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Advancements of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys for Heat Critical Aerospace Applications

The Boeing Company-Eve Taylor Burkhart, Larry Hefti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0033
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Titanium’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance makes it ideal for many aerospace applications, especially in heat critical zones. Superplastic Forming (SPF) can be used to form titanium into near-net, complex shapes without springback. The process uses a machined die where inert gas is applied uniformly to the metal sheet, forming the part into the die cavity. Standard titanium alpha-beta alloys, such as 6Al-4V, form at temperatures between 900 and 925ºC (1650-1700ºF). Recent efforts have demonstrated alloys that form at lower temperatures ranging between 760 and 790ºC (1400-1450ºF). Lowering the forming temperature reduces the amount of alpha case that forms on the part, which must be removed. This provides an opportunity of starting with a lower gauge material. Lower forming temperatures also limit the amount of oxidation and wear on the tool and increase the life of certain press components, such as heaters and platens. A variation of this process is SPF combined with Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB) of two or more titanium sheets to produce integrally stiffened structures with limited fasteners and less weight than…
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Alloy, Sheet and Strip, 42Fe - 37.5Ni - 14Co - 4.8Cb (Nb) - 1.6Ti, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation Hardenable, Multiple Melted, High Temperature, Low Expansion

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5892C
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers a low expansion iron alloy in the form of sheet or strip 0.250 inch (6.35 mm) and under in nominal thickness (see 8.7).

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Finned surfaces in air-cooled internal combustion engine: influence of geometry and flow conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-Gomes C. L., Arruda C. A. M., Sian J. G. A, Schaeffer L. C., Favalessa L. B., Monhol F. A. F.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0160
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine cooling is very important to its proper functioning, since high temperatures can shorten the durability of internal components and hence increase fuel consumption. In air-cooled engines it is common to use extended surfaces (fins), which provide an increase in the convective and radiative heat exchange. Thus, the present work investigates the phenomenon of convection between the external air and the motor casing through computational simulations. The finite differences method was applied for two fin geometry (annular and rectangular). The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the fin were obtained for different ambient temperatures (20 - 40 °C) and flow rates (0 - 25 m/s). The analysis was based on a typical 150-cylinder motorcycle engine with fins made of 204-aluminum alloy. It was observed that under zero flow conditions and ambient temperature of 30 °C there was a temperature gradient of 38.49 °C on the annular fins and only 7.76 °C on the rectangular ones. For forced convection conditions (at 25 m / s) the gradient on the annular fins…
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Influence Of The Portevin-Le Chatelier Phenomenon On The Ultimate Tensile Strengh Limit Of Alloys Al-0.18%Zr-2%Mg And Al-0.18%Zr-6%Mg

Federal University of Pará, Augusto Corrêa Street, nº 01, Gu-Natália Luiza Abucater Brum, Aélcio de Jesus Monteiro dos Santos, Brenda Thayssa Figueira Daniel, Clóvis Iarlande Oliveira Santana, Laís Mota de Brito da Fonseca, José Maria do Vale Quaresma, Vinicius Silva dos Reis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0301
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The effect of Portevin-Le Châtelier (PLC) effect and its influence on the mechanical properties of aluminum, have aroused interest in the scientific community, aiming possible applications in the industry. The respective effect has been commonly observed in the solid solution state in Al-Mg alloys. Therefore, the objective of this work is to analyze the effect of the PLC phenomenon on the mechanical properties of the material with additions of 2% and 6% of Mg in the base alloy of Al-0.18%. For this purpose, the alloys were cast in a muffle furnace and cast in copper mold (section of the properzi wheel), followed by cooling in water. Samples were cut and machined to 9.5 mm in diameter. Subsequently, they underwent sanding and polishing processes in order to obtain their macrostructures. The results obtained in this step show that Mg refined the grain structures. The tensile test was performed for mechanical characterization. The results showed that increasing Mg contents resulted in grain refining, tensile strength limit and elongation losses. In order to analyze the effect of PLC…
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Characterization of Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V) Obtained by Additive Manufacturing

Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer-Jorge Vicente Lopes Da Silva
Universidade Federal do ABC-Reyolando Lopes Rebello Da Fonseca Brasil, Rafael Celeghini Santiago
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0112
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The development of additive manufacturing processes (3D printing), applied to metal alloys, is in line with the industry's current need for optimization, cost and development time reduction, allowing the construction of representative prototypes with equivalent materials / mechanical characteristics and customized end products, such as prostheses and brake system calipers, for which Ti6Al4V alloy has wide application due to biocompatibility and resistance. In addition, the need for more resilient materials is becoming ever greater at same time that failures need to be avoided. The occurrence of failures in structural components generates consumer dissatisfaction, which can result in serious accidents and the use of numerical tools during the project contributes to its prediction. For this, it is necessary to know the structural characteristics of the material resulting from the printing processes to guarantee robust designs. Currently there are few available information regarding mechanical and micro-structural proprieties on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V obtained by 3D printing process compared with other process. Thus, through physical tests of specimens according to ASTM A370-08a and microstructural evaluations, became possible the alloy…
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Refrigeration Tube Fittings—General Specifications

Air Brake Tubing and Tube Ftg Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J513_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers complete general and dimensional specifications for refrigeration tube fittings of the flare type specified in Figures 1 to 42 and Tables 1 to 15. These fittings are intended for general use with flared annealed copper tubing in refrigeration applications. Dimensions of single and double 45 degree flares on tubing to be used in conjunction with these fittings are given in Figure 2 and Table 1 of SAE J533. The following general specifications supplement the dimensional data contained in Tables 1 to 15 with respect to all unspecified details.
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Multicriteria Optimization, Sensitivity Analysis, and Prediction of Bond Characteristics of Vacuum Diffusion Bonded Aero Engine Ti6Al4V Alloy Joints

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Annamalai University, India-T. Pragatheswaran, S. Rajakumar, V. Balasubramanian, S. Kavitha
Materials Group, Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), India-Vijay Petley, Shweta Verma
  • Journal Article
  • 01-12-02-0008
Published 2019-12-13 by SAE International in United States
Joining titanium (Ti) alloys with conventional processes is difficult due to their complex structural properties and ability of phase transformation. Concerning all the difficulties, diffusion bonding is considered as an appropriate process for joining Ti alloys. Ti6Al4V, which is an α+β alloy widely used for aero engine component manufacturing, is diffusion bonded in this investigation. The diffusion bonding process parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, and holding time were optimized to achieve desired bonding characteristics such as shear strength, bonding strength, bonding ratio, and thickness ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). Empirical relationships were developed for the prediction of the bond characteristics, and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the increment and decrement tendency of the shear strength with respect to the bonding parameters. Various criteria were applied to achieve the desired bond characteristics and their effects; optimum values and limits were evaluated through graphical and numerical optimization. The predicted and experimented results are validated and found that they are in good agreement with each other. The microstructural examination and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis…
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Titanium Alloy, Sheet and Strip 4Al - 2.5V - 1.5Fe Electron Beam Single Melted. Annealed

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6949A
  • Current
Published 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet and strip up to 0.143 inches (3.63 mm), inclusive, in nominal thickness.
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Material Characterization of Extruded Aluminum Axial Tubes as Energy-Absorbing Structural Members

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ohio University, USA-Eboreime Ohioma, Frank Kraft, Sean Jenson
USA-Muhammad Ali
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0004
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The increasing use of aluminum alloy extrusion in automotive vehicle chassis as structural members has necessitated the need to investigate their crushing behaviors. This article experimentally examines in detail, for the first time with respect to strength, ductility, and microstructure, AA6063-T7 (overaged) condition and the standard T6 temper and their capacity to meet crashworthiness requirements. Both tempers were assessed based on their mechanical properties (strength, ductility, true stress/strain behavior to necking, plastic anisotropy, strain rate sensitivity, and post-instability ductility to fracture) and microstructure, which were determined using basic tensile testing methods and metallographic approach. The implications of these properties/microstructures were further assessed experimentally by investigating the crushing behavior and energy absorption capacities of two extruded geometric profiles: a general rectangular profile and a novel cross-shaped profile investigated in a previous study. Typical modes of collapse were observed for rectangular tubes. In the case of the cross-shaped tubes, geometric modifications in the form of horizontal grooves along the sidewalls were introduced to promote controlled, stable, and repeatable folding patterns during the collapse in addition to serving…
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Precipitation Hardenable Steel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant Powder for Additive Manufacturing 16.0Cr - 4.0Ni - 4.0Cu - 0.30Nb

AMS AM Additive Manufacturing Metals
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS7012
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel alloy in the form of pre-alloyed powder.
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