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Combi Brake System (CBS) design and tuning on an electric two wheeler for cornering maneuver

Ather Energy-Lokesh Soni, Shivaram Venkateswaran
Xitadel CAE Technologies India Pvt Ltd.-Dhanraj Domala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2399
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the number of traffic accidents, most of the governments have mandated to include Combi Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) in two wheelers. While most of the homologation requirements for CBS can be fulfilled by straight line motion, CBS behavior is crucial while cornering for safety aspects. When vehicle is in cornering motion, the lateral forces generated at the tire decreases the effective longitudinal force available, which implies lesser braking force at tire. This paper represents a design methodology for tuning CBS for various critical scenarios mainly during cornering maneuver. A detailed study has been made at various combination of vehicle lean angle, vehicle speed and friction coefficient of road in straight line and cornering maneuver to effectively decide on front to rear brake force distribution to avoid either of the tires’ lock-up. A co-simulation is done with BikeSim and Simulink softwares, where vehicle model is developed in BikeSim and CBS control algorithm in Simulink. Both the models are correlated against real test data. Keywords: Combi Brake System (CBS), wheel slip…
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Antilock Brake Systems Energy Consumption Test Procedure for Air-Brake-Equipped Truck Tractors, Buses, Trailers, and Dollies

Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2255_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides instructions and test procedures for measuring air consumption of air braked vehicles equipped with Antilock Brake Systems (ABS) used on highways.
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Motorcycle Terminology

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3133_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The motorcycle terminology presented herein addresses two-wheel single track vehicles, as well as motorized three wheel cycles. Although two-wheeled, single track scooters and mopeds are similar to traditional motorcycles, they have many characteristics which differentiate them from motorcycles, and while some terms will apply, this Terminology addresses motorcycles specifically, unless otherwise noted. Likewise, some three wheel cycles may have some similar design features and share components with motorcycle, the dynamics and handling of three wheel vehicles differs from two wheel, single track motorcycles. The terminology presents definitions covering the following subjects: dynamics and handling of single track vehicles, motorcycle categories and types, motorcycle crash dynamics and technology, and in-depth crash investigations, motorcycle design and components, systems, and equipment, motorcycle operation, operational environments and hazards, rider protective equipment including helmets and clothing, rider behaviors, motorcycle safety, competitive motorcycle events and the specialized motorcycles used those events, key national motorcycle-related organization, selected phrases commonly used uniquely by motorcyclists, and related performance measures and selected test criteria. NOTE: Motorcycle emission terminology does not vary from automobile emission terminology…
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Braking Requirements for Optimizing Autonomous Emergency Braking Performance

Applus IDIADA-Álvaro Esquer Molina, Jordi Bargallo
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle technology new developments have contributed to improve vehicle structural performance and therefore passive protection, but also the inclusion of electronic control units has provided new opportunities to expand active safety systems. This is the case for systems like anti-lock braking systems (ABS), electronic stability control (ESC) and brake assist (BA) among others. A more advanced generation of active systems includes sensorial units that monitor vehicle’s surrounding and detect potential hazards, such as an imminent collision, and performs an automatically and commanded emergency braking to lessen or mitigate the consequences of the impending accident. For this latest system, the so-called autonomous emergency braking (AEB), various consumer testing protocols, such as Euro NCAP protocols [1], propose and periodically update test catalogues in order to evaluate the performance of such systems and later to inform potential consumers.The aim of this study is to investigate the means of improving AEB performance in terms of efficiency and driver acceptance. For this, performance of current AEB system will be studied and compared with the limits of vehicle’s braking capabilities.
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Auxiliary Two-Conductor Electrical Power Connector for Truck-Trailer High-Power Jumper Cable

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3082_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides the minimum requirements for high-power, two-conductor jumper cable plug and receptacle for truck-trailer jumper cable systems. It includes the test procedures, design, and performance requirements. This document covers receptacles rated 12 VDC nominal and at more than 30 A (amperes) up to and including 150 A, and is intended for a single circuit with one power conductor and one common return conductor. Single-conductor high-current connectors are not recommended for future designs because of inadequate ground return through fifth wheel/king pin. Cable size selection is to be made by the vehicle OEM for specific applications and the specific voltage drop requirements of those applications. This SAE Standard covers two variants of high-power two-conductor connections: a heavy duty version, with horizontally aligned pins, typically for lift-gate battery charging; and a medium duty version, with vertically aligned pins, typically for loads such as power tarpaulins.
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Reconstructing Vehicle Dynamics from On-Board Event Data

