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Resabtors - Advanced Multi-Material Muffler Designs for Clean Air Applications

Umfotec-Ralf Buck
Umfotec GmbH-Ingo Krebs
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1554
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The development and production of resonators on the charged air side of combustion engines require profound base of knowledge in designing, simulating and the production of such parts in different materials (aluminum, copper, stainless steel and technical plastic). As combustion engines are under constant discussion, this existing knowledge base should be used for other applications within and outside the automotive industry. Very quickly it became apparent that new challenges often require completely new solutions, designs and materials to meet the requirements of flow noise reducing parts. For example, for clean air applications mufflers based on “special treated foams” and “meta-materials” can be introduced. These materials offer new potentials for tuning of the frequency range and allow improved broad banded flow noise attenuation. Such parts are named “Resabtors” in order to take respect of the different flow noise attenuation principles resonation and absorbing. Since in almost all applications the installation space is very limited, it was necessary to combine these two principles into one component. This results into significant challenges to identify the properties of the…
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Research on Joining High Pressure Die Casting Parts by Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) using Ring-Groove Die Comparing to Heat Treatment Method

Bollhoff Inc.-Xuzhe Zhao
Chang’an University-Dean Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the increasing number of structural high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum parts need to be joined with high strength steel (HSS) parts in order to reduce the weight of vehicle for fuel-economy considerations. Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) has become one of the strongest mechanical joining solutions used in automotive industry for the past several decades. Joining HPDC parts with HSS parts can potentially cause joint quality issues, such as joint button cracks, low corrosion resistance and low joint strength. The appropriate heat treatment will be suggested to improve SPR joint quality in terms of crack reduction. But the heat treatment can also result in the blister issue and extra time and cost consumption for HPDC parts. The relationship between the microstructure of HPDC material before and after heat treatment with the joint quality is going to be investigated and discussed for interpretation of cracks initiation and propagation during riveting. The SPR joint quality will be evaluated based on interlock distance, the minimum remaining thickness (Tmin), shear strength etc. Instead of using heat treatment method, the…
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Design Consideration for Lightweighting With Ductile Iron Castings

Skuld LLC-Sarah Jordan, Mark DeBruin
Worcester Polytechnic Institute-Christopher Brown, Hudson Gasvoda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0656
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are opportunities for lightweighting with ductile iron castings. Current research shows ductile iron castings free of massive carbides can be achieved at under 2 mm (0.080”) through alloying or process changes which means that significant weight reductions are possible. In fact for aluminum components over 0.250” thick ductile iron may provide lightweighting opportunities at a cost savings. However, the conventional guidelines for casting design are inadequate when using ductile iron at dimensions less than the typical machine stock. This paper will discuss the current research on thin walled ductile iron, when it is superior to aluminum, design considerations, and current DOE SBIR funded research efforts to address these inadequacies.
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Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High metallic silver colors using thin, smooth aluminum flake pigments are typically adopted for the luxury grades by each car manufacturer. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(N.V.) content and high aluminum flake pigment content are generally known to be necessary to achieve high metallic appearance designs. However, poor distribution of the aluminum flake pigments can cause mottling. In addition, a high concentration of aluminum flake pigments can result in a weak coating. Therefore, current paint systems are limited in the degree of high metallic appearance design that is possible. As a countermeasure to those problems, we investigated whether cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid can function as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it forms strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces when it is dispersed for waterborne paint. For example, viscosity versus shear rate testing of an aqueous solution of 0.4wt% CNF and less than N.V. 5wt% showed a response curve similar…
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Innovative Additive Manufacturing Process for Successful Production of 7000 Series Aluminum Alloy Components Using Smart Optical Monitoring System

