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Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Sarah Sherman, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Evaluation of occupant kinematics during low- to moderate-speed side impacts

Exponent Inc.-Juff George, Mathieu Davis, Sarah Sharpe, Joseph Olberding, Stacy Imler, Robert Bove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid III 50th-percentile male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and right front passenger seats.…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Glazing and Curtain Airbags for Occupant Containment in Rollover

Exponent Inc.-Bruce Miller, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Sarah Sharpe
Ford Motor Company-Ram Krishnaswami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0976
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By their nature as chaotic, high-energy events, rollovers pose an injury risk to occupants, in particular through exposure to perimeter contact and ejection. While seatbelts have long been accepted as a highly effective means of retaining occupants, it has been suggested that technologies such as laminated safety glazing or rollover curtain airbags could alternatively provide effective occupant containment during rollovers. In this study, a full-scale dolly rollover crash test was performed to assess the occupant containment capacity of laminated side glazing and rollover curtain airbags in a high-severity rollover. This allowed for the analysis of unrestrained occupant kinematics during interaction with laminated side glazing and rollover curtain airbags and evaluation of failure modes and limitations of laminated glazing and rollover curtain airbags as they relate to partial and complete ejection of unrestrained occupants. The dolly rollover was performed with a 2010 Chevrolet Express at a nominal speed of 43 mph, with unbelted anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in the driver, right front passenger, and designated third, fourth, and fifth row seating positions. Vehicle dynamics and…
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Empirical Study of the Braking Performance of Pedestrian Autonomous Emergency Braking (P-AEB)

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Omair Siddiqui, Nicholas Famiglietti, Benjamin Nguyen, Ryan Hoang, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0878
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle manufacturers are beginning to improve existing autonomous emergency braking (AEB) algorithms by pedestrian identification and avoidance capability. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has performed tests on eleven such vehicles; data is publicly available and was analyzed for this study. The IIHS tests were divided into three scenarios- 1) An adult pedestrian crossing a street on a path perpendicular to the travel line of vehicle, with a vehicle approach speed of 20 or 40 km/h, 2) a child pedestrian crossing a street from behind an obstruction on a path perpendicular to the travel line of a vehicle (approach speeds 20, 40 km/h), and 3) an adult pedestrian near the edge of a road in a path parallel to the travel path of a vehicle (approach speeds 40, 60 kph). An analysis was performed to compare Forward Collision Warning (FCW) engagement time, brake application time, and probability of impact across different manufacturers. It was observed that FCW on time for the 2019 Volvo XC40 lasted from 0.95 sec. - 2.36 sec., whereas for the…
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Responses of the THOR in Oblique Sled Impacts: Focus on Chest Deflection

Ford Motor Company-Raed E. El-Jawahri, Kevin Siasoco, Rich Ruthinowski, Robert W. McCoy, Zhenyan Gao, Dean Jaradi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0522
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments (RFC) on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) in December of 2015. One potential change was the introduction of a frontal Oblique Impact (OI) crash test. The Test device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) in the front left seat was used in the proposed OI test. In the current study, eleven oblique sled impact tests were conducted. The environment was representative of a generic mid-sized sedan. The buck was mounted on a rigid plate that allowed the pre-test rotation of the buck relative to the sled axis. A generic mid-sized OI pulse was used. The pulse was applied in the longitudinal direction of the sled. The THOR was seated in the driver seat and was restrained with a 3-point belt, a driver airbag (DAB) and a knee airbag (KAB). The belt had a 4-2.5 kN digressive shoulder load limit (LL), a retractor pre-tensioner (RPT) and an anchor pre-tensioner (APT). Out of the four IR-TRACC locations, the upper right (UR) yielded…
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Biofidelity of THOR 5th percentile female ATD in ankle eversion and inversion

