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User’s Manual for Certification of Aircraft Electrical/Electronic Systems for the Indirect Effects of Lightning

AE-2 Lightning Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5415B
  • Current
Published 2020-03-05 by SAE International in United States
This ARP provides detailed information, guidance, and methods in support of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Advisory Circular (AC) 20-136. AC 20-136 provides a means, but not the only means, for demonstrating compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 23.1306 (Amendment 23-61), 23.2515 (Amendment 23-64), 25.1316, 27.1316, and 29.1316. It is also intended for this ARP to provide the same information, guidance, and methods, to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) certification specifications CS 23.1306 (Amendment 23/4), 23.2515 (Amendment 23/5), 25.1316, 27.1316, and 29.1316, and associated Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) 20-136. This ARP provides references relevant to identifying: (1) acceptance criteria for the indirect effects of lightning compliance approaches, (2) verification (analysis and test) methods including those associated with multiple stroke and multiple burst, (3) recommended design options to optimize needed system immunity to lightning indirect effects, and (4) provide guidance in the areas of continued airworthiness of the lightning protection. Equipment hazards due to the indirect effects on equipment mounted on the aircraft exterior, equipment located within the…
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Ice and Rain Minimum Qualification Standards for Pitot and Pitot-static Probes

AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5562
  • Current
Published 2020-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b. Class 2a probe applications typically include aircraft that operate within the mid to lower end of the Class 2 altitude range and that only use probe output to display basic airspeed and/or altitude. As such, Class 2a probes do not have to test ice crystals at an altitude-capable icing tunnel. Class 2b…
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EUROCAE/SAE WG80/AE-7AFC Hydrogen Fuel Cells Aircraft Fuel Cell Safety Guidelines

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6464
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
This document defines the technical guidelines for the safe integration of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems (FCS), fuel (considered to be liquid and compressed hydrogen storage types only), fuel storage, fuel distribution and appropriate electrical systems into the aircraft. Editorial Note: Today PEM systems and fuel storage represent the most mature FCS technology and currently forms the basis for this standard. Other types of fuel cell systems and fuels (including reforming technologies and electrolyzers), may be covered by a further update to this document.
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Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example

S-18 Aircraft and Sys Dev and Safety Assessment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6110
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
This AIR provides a detailed example of the aircraft and systems development for a function of a hypothetical S18 aircraft. In order to present a clear picture, an aircraft function was broken down into a single system. A function was chosen which had sufficient complexity to allow use of all the methodologies, yet was simple enough to present a clear picture of the flow through the process. This function/system was analyzed using the methods and tools described in ARP4754A/ED-79A. The aircraft level function is “Decelerate Aircraft On Ground” and the system is the braking system. The interaction of the braking system functions with the aircraft are identified with the relative importance based on implied aircraft interactions and system availabilities at the aircraft level. This example does not include validation and verification of the aircraft level hazards and interactions with the braking system. However, the principles used at the braking system level can be applied at the higher aircraft level. The methodologies applied here are an example of one way to utilize the principles defined in…
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FAA/EASA Certification, Methods of Compliance for 29.801 Ditching

  • Professional Development
  • C1970
Published 2019-10-08

Certifying an aircraft, part or appliance can be a challenge.  The FAA/EASA procedures can be frustrating and a maze of rules, policy and guidance. Understanding the process and procedures can provide you with a competitive edge and reduce your time obtaining a Certification approval. This course provides an overview of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) policies, guidelines and requirements leading to Type and Supplemental Type airworthiness approvals. This course has a focus on 29.801 Ditching and EASA 29.802 Emergency Flotation.

FAA/EASA Certification, Methods of Compliance for 29.865 External Loads

  • Professional Development
  • C1971
Published 2019-10-08

By attending this seminar, you will be able to:

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Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Processes

G-12M Methods Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6285C
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground-based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush, or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 (Type I fluid) and AMS1428 (Types II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents. Due to aerodynamic and other concerns, the application of deicing/anti-icing fluids shall be carried out in compliance with engine and aircraft manufacturer's recommendations.
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Safety Assessment of General Aviation Airplanes and Rotorcraft in Commercial Service

S-18C ARP5150A and ARP5151A Working Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5151A
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This document describes a process that may be used to perform the ongoing safety assessment for (1) GAR aircraft and components (hereafter, aircraft), and (2) commercial operators of GAR aircraft. The process described herein is intended to support an overall safety management program. It is to help a company establish and meet its own internal standards. The process described herein identifies a systematic means, but not the only means, to assess continuing airworthiness. Ongoing safety management is an activity dedicated to assuring that risk is identified and properly eliminated or controlled. The safety management process includes both safety assessment and economic decision-making. While economic decision-making (factors related to scheduling, parts, and cost) is an integral part of the safety management process, this document addresses only the ongoing safety assessment process. This ongoing safety assessment process includes safety problem identification and corrective action, tracking of problems, the application of “lessons learned” to improve the efficiency of the process, and reduction of the time to achieve corrective action in the field. ARP5150 is the recommended practice for…
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Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Training and Qualification Program

G-12T Training and Quality Programs Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6286A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-26 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes the minimum training and qualification requirements for ground-based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures. All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents. Due to aerodynamic and other concerns, the application of deicing/anti-icing fluids shall be carried out in compliance with engine and aircraft manufacturers’ recommendations. The scope of training should be adjusted according to local demands. There are a wide variety of winter seasons and differences of the involvement between deicing operators, and therefore the level and length of training should be adjusted accordingly. However, the minimum level of training shall be covered in all cases. As a rule of thumb, the amount of time spent in practical training should equal or exceed the amount of time spent in classroom training.
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Flight in Icing Regulatory Evolution and the Influence on Aircraft Design

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Boeing Co.-David Leopold
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1958
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Flight in icing for transport category aircraft certification presents a particularly challenging set of considerations to establish adequate safety commensurate with the associated risk while balancing design complexity and efficiency. A review highlighting important aspects of the regulatory evolution and guiding principles for flight in icing certification is presented, including the current standards and recent rulemaking activity. While historical icing certification relied on a simple yet subjective requirement to demonstrate that an aircraft is capable of operating safely within the prescribed icing envelopes, the certification requirements associated with demonstrating an adequate level of safety have progressively evolved into more explicit quantitative performance and qualitative handling qualities standards now scattered throughout the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) Part 25 Subpart B Flight standards which are largely harmonized with other regulatory agencies. Recent rulemaking activity, including the potential branching of the regulatory structure to address modern fly-by-wire aircraft not envisioned at the inception of the original flight standards, have firmly engrained flight in icing certification as a major design consideration with…
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