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An Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Responses to Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Sarah Sherman, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver’s seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Juff George, Mathieu Davis, Sarah Sharpe, Joseph Olberding, Stacy Imler, Robert Bove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as for evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test, resulting in vehicle lateral delta-Vs of 6.1 kph (3.8 mph) and 14.0 kph (8.7 mph), respectively. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid…
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The Effect of Crash Severity and Structural Intrusion on ATD Responses in Rear-End Crashes

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Jeffrey Croteau, John Zolock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1224
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study assesses vehicle and occupant responses in six vehicle-to-vehicle high-speed rear impact crash tests conducted at the Exponent Test and Engineering Center. The struck vehicle delta Vs ranged from 32 to 76 km/h and the vehicle centerline offsets varied from 5.7 to 114 cm.Five of the six tests were conducted with Hybrid III ATDs (Anthropometric Test Device) with two tests using the 50th male belted in the driver seat, one test with an unbelted 50th male in the driver seat, one test with a 95th male belted in the driver seat, and one with the 5th female lap belted in the left rear seat. All tests included vehicle instrumentation and three tests included ATD instrumentation. The ATD responses were analyzed and compared to corresponding IARVs (injury assessment reference values). Ground-based and onboard vehicle videos were synchronized with the vehicle kinematic data and biomechanical responses.The timing of the vehicle crush, occupant compartment intrusion, seatback motion, and ATD kinematics were assessed. The results indicated that the rear structures of the struck vehicle were significantly crushed by…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Glazing and Curtain Airbags for Occupant Containment in Rollover

Exponent Inc.-Bruce Miller, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Sarah Sharpe
Ford Motor Company-Ram Krishnaswami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0976
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By their nature as chaotic, high-energy events, rollovers pose a high risk of injury to unrestrained occupants, in particular through exposure to projected perimeter contact and ejection. While seat belts have long been accepted as a highly effective means of retaining and restraining occupants in rollover crashes, it has been suggested that technologies such as laminated safety glazing or rollover-activated side curtain airbags (RSCAs) could alternatively provide effective occupant containment. In this study, a full-scale dolly rollover crash test was performed to assess the occupant containment capability of laminated side glazing and RSCAs in a high-severity rollover event. This allowed for the analysis of unrestrained occupant kinematics during interaction with laminated side glazing and RSCAs and evaluation of failure modes and limitations of laminated glazing and RSCAs as they relate to partial and complete ejection of unrestrained occupants. The dolly rollover was performed with a 2010 Chevrolet Express at a nominal speed of 43 mph, with unbelted anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in the driver, right front passenger, and designated third, fourth, and fifth row…
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Empirical Study of the Braking Performance of Pedestrian Autonomous Emergency Braking (P-AEB)

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Omair Siddiqui, Nicholas Famiglietti, Benjamin Nguyen, Ryan Hoang, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0878
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle manufacturers are beginning to improve existing autonomous emergency braking (AEB) algorithms by pedestrian identification and avoidance capability. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has performed tests on eleven such vehicles; data is publicly available and was analyzed for this study. The IIHS tests were divided into three scenarios- 1) An adult pedestrian crossing a street on a path perpendicular to the travel line of vehicle, with a vehicle approach speed of 20 or 40 km/h, 2) a child pedestrian crossing a street from behind an obstruction on a path perpendicular to the travel line of a vehicle (approach speeds 20, 40 km/h), and 3) an adult pedestrian near the edge of a road in a path parallel to the travel path of a vehicle (approach speeds 40, 60 kph). An analysis was performed to compare Forward Collision Warning (FCW) engagement time, brake application time, and probability of impact across different manufacturers. It was observed that FCW on time for the 2019 Volvo XC40 lasted from 0.95 sec. - 2.36 sec., whereas for the…
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Likelihood of Spinal Disc Herniations in Occupants Involved in Real World Side Impacts

Tack Lam
Biomechanics Scientific LLC-B. Johan Ivarsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0526
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The prevalence of spinal disc herniations in people with no spinal symptoms have been reported to increase with age; from about 20% in those below 40 years to about 30% in those above 40 years. Spinal disc herniations are usually associated with degenerative changes. Though rare, spinal disc herniations can also be caused by trauma. With an increasing number of older people on U.S. roads with a concomitant increase in the probability of getting injured in a vehicle collision, it is reasonable to expect that some of these occupants can present with clinical findings of spinal disc herniations after a side impact, and attribute these findings to the impact. In this study, we looked at the relationship between real world side impacts and the occurrence of spinal injuries, in particular disc herniations, in occupants involved in such impacts. We examined the reported occurrence of all spine injuries in side impact crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database from 1993 through 2014. There were over 8,400 adult raw case occupants,…
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Biofidelity of THOR 5th Percentile Female ATD in Ankle Eversion and Inversion