University of Virginia-Shubham Kulkarni, Carolyn Roberts, Patrick Foltz, Jason Forman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0528
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Females have higher frequency and risk of foot and ankle injuries in motor vehicle collisions than similar-sized males. Therefore, lower extremity biofidelity and accurate injury prediction of female ATDs is critical. This paper aims to compare the THOR 5th percentile female (THOR-F05) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response with male and female PMHS data of various sizes, and further examines the effectiveness of equal-stress equal-velocity scaling of PMHS data for ATD design. In this study, the THOR-F05 lower extremity was subjected to dynamic inversion and eversion ankle loading with a constant 2000N axial force applied through the tibia. Twelve THOR-F05 tests were performed with boundary conditions consistent with previous post-mortem human subject (PMHS) lower extremity tests. The biofidelity of THOR-F05 ankle stiffness was evaluated via comparison of measured and equal-stress equal-velocity scaled data (using mass-based scale factors) from previous PMHS datasets with mid-size males, small females and larger females. THOR-F05 ankle moment-angle response falls within previously developed corridors for inversion and eversion, which were created using scaled mid-size male and larger female PMHS data. However, when…
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The roles of vehicle seat cushion stiffness and length in child restraint system (CRS) performance

Ohio State University-Julie Mansfield, Yun-Seok Kang
Transportation Research Center Inc.-HyunJung Kwon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0977
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective is to determine whether responses and injury risks for pediatric occupants in child restraint systems (CRS) are affected by vehicle seat cushion stiffness and fore/aft length. Eighteen sled tests were conducted using the FMVSS 213 frontal pulse (48 km/h). Seats from a recent model year vehicle were customized by the manufacturer with three different levels of cushion stiffness: compliant, mid-range, and stiff. Each stiffness level was quantified using ASTM D 3574-08 and all were within the realistic range of modern production seats. The usable length of each seat cushion was manipulated using foam spacers provided by the manufacturer. Two different seat lengths were examined: short (34.0 cm) and long (43.5 cm). Three different types of CRS were tested with size-appropriate anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs): rear-facing (RF) CRS with 12-month-old CRABI, forward-facing (FF) CRS with Hybrid III 3-year-old, and high-back booster with Hybrid III 6-year-old. Each CRS, vehicle seat (including cushion and frame), seat belt webbing and buckle were replaced after every test. ATD kinematic and kinetic data were compared across seat cushion lengths…
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Performance Specifications for a Midsize Male Pedestrian Research Dummy

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2782_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-26 by SAE International in United States
While it is recognized that collisions involve pedestrians of all sizes, this Information Report addresses performance specifications for a midsize adult male research dummy. This approach stems from the greater knowledge of biomechanics and existing dummy technologies for the midsize male relative to other adult sizes and children. While not the initial objective, it is envisioned that additional performance specifications for other sizes of pedestrian research dummies will be developed in the future based on accepted scaling procedures. The specific requirements for the pedestrian dummy have been based on a collective assessment of pedestrian injury, response, and anthropometry priorities from the experimental, epidemiologic, and computational literature. In general, the objective was to specify performance specifications based on human characteristics and the impact response of post-mortem human subjects rather than to specify the design of a particular physical device. Based on the perceived applications for a research pedestrian dummy, the primary focus of this document centered on biofidelic whole-body kinematics during a vehicle-pedestrian impact. Specific body regions were prioritized (see A.1.5) based on a combination of…
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Load Distribution Optimization of Seatbelt Using Validated Finite Element Approach

Joyson Safety Systems-Anshul Satija, Priyanshu Mishra, Ravi Gaurav, Virender Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2575
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The seat belt system is one of most important component of the safety instrument family in a vehicle. The main purpose of seat belt is to minimize the injuries by preventing the occupant from impacting hard on interior parts of the vehicle and also the passenger from being thrown-out from the vehicle in case of rollover accidents. The standard three-point belt is mounted in the vehicle at three locations namely Anchor, D-ring and Buckle. The position of anchorages is very important to distribute the impact load evenly to the occupants. Very high load in any of these locations could cause breakage of the mountings and also concentrated loading on the occupant chest of pelvis. Current study mainly focuses on the seatbelt assembly performance improvement against UNECE-R16 sled test. The sled test was carried out first using 28g peak acceleration pulse and measurement of forces at shoulder and anchor position was measured using the load cell. FE (Finite Element) model of the complete seatbelt assembly was developed including Buckle, Retractor and Anchor plate. The simulation was…
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Performance Specifications for Anthropomorphic Test Device Transducers

Safety Test Instrumentation Stds Comm
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2570_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice defines the minimum performance specifications for sensors used within anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) when performing impact tests per SAE J211. It is intended that any agency proposing to conduct tests in accordance with SAE J211 shall be able to demonstrate that the transducers they use would meet the performance requirements specified in this document.
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