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Combi Brake System (CBS) design and tuning on an electric two wheeler for cornering maneuver

Ather Energy-Lokesh Soni, Shivaram Venkateswaran
Xitadel CAE Technologies Pvt Ltd-Dhanraj Domala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2399
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the number of traffic accidents, most of the governments have mandated to include Combi Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) in two wheelers. While most of the homologation requirements for CBS can be fulfilled by straight line motion, CBS behavior is crucial while cornering for safety aspects. When vehicle is in cornering motion, the lateral forces generated at the tire decreases the effective longitudinal force available, which implies lesser braking force at tire. This paper represents a design methodology for tuning CBS for various critical scenarios mainly during cornering maneuver. A detailed study has been made at various combination of vehicle lean angle, vehicle speed and friction coefficient of road in straight line and cornering maneuver to effectively decide on front to rear brake force distribution to avoid either of the tires’ lock-up. A co-simulation is done with BikeSim and Simulink softwares, where vehicle model is developed in BikeSim and CBS control algorithm in Simulink. Both the models are correlated against real test data. Keywords: Combi Brake System (CBS), wheel slip…
 

Braking Requirements for Optimizing Autonomous Emergency Braking Performance

Applus IDIADA-Álvaro Esquer Molina, Jordi Bargallo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2127
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The continuous improvement on vehicle technology has successfully helped to decrease general road fatalities figures in the last years. Vehicle technology new developments have contributed to improve vehicle structural performance and therefore passive protection, but also the inclusion of electronic control units has provided new opportunities to expand active safety systems. This is the case for systems like anti-lock braking systems (ABS), electronic stability control (ESC) and brake assist (BA) among many others. A more advanced generation of active systems includes sensorial units that monitor vehicle’s surrounding and detect potential hazards, such as an imminent collision, and performs an automatically and commanded emergency braking to lessen or mitigate the consequences of the impending accident. For this latest system, the so-called autonomous emergency braking (AEB), various consumer testing protocols, such as NHTSA and NCAP protocols, propose and periodically update test catalogues in order to evaluate the performance of such systems and later to inform potential consumers. This study aims to determine what basic braking system requirements and its target setting shall be demanded on the definition…
 

Reconstructing Vehicle Dynamics from On-Board Event Data

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Brandon Tsuge, Mike Yang, Thomas Flynn, Peter Xing, Jonathan Lawrence, Bradley Heinrichs, Gunter Siegmund
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Modern vehicles record dynamic data from a number of on-board sensors for events that could precede a crash. These data can be used to reconstruct the behavior of a vehicle, although the accuracy of these reconstructions has not yet been quantified. Here, we evaluated various methods of reconstructing the vehicle kinematics of a 2017 and a 2018 Toyota Corolla based on Vehicle Control History (VCH) data from overlapping events generated by the pre-collision system (PCS), sudden braking (SB) and anti-lock brake (ABS) activation. The vehicles were driven towards a stationary target at 32-64 km/h (20-40 mph) and then after the pre-collision alarm sounded the vehicle was steered sharply right or left and braked rapidly to rest. VCH data for PCS event were recorded at 2 Hz and for the sudden braking and ABS activation events at 6.7 Hz. The steering wheel angle and the vehicle’s longitudinal acceleration, lateral acceleration, and angular rate data were extracted and used to predict the vehicle position and heading over the duration of the VCH data record preceding the vehicle…
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Pressure Optimization Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake System in the Process of ABS Working

Jilin University-Jingtian Wang, Jian Wu, Rui He, Zhicheng Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electro-mechanical brake booster (EMBB) and hydraulic control unit (HCU) constitute the electro-mechanical brake system, which can meet the requirements of brake system for intelligent vehicles. It does not need vacuum source, provides active braking function, have high control accuracy and fast response. But it has two electronic control units (ECU), which need coordinated control. When ABS is triggered, the pressure of the master cylinder keeps rising and falling, and the pressure fluctuates greatly. This will lead to noise and reduce the durability of the system. In this paper, a pressure optimization control strategy under ABS condition is proposed. Firstly, the structure and control strategy of EMBB are introduced. Secondly, the braking characteristics without pressure optimization control are analyzed. Thirdly, based on the demand of maximum cylinder pressure, a three-closed-loop pressure optimization control strategy is established. Finally, based on the Hardware-In-the-Loop platform, the control strategy is verified. HIL test shows that the strategy can effectively reduce the pressure fluctuation of the master cylinder when triggered by ABS, while ensuring the control performance of ABS.
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ABS Exciter Ring Location Standardization

Truck and Bus Wheel Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1730_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the Antilock Brake System [ABS] sensor interface and envelope dimensions for standardizing the location of the ABS rings mounted on the inner end of spoke wheels, hubs and hub-rotor assemblies on the following axle designations. a FF b FL c FC d FH e L f R g U h W j N k P
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Optional Pass-Thru Features

