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Two prototype engines with colliding and compression of pulsed supermulti-jets through a focusing process, leading to nearly complete air insulation and relatively silent high compression for automobiles, motorcycles, aircrafts, and rockets

Waseda University-Remi Konagaya, Ken Naitoh, Tomotaka Kobayashi, Yuuki Isshiki, Hajime Ito, Hiroki Makimoto, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Yusuke Tada, Nozomu Kikuchi, Aya Hosoi, Yuto Fujii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0837
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
We have proposed a new compressive combustion principle based on pulsed supermulti-jets colliding through focusing process, by injection from chamber wall to chamber center. This principle has potential of relatively-silent high compression around chamber center because of auto-ignition far from chamber wall and nearly-complete air insulation due to encasing of burned high temperature gas. The present principle leading to higher thermal efficiency and higher power will be applicable for automobiles, aircrafts, rockets, and also flying cars to be realized in the future. Then, water cooling system made smaller or even eliminated will result in lower price, while auto-ignition in an area larger than that created by traditional spark-ignition will lead to less NOx emission at very lean burning. Thus, we here show four new evidences based on experimental data and computational and theoretical considerations. (1) Quantitative clarification of compression level at condition without combustion (2) Atomization effect due to high-speed jets reducing fuel tank pressure (3) Combustion experiments in piston-less engine having pulsed 14-focusing jets colliding (1st prototype engine for checking this compressive combustion principle),…
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Design Optimization and Aerodynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Blended Wing Body- VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Delhi Technological University-Pranav Bahl, Vikas Rastogi, Amit bainsla, Nitin Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0472
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be effectively used to serve humanitarian relief efforts during environmental disasters. Designing such UAVs presents challenges in optimizing design variables such as maximizing endurance, maneuverability and payload capacity with minimum launch and recovery area. The Blended Wing Body (BWB) is a novel aircraft configuration offering enhanced performance over conventional UAVs. Designing a blended wing configuration UAV takes into account interdependency between aerodynamic performance and stability. Designing BWB is peculiar and is investigated in this paper with a view to achieve an aerodynamically stable and structurally sound configuration. The designed UAV is a hybrid of a tailless blended-wing-body and a tri-copter configuration with two forward tilt motors for transition into cruise flight after vertical take-off and back to multirotor while landing (VTOL-Vertical Take Off and Landing). The BWB is iteratively optimized in XFLR-5 for Dynamic and static stability. The wing design was optimized for aerodynamic and structural fitness in MATLAB using Meta-heuristic optimization methodology based on genetic evolutionary algorithm. The 3D CAD design was conceived on SolidWorks and analyzed in Pressure…
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System Integration in Aircraft Environment - Hydraulic Performances through Coupled Simulations

Airbus Operations GmbH-Henning Witt lng
Airbus Operations India-Ashutosh Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0004
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate hydraulic performance at early program stages in the complete aircraft and power consuming systems environment based on joint collaboration with Chiastek is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of an aircraft hydraulic performance in order to limit the need for a physical integration test bench and extensive flight test campaign but also to avoid late system redesign based on robust early stage model based engineering and to secure the aircraft entry-into-service.
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Introduction to Control Volume Based Transient Thermal Limit

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Rodney Yeu, Tim Deppen, Brian Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0039
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Advancement in modern aircraft with the development of more dynamic and efficient technologies has led to these technologies increasingly operated near or at their operation limits. More comprehensive analysis methods based on high-fidelity models co-simulated in an integrated environment are needed to support the full utilization of these advanced technologies. Furthermore, the additional information provided by these new analyses needs to be correlated with updates to traditional metrics and specifications. One such case is the thermal limit requirement that sets the upper bound on a thermal system temperature. Traditionally, this bound is defined based on steady-state conditions. However, advanced thermal management systems experience dynamic events where the temperature is not static and may violate steady-state requirements for brief periods of time. Due to the large thermal time constants for many components, such transient violations may not represent system failure and an understanding of transient temperature limits is beneficial. To meet this need, this paper introduces the transient thermal limit via control volume representation. Instead of a constant thermal limit, the transient thermal limit approach generates…
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Extended Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle via Structural Electrical Power Storage and Energy Generation Devices

Geoffrey Smith Oetting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0041
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
As the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have increased in the military, commercial and private sectors, special attention has been focused on improving upon high altitude long endurance (HALE) performance. Therefore, under a multi-year, multi-discipline senior project team comprised of Aerospace Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical engineering, and Chemical Engineering undergraduate teams, investigative and experimental research has begun into the substitution of various aircraft structural components with power storage and power generation devices used also as structure to improve flight endurance and performance capabilities of solar powered UAVs. One viable solution may be found in the reduction of the amount of parasitic weight due to the required power systems on board these types of aircraft. These power systems are usually found in the form of energy storage devices such as lithium polymer batteries and energy generation devices such as solar cells. This path led to the innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’. The ‘Flying Battery’ integrates various free energy generating devices such as structural solar cells, structural energy storage devices, thermo-electric generators, and vibration…
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A MATLAB Simulink Based Co-Simulation Approach for a Vehicle Systems Model Integration Architecture

