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Load Distribution Optimization of seatbelts using validated finite element approach.

anshul satija-Anshul Satija
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2575
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The seat belt system is one of most imperative component of the safety instrument family in a vehicle. The main purpose of seat belt is to minimize the injuries by preventing the occupant from impacting hard interior parts of the vehicle and also the passenger from being thrown-out from the vehicle in case of rollover accidents. The standard three-point belts, mounted to the vehicle in three places, namely anchor, D ring and buckle. The position of D ring is very important to distribute the impact load evenly to the occupants. Very high load in any of these locations could cause breakage of the mountings and also concentrated loading on the occupant chest of pelvis. This study mainly focuses on the seatbelt assembly performance improvement against ECE-R16 sled test. The sled test was carried out first using 28g peak acceleration pulse and measurement of forces at shoulder and anchor position was measured using the load cell. FE (Finite Element) model of the complete seatbelt assemble was developed including buckle, retractor and anchor plate. The simulation was…


General Motors Technical Center India-RAMESH KAVALUR, Raghavendra Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2568
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ENHANCE STRENGTH, ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF THE 3D PRINTED ASSEMBLY AID GAUGES Ramesh Kavalur1, Raghavendra Rao 1 1 Body in White, Manufacturing Engineering, General Motors Technical Centre India Pvt. Ltd, India, Keywords - Additive manufacturing, assembly aid gauges, 3D printer. Research Objective - Automotive manufacturing impressively implementing 3D printed jigs and fixtures. Traditional manufacturing of metal assembly aid gauges have limitations such as lead time and causes dent and rough marks on the outer panel of the body. On the other hand, 3D printed jigs and fixtures, demands more time (depends on complexity), have low level of precision and they offer lower strength. It is observed that this occurs because of the inefficient design and manufacturing without understanding the functionality and capability of the 3D printer. The primary objective of this study is to examine, design & develop 3D printed jigs and fixture to optimize the product, achieve required precision and functionality with improvement in the strength of the product. Methodology - In order to examine, detail examination of existing 3D printed part were studied.…

Experimental Investigation of High Speed Turning Of ASTM A510 Alloy in Micro Turning Process Parameters and Its Validation through Ranking Algorithm

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Durai Kumaran, Krishnaswamy Saravanan, Raj Rajendran
Tishk International University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0071
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
There is a growing demand for industrial products with increased number of functions and of reduced dimensions and part features in sub millimeter scale in parts and Assembly. Micro-machining is the most basic technology for the production of such miniature parts and components. In this study, a number of turning operations were performed in micro conditions i.e. Micro Process parameters to achieve the best response for the benefits of industries at very high Spindle Speed (3000,3500,4000 Rpm), Feed ( 20,40,80 µm/s), Depth of Cut (0.2,0.4,0.8 µm) and Tool Nose Radius (,1.2 mm ). At a wide range of Input Process Variables, the variations in Surface Quality, Material Removal Rate, Energy Consumption and Tool wear were investigated. After completion of Experimental to develop optimization strategy for given set of input parameter combination for better response using combined Taguchi and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). So this Model would be beneficial for manufacturing a micro parts for better maximum product accuracy and improve the productivity

A Case Study on Development of a Framework for Effective Implementation of Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis and Control Plans Using Aerospace Standard Best Practices

GITAM School of Technology-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0149
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Currently Aerospace manufacturing industry is taking initiatives to implement the Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (pFMEA) tool for its critical Aerospace Manufacturing and Assembly suppliers, by implementing Aerospace Standards, in an effort to create a synergy between the End user customers, Original Equipment manufacturers and the suppliers, for ensuring increased safety, quality, reliability for the Aircraft parts and components produced by them. The main aim is to use this concept as a Process Risk Management tool for Identification, Assessment, Mitigation, Control and Prevention of risks associated with Designs and Manufacturing. This method is quite different from conventional FMEA methodology as it focuses on an integrated approach of linking the process flow diagram, followed by a PFMEA again linked with a Control plan to identify and implement controls for measuring and monitoring the process risks. This can identify the manufacturing system’s area of focus of weakness or opportunity, at early stages of production and thereby minimize Cost of Poor Quality by being aware of the risks associated with the increased occurrence of both Internal and…