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Brandon Tsuge, Mike Yang, Thomas Flynn, Peter Xing, Jonathan Lawrence, Bradley Heinrichs, Gunter Siegmund
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0632
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Modern vehicles record dynamic data from a number of on-board sensors for events that could precede a crash. These data can be used to reconstruct the behavior of a vehicle, although the accuracy of these reconstructions has not yet been quantified. Here, we evaluated various methods of reconstructing the vehicle kinematics of a 2017 and a 2018 Toyota Corolla based on Vehicle Control History (VCH) data from overlapping events generated by the pre-collision system (PCS), sudden braking (SB) and anti-lock brake (ABS) activation. The vehicles were driven towards a stationary target at 32-64 km/h (20-40 mph) and then after the pre-collision alarm sounded the vehicle was steered sharply right or left and braked rapidly to rest. VCH data for PCS event were recorded at 2 Hz and for the sudden braking and ABS activation events at 6.7 Hz. The steering wheel angle and the vehicle’s longitudinal acceleration, lateral acceleration, and angular rate data were extracted and used to predict the vehicle position and heading over the duration of the VCH data record preceding the vehicle…
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Pressure Optimization Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake System in the Process of ABS Working

Jilin University-Jingtian Wang, Jian Wu, Rui He, Zhicheng Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electro-mechanical brake booster (EMBB) and hydraulic control unit (HCU) constitute the electro-mechanical brake system, which can meet the requirements of brake system for intelligent vehicles. It does not need vacuum source, provides active braking function, have high control accuracy and fast response. But it has two electronic control units (ECU), which need coordinated control. When ABS is triggered, the pressure of the master cylinder keeps rising and falling, and the pressure fluctuates greatly. This will lead to noise and reduce the durability of the system. In this paper, a pressure optimization control strategy under ABS condition is proposed. Firstly, the structure and control strategy of EMBB are introduced. Secondly, the braking characteristics without pressure optimization control are analyzed. Thirdly, based on the demand of maximum cylinder pressure, a three-closed-loop pressure optimization control strategy is established. Finally, based on the Hardware-In-the-Loop platform, the control strategy is verified. HIL test shows that the strategy can effectively reduce the pressure fluctuation of the master cylinder when triggered by ABS, while ensuring the control performance of ABS.
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ABS Exciter Ring Location Standardization

Truck and Bus Wheel Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1730_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the Antilock Brake System [ABS] sensor interface and envelope dimensions for standardizing the location of the ABS rings mounted on the inner end of spoke wheels, hubs and hub-rotor assemblies on the following axle designations. a FF b FL c FC d FH e L f R g U h W j N k P
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Optional Pass-Thru Features

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2534/2_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-16 by SAE International in United States
SAE J2534-1 defines a standard vehicle network interface that can be used to reprogram emission-related control modules. However, there is a need to support vehicles prior to the 2004 model year, as well as non-emission related control modules. The SAE J2534-2 document meets these needs by detailing extensions to an SAE J2534-1 specification. It is not required for an interface to be fully compliant with SAE J2534-1 specification to implement some of the features specified in this document. Together, these extensions provide the framework for a common interface to protect the software investment of the Vehicle OEMs and Scan Tool manufacturers. Only the optional features will be described by this document and are based on the December 2004 publication of SAE J2534-1.
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ABS Optimization for a Two-Wheeler Based on Tire-Road Friction Characteristics

Bosch Limited-Ashish Ranjan, Shreyansh Srivastava, Prashanth Anantha
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) is a well-known active safety technology widely used in cars. Recently, it has become a mandatory safety feature for two-wheelers. In principle, ABS ensures an optimum braking performance by not allowing the tire to slip beyond a certain level. This guarantees steering stability and peak braking performance of the tire during panic braking situations. As the ABS controller depends on the tire characteristics information for its algorithm, a change in tire or pavement can vary the optimum operating range of ABS. In addition to this, motorcycle tires differ from a car tire in terms of its construction, dimension and compound. Therefore, the motorcycle tire’s performance envelope cannot be directly compared to a car tire. This work presents a methodology which aims to acquire the tire-road friction characteristics of three different tires for a study motorcycle on different friction surfaces through experimentation and estimation techniques. The optimum pressure release slip thresholds for the three tires on different surfaces are then determined from the obtained tire characteristics. Further, the ABS controller is calibrated…
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