design communication and are easy to adopt within the existing process/systems. This technical paper is to discuss the framework for application of…
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A communication-free Human-Robot-Collaboration approach for aircraft riveting process using AI planning

Saarland University-Jörg Hoffmann
ZeMA gGmbH-Khansa Rekik, Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0013
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In large scale industries attempts are continuously being made to automate assembly processes to not only increase productivity but also alleviate non-ergonomic tasks. However this is not always technologically possible due to specific joining challenges and the high number of special-purpose parts. For the riveting process, for example, semi-automated approaches represent an alternative to optimizing aircraft assembly and to reduce the exposure of workers to non-ergonomic conditions entailed by performing repetitive tasks. In (Mueller, Rainer, et al. 2019) a semi-automated solution is proposed for the riveting process of assembling the section barrel of the aft section to its pressure bulkhead. The method introduced a dynamic task sharing strategy between human and robot that implements interaction possibilities to establish a communication between a human and a robot in Human-Robot-collaboration fashion. Although intuitive, interacting with the robot constantly is still not natural for the worker as in the manual process no explicit communication between both workers is needed. In this work a communication-free Human-Robot-collaboration solution is presented. The method developed not only enables sharing assembly missions by…
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Optimized Wet Clutch Design

Endurance Technologies Ltd., India-Nitin Bhone, Sachin Thakare, Ashutosh Jahagirdar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0553
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Multi-plate wet clutches used in motorbikes transmit the torque by friction under pressure between driving and driven Plates. The life & performance of the clutch for the friction material used, depends on amount of energy generated during clutch slip, amount & uniformity of heat dissipation amongst the plates and surface texture of mating surfaces.Above parameters if not properly considered during design stage may lead to higher temperature of rubbing surfaces. Higher temperature further reduces the friction coefficient and increases the wear rate of friction material leading ultimately to lower torque capacity of clutch. The temperature rise in a wet clutch is the balance between amount of heat generated and the amount of heat dissipated by oil flowing through clutch. The maximum amount of oil is limited by the requirement of clutch drag torque, Which decides the quality of neutral finding and gear shift feel on vehicle.Further, if roughness of rubbing surfaces is not controlled in mass production, it leads to fast wear of friction material during initial operating cycles. The rate of wear is faster…
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A Graphical Approach for Interpreting Out-of-Control Signals in Multivariate Control Charts

Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia - UFOB-Luis Alberto Pargas Carmona
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0068
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Dealing with several variables simultaneously is not a simple task for quality engineers because the interpretation of out-of-control signals involves the examination of the data from a multivariate perspective. In this paper, a graphical technique for interpreting out-of-control signals in multivariate control charts is proposed. This approach consists of a typical Hotelling’s chart with warning labels indicating:1) the univariate out-of-control points often masked by the T-squared statistic; 2) the plane of the biplot that should be investigated to identify the cause of the signal. The idea of using biplots as a complementary tool is to provide a broader view of the data without adding much complexity to the analysis. Finally, the benefits of this are shown through a case example of an automotive body assembly process.
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A cutting-edge technology to increase the friction coefficient in bolted joints in a simple way

3M do Brasil-Vanessa de Souza Valério, Rosana Emi Tamagawa, Kellen Cristina Busiol, Petrus Lencioni Filho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0236
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight vehicles are one of the most efficient solutions to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of polluting gases, which leads the automotive industry to the constant need to manufacture ever lighter vehicles. Due to these current requirements, there is a general move toward compact and lightweight powertrain system designs. Although more compact, these systems must be able to transmit the same or even higher forces and torques. Dealing with these contradictory requirements adding to the constant request to minimize production and assembly costs is a huge challenge to engineers. One approach is to enhance the coefficient of static friction in friction joints. When friction joints are designed, physical parameters such as overall size and surface pressure usually can only be varied in a tight window. Load transmission capability in friction joints is thus limited by the friction coefficient of the mating materials. An efficient solution for these limitations is to apply a nickel diamond coating either to the actual parts of the joints or to friction shims for installation in the joint. In…
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Methodology using IPS for creation and installation of flexible components in stationary vehicles

General Motors, do Brasil-André Tognolli, Fernando Utiyke, Douglas Migliorini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0125
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Through dynamic computational simulations it is possible to achieve a high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thus reducing the time and cost of the component can generate considerable levels of competitiveness and quality.This work suggests the validation of a methodology to create the virtual routes to find the best design of the flexible components influenced by force of gravity, thermal expansion or even the static balance between the anchor points and used to be designed and installed in the vehicle always in the nominal condition which in many cases diverge from the physical.With the difficulty of predicting mathematically the nonlinear relations of deformation and motion under the effect of forces and moments, we use the NX9 software in the creation of the dynamic movement motion to the motor and transmission assembly imposes on the flexible components through a routine mapped by Cartesian coordinates, simulating the characteristic movements of the vehicle in normal working situations.Using the software IPS - Industrial Path Solution, for the construction of the flexible model to be simulated, the…
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Brake noise analysis on tractive axle of 6x2 tractor vehicle

CNHI - Iveco Latin America / UFMG – Programa de Pós-Graduaçã-Rafael Fortuna Pizzi
CNHI – Iveco Latin America-Getúlio Soares Júnior
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0008
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This study aims at analyzing the causes of noise in a heavy vehicle brake system (6x2 tractor) and proposing solutions to improve comfort during braking as it is known that, during the activation of the automotive brakes, noise can be generated in different frequency bands that can cause discomfort to the user and the study of how to reduce it is considerably important to bring more comfort in its use. As a working methodology, firstly, comparative analysis of dimension and material were performed between the axle assembly that presented noise and another axle assembly of a vehicle with no noise adopted as reference. This information was used as the basis for the frequency and acceleration virtual analysis that were validated with vehicle instrumentation and data acquisition. In parallel, vehicle tests with different brake friction materials were conducted. The answers of the dimension and material analysis from the axles assemblies highlighted the specificities of each of them but did not show great influence in the observed noise incidence. The vehicle instrumentation and data acquisition besides validate…
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