Optimization of IP duct vane articulation for improved cabin airflow directivity

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kumar Raju
Mahindra Research Valley-Subramaniyan Baskar, Nagarajan Gopinathan, Paradarami Udaya Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0132
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
CFD simulations are effectively used to cut down the vehicle development period and to completely understand the interaction between the cabin thermal comfort and mobile air-conditioning system. While the methodologies are well established to quantify the passenger thermal comfort behavior in a vehicle, the investigations to quantify the cabin airflow directivity still requires in depth understanding, even though a vast number of studies are available on cabin cool down performance. The air velocity achieved at driver and passenger aim point is one of the key parameter to evaluate the automotive air-conditioning performance. The design of duct, vent and vanes has a major contribution in the cabin air flow directivity. However, visual appearance of vent and vane receives higher priority in design because of market demand than their performance. More iterations are carried out to finalize the HVAC duct assembly until the target velocity is achieved. The current process is time consuming as the vanes are rotated manually and simulation is done for each vane angle and requires post process for every iteration. It requires more…

Reconfigurable Jig Tooling and In-Process Metrology for High Accuracy Prototype Compound Helicopter Wing Assembly

University of Nottingham-Richard J. Crossley, Svetan Ratchev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1877
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper documents the potential use of reconfigurable reusable jig tooling based on the box-joint system for use in the assembly of a prototype compound helicopter wing. Due to the aircraft configuration the wing design is pinned at both ends and therefore requires a higher degree of accuracy (typically 0.2mm), over the 4m length, than conventional wings. In this paper the cost benefit of reusable tooling in a low volume prototype scenario is examined followed by the design of the jig and location features to enable accurate build and metrology documentation. A prototype 4m test jig comprising of commercially available components and bespoke machined ‘pick-ups’ is presented here. Hardware and measurement process cost modelling is documented along with results for the positional and hinge-line concentricity setting accuracy that was achieved using a laser tracking system. Subsequent measurements over a 24hr period are also discussed along with potential sources of the observed reduction in jig accuracy over time.

Optimization of Automated Airframe Assembly Process on Example of A350 S19 Splice Joint

Airbus-Elodie Bonhomme, Pedro Montero-Sanjuan
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University-Sergey Lupuleac, Julia Shinder, Maria Churilova, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Valeriia Khashba
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1882
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents the numerical approach to simulation and optimization of A350 S19 splice assembly process. The main goal is to reduce the number of installed temporary fasteners while preventing the gap between parts from opening during drilling stage. The numerical approach includes computation of residual gaps between parts, optimization of fastener pattern and validation of obtained solution on input data generated on the base of available measurements. The problem is solved with ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software. The described methodology is applied to the optimization of the robotized assembly process for A350 S19 section.

New Technologies for Airframe Structural Assemblies

LISI Aerospace-Mehdi Dahane
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1915
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
With air traffic demand constantly increasing and several years of aircraft production in their backlog, major aircraft manufacturers are now shifting their focus toward improving assembly process efficiency. One of the most promising solutions, known as “One Side Assembly”, aims to perform the whole assembly sequence from one side of the structure (drilling, temporary fastener installation and removal, blind fastener installation, assembly control) and with a high level of integrated automation. Investments in robotic equipment, automation engineering and innovation are very active and automation capabilities have already increased a lot in the aerospace industry. As an example, drilling operations for large dimensions airframe are clearly moving from manual to automated. However, despite more and more clever and sophisticated robotics, the use of historical fasteners with two side installation method remains a strong limitation to innovative automated assembly sequences. A blind fastener which can provide the same mechanical characteristics than current structural fasteners, while providing automation friendly features and meeting cost objectives is a real “must have” for assembly process efficiency improvements. It is also full…

Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1884
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (ABH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by ABH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture and assembly of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure. The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…

Intelligent Real Time Inspection of Rivet Quality Supported by Human-Robot-Collaboration

PIKON Deutschland AG-Benjamin Duppe, Albert Schulz
ZeMA GmbH-Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Tobias Masiak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1886
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft production is facing various technical challenges, such as large product dimensions, complex joining processes and the organization of assembly tasks. Meeting the requirements that come with large dimensions, low tolerances and small batch sizes, in combination with complex joining processes, automation and labour-intensive inspection task, is often difficult to achieve in an economically viable way. ZeMA believes that a semi-automated approach is the most effective for optimizing aircraft section assembly. An effective optimization of aircraft production can be achieved with a semi-automated riveting process for solid rivets using Human-Robot-Collaboration in combination with an intuitive Human-Machine-Interaction operating concept. While using dynamic task sharing between human and robot based on their skills, and considering ergonomics, the determined ideal solution involves placing a robot inside the section barrel. The robot’s workspace is expanded by mounting it on top of a lifting unit so that it can properly position the anvil. In the meantime, the human performs the more complex tasks of inserting the solid rivets and operating the riveting hammer from the outside of the section barrel.…