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Brian C. Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Tim Deppen, Charles Lucas, Rodney Yeu, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0005
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a MATLAB-Simulink based general co-simulation approach is presented which supports multi-resolution simulation of distributed models in an integrated architecture. This approach was applied to simulating aircraft thermal performance in our Vehicle Systems Model Integration (VSMI) framework. A representative advanced aircraft thermal management system consisting of an engine, engine fuel thermal management system, aircraft fuel thermal management system and a power and thermal management system was used to evaluate the advantages and tradeoffs in using a co-simulation approach to system integration modeling. For a system constituting of multiple interacting sub-systems, an integrated model architecture can rapidly, and cost effectively address technology insertions and system evaluations. Utilizing standalone sub-system models with table-based boundary conditions often fails to effectively capture dynamic subsystem interactions that occurs in an integrated system. Additionally, any control adjustments, model changes or technology insertions that are applied to any one of the connecting subsystems requires iterative updates to the boundary conditions. When evaluating a large set of trade studies, the number of boundary condition models and time to generate these models…
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A Study on the Development of Aerostructures Design for Assembly Guidelines and Their Effective Use to Proactively Identify Opportunities for Improvement in Mitigating Common Defects of the Aerostructures Assembly

GITAM School of Technology, Hyderabad-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0009
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Aircraft’s assembly process plays a vital part in its design, development and production phases and contributes to about half of the Total cost spent in its entire product lifecycle. Design For Assembly (DFA®) principles have been one of the proven effective methodologies in Automotive and Process industries. Use of DFA® principles have resulted in proactively simplifying and optimizing engineering designs with reduced product costs, and improved efficiencies in product design and performance. Standardization of Assembly guidelines is vital for “Design and Build” and “Build-To-Print” manufacturing supplier organizations. However, Standardizing design methodologies, through use of proven tools like Advanced Product Quality Planning, (APQP) are still in the initial stages in Aerospace part and process design processes. Thus, there is a tremendous opportunity for research on the application of the existing DFA® guidelines to optimize Engineering Aerospace Assembly processes aiming to simplify, standardize design methodologies by building on existing industry practices which have a common platform for design communication and are easy to adopt within the existing process/systems. This technical paper is to discuss the framework…
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A Communication-Free Human-Robot-Collaboration Approach for Aircraft Riveting Process Using AI Probabilistic Planning

Saarland University-Jörg Hoffmann
ZeMA gGmbH-Khansa Rekik, Rainer Müller, Matthias Vette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0013
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In large scale industries attempts are continuously being made to automate assembly processes to not only increase productivity but also alleviate non-ergonomic tasks. However this is not always technologically possible due to specific joining challenges and the high number of special-purpose parts. For the riveting process, for example, semi-automated approaches represent an alternative to optimizing aircraft assembly and to reduce the exposure of workers to non-ergonomic conditions entailed by performing repetitive tasks.In [1], a semi-automated solution is proposed for the riveting process of assembling the section barrel of the aft section to its pressure bulkhead. The method introduced a dynamic task sharing strategy between human and robot that implements interaction possibilities to establish a communication between a human and a robot in Human-Robot-collaboration fashion. Although intuitive, interacting with the robot constantly is still not natural for the worker as in the manual process no explicit communication between both workers is needed.In this work a communication-free Human-Robot-collaboration solution is presented. The method developed not only enables sharing assembly missions by dividing tasks based on skills, but…
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Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Turboelectric Aircraft

Georgia Institute of Technology-Christopher Perullo
Ohio State University-Aaronn Sergent, Michael Ramunno, Matilde D'Arpino, Marcello Canova
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0050
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid-electric gas turbine generators are considered a promising technology for more efficient and sustainable air transportation. The Ohio State University is leading the NASA University Leadership Initiative (ULI) Electric Propulsion: Challenges and Opportunities, focused on the design and demonstration of advanced components and systems to enable high-efficiency hybrid turboelectric powertrains in regional aircraft to be deployed in 2030. Within this large effort, the team is optimizing the design of the battery energy storage system (ESS) and, concurrently, developing a supervisory energy management strategy for the hybrid system to reduce fuel burn while mitigating the impact on the ESS life. In this paper, an energy-based model was developed to predict the performance of a battery-hybrid turboelectric distributed-propulsion (BHTeDP) regional jet. A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of ESS sizing and cell selection on the optimal power split between the turbogenerators (TGs) and ESS. To this extent, the supervisory energy management strategy is formulated into a discrete time optimal control problem and solved via dynamic programming. The performance of BHTeDP was compared to a turboelectric…
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Adaptive Test Feedback LoopA Modelling Approach for Checking Side Effects During Test Executionfor Advised Explorative Testing

BIBA GmbH-Karl Anthony Hribernik
Bremer Inst. Für Produktion Und Logistik-Marco Franke, Klaus-Dieter Thoben
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0017
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of testing is to evaluate the functionality, reliability, and operational safety of products. However, this objective makes testing a complex and expensive stage in the development process. This is particularly true for complex and large systems, such as trains or aircrafts, which require maximum operational safety. From the perspective of an aircraft manufacturer, the checks are carried out via test cases on the integration, system and application levels. Thus, they certify the products against the requirements using black box testing approach. In doing so, a test plan defines a sequence of test cases whereby it sets up the environment, stimulates the fault, and then observes the system under test for each case. Subsequently, the post processing of the test execution classifies the test plan in passed or failed. The ongoing digitization and interconnectedness between aircraft systems is leading to a high number of test cases and a multitude of reasons why a specific test-case fails. A corresponding error analysis and adaptation of the test plan is a complex and lengthy process, which…