SenSigma LLC-Jay Choi, Alex Rice
University of Michigan-Jyoti Mazumder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft components are commonly produced with 7000 series aluminum alloys (AA) due to its weight, strength, and fatigue properties. Auto Industry is also choosing more and more aluminum component for weight reduction. Current additive manufacturing (AM) methods fall short of successfully producing 7000 series AA due to the reflective nature of the material along with elements with low vaporization temperature. Moreover, lacking in ideal thermal control, print inherently defective products with such issues as poor surface finish alloying element loss and porosity. All these defects contribute to reduction of mechanical strength. By monitoring plasma with spectroscopic sensors, multiple information such as line intensity, standard deviation, plasma temperature or electron density, and by using different signal processing algorithm, AM defects have been detected and classified. For composition analysis, the ratio of the maximum intensities of Mg(I)/Al(I) shows a strong trend with the amount of Zn and Mg in the powder, and the results are extremely promising regarding the ability to use the online spectra for real time determination of the composition of the AA7075 powders with…
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Ultralight axle development-fracture mechanics life predictions (40% weight reduction).

Magna Drivetrain of America Inc.-Michael Bujold
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0179
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper details the light weight developments with the use of fracture mechanics technology. Forty percent weight reduction was achieved in an automotive axle. Novel pinion cartridge, ring gear , and differential designs were incorporated in this project to achieve weight, efficiency, noise and performance targets. A fracture mechanics (crack growth model) was used to determine steel cleanliness levels required as component size was optimized based on processing variables(steel material properties, initial flaw size, residual stress, duty cycle analysis,...). Prototype hypoid gear samples made from two variations of steel cleanliness were used to qualify the crack growth models with and without the addition of shot peening to vary the residual stress profiles for life requirements. Housing material variations of aluminum and magnesium were used for additional weight reduction in this program.
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Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Performance of Self-Piercing Riveted Joints and Adhesively Bonded Self-Piercing Riveted Joints Connecting Steel and Aluminum Components

FCA US LLC-Mingchao Guo, Ghassan El-Tawil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0177
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an experimental study on the performance of self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints and adhesively bonded SPR joints connecting steel and aluminum components under both quasi-static and cyclic loading. The joint configurations cover a wide range of material gauges, types and grades. Two and three thickness joints, with and without adhesive are also part of this study. Load versus deflection behavior, load carrying capacity, fatigue life and the failure modes for each type of joint are discussed. This study focuses on the influence of dissimilar material and adhesives to the joint performance. In addition, comparison of load carrying capacity and fatigue strength between SPR and resistance spot welded joints is also discussed.
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Development of Exmani-Heat protector to Improve Sound Absorption using New Perforated Thin Aluminum Plate

Hyundai Motor Group-Jaegi Sim, Minsoo Kim, KwangMin Yoon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0405
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This technology is a technology for reducing the gas flow noise generated from the noise of the vehicle, especially the exhaust system. The primary function of the heat protector is thermal shutdown. However, due to the increase in engine power, downsizing of engines, and the rise of consumer's eye level, solutions about noise are now emphasized. Established the manufacturing technology of 3-ply composite board which can absorb sound in the existing heat protector. For this purpose, mold technology for punching aluminum sheet, optimization technique for punching effect, unique high-strength / high-forming pattern design, sound absorbing material selection and composite sheet molding technology, and noise vibration reduction mounting technology for plate joining were developed.
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A Study on Bolted Joint Finite Element Modeling for Vehicle Level Durability Analysis

FCA US LLC-Weidong Zhang, Mingchao Guo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0178
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bolted joints are widely used connections in automotive vehicle structures. However, it has been a challenge to accurately predict static and fatigue behavior of the sheet metal adjacent to the bearing area of bolted joints when linear analysis approach is used. This paper describes an experiment study on static and fatigue behavior of sheet metal adjacent to bearing area of bolted joints which are typically found on vehicles. These joints cover different bolt sizes (M6 to M14), and nut types (hex nut, hex flange nut, round nut, welded nut etc.). Different sheet metal material grades were selected which were, mild steel, high strength steel, dual phase steel and aluminum. The joints were subjected to coach-peel loading condition, because fastened joints have lowest strengths under this condition. 25 different joint combinations were included in this experimental study. For both static and fatigue tests, three samples were tested for each joint type and loading condition combination. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was used to measure strain distributions at critical locations of the samples. Displacement at the loading…
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Steel, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 0.95Cr - 0.20Mo - (0.30 - 0.35C) (4132)

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6356J
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
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