University of Virginia-Shubham Kulkarni, Carolyn Roberts, Patrick Foltz, Jason Forman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0528
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Females have higher frequency and risk of foot and ankle injuries in motor vehicle collisions than similar-sized males. Therefore, lower extremity biofidelity and accurate injury prediction of female ATDs is critical. This paper aims to compare the THOR 5th percentile female (THOR-05F) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response with male and female PMHS data of various sizes under ankle inversion and eversion. The THOR-05F lower extremity was subjected to dynamic inversion and eversion ankle loading with a constant 2000N axial force applied through the tibia. Twelve THOR-05F tests (3 inversion and 3 eversion on both, left and right legs) were performed with boundary conditions consistent with previous post-mortem human subject (PMHS) lower extremity tests. The biofidelity of THOR-05F ankle stiffness was evaluated via comparison of measured and equal-stress equal-velocity scaled data (using mass-based scale factors) from previous PMHS datasets with mid-size males, small females and larger females. THOR-05F ankle moment-angle response falls within the range of previous mid-sized male and larger female PMHS test data for eversion, when scaled to a small female. However, when compared…
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A Shoulder Injury Criterion for the EuroSID-2re Applicable in a Large Loading Condition Spectrum of the Military Domain

CEESAR (Nanterre, France)-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit
DGA TT (Bourges, France)-Denis Lafont
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0006
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) is an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD) from the automotive domain designed for lateral impact. Since the 2000’s, it has also been used by NATO armies to assess the risk of injury to armored vehicles occupants submitted to an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attack. The resulting loading conditions from an explosion can vary a lot in term of impact velocity and duration. They range from high velocity impacts (~28 m/s), characterized by a short duration (~10 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion, to low velocity impacts (~4 m/s), ch aracterized by a long duration (~50 ms) similar to the automotive domain. The goal of the study is to develop a shoulder injury criterion for the EuroSID-2re that is relevant over the whole loading conditions spectrum of the military domain.For that purpose, thirty-three laboratory ES-2re tests are conducted to replicate four PMHS shoulder impactor test series from the literature. Each test series corresponds to a different loading condition in term of impact velocity and duration: [28 m/s, 3 ms],…
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Assessment of Several THOR Thoracic Injury Criteria based on a New Post Mortem Human Subject Test Series and Recommendations

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA Renault-Xavier Trosseille, Philippe Petit
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0012
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Several studies, available in the literature, were conducted to establish the most relevant criterion for predicting the thoracic injury risk on the THOR dummy. The criteria, such as the maximum deflection or a combination of parameters including the difference between the chest right and left deflections, were all developed based on given samples of Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). However, they were not validated against independent data and they are not always consistent with the observations from field data analysis. For this reason, 8 additional PMHS and matching THOR tests were carried out to assess the ability of the criteria to predict risks.Accident investigations showed that a reduction of the belt loads reduces the risk of rib fractures. Two configurations with different levels of force limitation were therefore chosen. A configuration representing an average European vehicle was chosen as a reference. It consists of a 3-point belt with a 3.5 kN and then 2 kN digressive limiter, combined with a 54-liter airbag. For better reproducibility and durability, the tests were performed with a pre-inflated bag…
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Kinematic and Biomechanical Response of Post-Mortem Human Subjects Under Various Pre-Impact Postures to High-Rate Vertical Loading Conditions

Emory University, Atlanta, GA-Jonathan D Rupp
The John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laur-Constantine K Demetropoulos, Kyle A Ott, Christopher J Dooley, Nathanael P Kuo, Leah M Strohsnitter, Joseph R Andrist, Mary E Luongo, David G Drewry III, Andrew C Merkle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0010
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Limited data exist on the injury tolerance and biomechanical response of humans to high-rate, under-body blast (UBB) loading conditions that are commonly seen in current military operations, and there are no data examining the influence of occupant posture on response. Additionally, no anthropomorphic test device (ATD) currently exists that can properly assess the response of humans to high-rate UBB loading. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the response of post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in various seated postures to high-rate, vertical loading representative of those conditions seen in theater. In total, six PMHS tests were conducted using loading pulses applied directly to the pelvis and feet of the PMHS: three in an acute posture (foot, knee, and pelvis angles of 75°, 75°, and 36°, respectively), and three in an obtuse posture (15° reclined torso, and foot, knee, and pelvis angles of 105°, 105°, and 49.5°, respectively). Tests were conducted with a seat velocity pulse that peaked at ~4 m/s with a 30-40 ms time to peak velocity (TTP) and a floor velocity that…