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2534/2_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-16 by SAE International in United States
SAE J2534-1 defines a standard vehicle network interface that can be used to reprogram emission-related control modules. However, there is a need to support vehicles prior to the 2004 model year, as well as non-emission related control modules. The SAE J2534-2 document meets these needs by detailing extensions to an SAE J2534-1 specification. It is not required for an interface to be fully compliant with SAE J2534-1 specification to implement some of the features specified in this document. Together, these extensions provide the framework for a common interface to protect the software investment of the Vehicle OEMs and Scan Tool manufacturers. Only the optional features will be described by this document and are based on the December 2004 publication of SAE J2534-1.
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ABS Optimization for a Two-Wheeler Based on Tire-Road Friction Characteristics

Bosch Limited-Ashish Ranjan, Shreyansh Srivastava, Prashanth Anantha
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) is a well-known active safety technology widely used in cars. Recently, it has become a mandatory safety feature for two-wheelers. In principle, ABS ensures an optimum braking performance by not allowing the tire to slip beyond a certain level. This guarantees steering stability and peak braking performance of the tire during panic braking situations. As the ABS controller depends on the tire characteristics information for its algorithm, a change in tire or pavement can vary the optimum operating range of ABS. In addition to this, motorcycle tires differ from a car tire in terms of its construction, dimension and compound. Therefore, the motorcycle tire’s performance envelope cannot be directly compared to a car tire. This work presents a methodology which aims to acquire the tire-road friction characteristics of three different tires for a study motorcycle on different friction surfaces through experimentation and estimation techniques. The optimum pressure release slip thresholds for the three tires on different surfaces are then determined from the obtained tire characteristics. Further, the ABS controller is calibrated…
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Performance and Comfort Optimization from ABS/CBS/Motor Regenerative Braking in an Electric Two Wheeler during Heavy and Mild Braking Respectively

Ather Energy-Lokesh Soni, Shivaram Venkateswaran, Vijeta Ramachandran
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Reducing the number of traffic accidents is a declared target of most governments leading to mandating Combined Braking System (CBS) or Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) in two wheelers.Traditional friction braking torque and motor braking torque can be used in braking for electric 2wheeler. Use of CBS and ABS helps in active control of vehicle braking leading to better deceleration, prevention of tire locking, control on vehicle pitch etc.A braking model (friction braking + motor regenerative braking) along with battery dynamics is developed in Matlab/Simulink and validated with real vehicle response.This paper presents an analysis on vehicle braking separately for heavy and mild braking in various vehicle load conditions. During heavy braking a feedback control algorithm is used to maintain optimal slip ratio both at the front and rear tire, active control on CBS and ABS+Regen is done and performance is compared. Similarly, during mild braking rider’s comfort is addressed by optimizing the vehicle pitch and pitch-rate, this gives an analysis/control on rider comfort. Model based simulation helps in precise analysis of corner cases like slip-ratio,…
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Influence of Intelligent Active Suspension System Controller Design Techniques on Vehicle Braking Characteristics

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Egyptian Armed Forces, Egypt-Ahmed Mahmoud Onsy, Alhossein Mostafa Sharaf, Mahmoud Mohamed Ashrey
Helwan University, Egypt-Samir Mohamed Eldemerdash
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-01-0003
Published 2018-12-04 by SAE International in United States
This article presents a comprehensive investigation for the interaction between vehicle ride vibration control and braking control using two degrees of freedom (2DOF) quarter vehicle model. A typical limited bandwidth active suspension system with nonlinear spring and damping characteristics of practical hydraulic and pneumatic components is controlled to regulate both suspension and tire forces and therefore provide the optimum ride comfort and braking performance of an anti-lock braking system (ABS). In order to design a suitable controller for this nonlinear integrated system, various control techniques are followed including state feedback tuned using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), state feedback tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA), Proportional Integral (PI) tuned genetically, and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC). The ABS control system is designed to limit skid ratio below threshold of 15%. Several simulations are carried out in MATLAB environment to assess the benefits of the designed integrated controller including vehicle body vertical acceleration, dynamic tire load, stopping time, and distance. Furthermore, the proposed control techniques have been examined in terms of robustness, disturbance rejection, and noise attenuation. The obtained…
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Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Performance Requirements for V2V Safety Awareness

V2X Vehicular Applications Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2945/2_201810
  • Current
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Document specifies DSRC interface requirements for V2V Safety Awareness applications, including detailed Systems Engineering documentation (needs and requirements mapped to appropriate message exchanges). These applications include: Emergency Vehicle Alert, Roadside Alert, and Safety Awareness Alerts for Objects and Adverse Road Conditions. This document extends the V2V Communications capabilities defined in J2945/1 to support these applications, and the National ITS Architecture. The purpose of this SAE Document is to enable interoperability for V2V Safety Awareness communications.
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