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Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
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Energy Management for Electric Vehicle Application: Energy Demand for Cabin Comfort

FCA Italy S.p.A.-Antonio Tarzia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0031
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of CO2 reduction policies pushes an equivalent effort by the OEM to design and produce Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) in order to lower the global CO2 emission of its fleet. The main effort has been done primarily to the electric traction architecture (electric traction motor and battery energy storage). Anyway, the BEV autonomy range is still a weak point and this is even more critical when the customer operates the air conditioning system to reach and maintain the cabin comfort. The aim of this work is to present how the cabin design have to evolve in order to allow the reduction of the energy demand by the Air conditioning system allowing the vehicle to increase the autonomy range.
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Next-Generation Refrigerant and Air Conditioner System Choice for Internal Combustion, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Presentation Only) by Stephen O. Andersen, Jiangping Chen, Sourav Chowdhury, Tim Craig, Walter Ferraris, Jianxin Hu, Sangeet Kapoor, Carloandrea Malvicino, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Nancy J. Sherman, and Kristen N. Taddonio

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris
FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Carloandrea Malvicino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0029
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the passage of Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in 2016, HFC-134a will need to be phased down in all markets worldwide due to its high global warming potential (GWP=1300). Meanwhile, global adoption of electric vehicles is accelerating. Improved MAC and heat pump efficiency is critically important to extend vehicle range. Engineers must design MAC and heat pump systems using low-GWP refrigerants that are simultaneously cost-effective, energy efficient, safe, reliable, affordable for consumers, and able to provide both cooling and heating of the cabin and thermal management of vehicle components like power electronics and batteries. This is a challenging and complex task. Fortunately, solutions are available, but they may diverge from traditional direct expansion systems of the past. This paper: 1) documents the global history and market status of the development of alternatives to HFC-134a, including secondary-loop (SL-MAC) systems; 2) outlines the existing and expected regulations demanding low-GWP MAC refrigerant and high fuel efficiency; 3) explains the importance of comprehensive LCCP analysis when evaluating MAC climate impacts instead of focusing on only one component…
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Effects of On-Road Conditions on HVAC Noise

Univ. Of Erlangen-Nuremberg-Andreas Logdesser, Stefan Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1555
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Noise inside the passenger cabin is made up of multiple sources. A significant reduction of the major sound sources such as the engine, wind and tire noise helped to improve the comfort for passengers. As a consequence, the HVAC sound (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) is unmasked as a primary noise source inside the passenger cabin and has to be taken into consideration when designing passenger cabin sound. While HVAC sound is often evaluated at stop, the most common situation of its use is while driving. In case of fresh air as mode of operation, the HVAC system is coupled to the environment through the air intake. Any change in the boundary conditions due to on-road driving events and gusts of wind affects the flow field in the HVAC system and in turn influences HVAC noise. This study investigates the effect of mass flow and pressure fluctuations on the HVAC noise. In a first step, major influences on the HVAC system are identified in an on-road test. For further investigation, the HVAC system is analyzed in…
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Adaptation of Subcool Condenser for An Air Conditioning System Employing An Internal Heat Exchanger.

Subros Ltd-Saurabh Suman, Yogendra Singh Kushwah, Suraj maske
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0026
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Recently, the use of air conditioning systems is growing rapidly due to increasing global temperatures. Considering enormous growth in the application of the air conditioning system, there is an urgent need to improve design, performance, and efficiency thereof. For example, the air conditioning systems that are being used these days are required to provide improved efficiency per unit of power consumed, and they are also required to have a smaller form factor as compared to conventional air conditioning systems. Therefore, a lot of modern air conditioning systems employ components such as internal heat exchangers, thermal expansion valves and forth to improve their performance while having a small form factor. In this study a condenser is adapted to be used for an air conditioning system employing an internal heat exchanger. Wherein the condenser subcool area is in a optimized range of a frontal condenser area; and a free flow area within the plurality of tubes of the subcool region of the at least one refrigerant flow section for the refrigerant flow within the plurality of tubes…
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Refrigerant Valves in AC- and Heat Pump systems for Electric Vehicles

Otto Egelhof GmbH & Co. KG-Eike Willers
Otto Egelhof GmbH&Co. KG-Stephan Wild
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0038
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Abstract The Thermal Management of Electric Vehicles differs strongly from the Thermal Management in IC engine driven vehicles. The Air Conditioning Circuit itself has comparable requirements, however, the electric components and their properties lead to new architectures. Essential is at least a chiller for the conditioning of the battery, which needs to be cooled down to the range of summer ambient temperatures. The respective control devices need to fulfill different basic requirements - Small package - Lightweight - Low noise - Low energy consumption - High control accuracy to play an important role in the Refrigeration architecture of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. For conventional systems, optimization of package and weight will be achieved by a 75g TXV with a 28 mm thermal head. As soon as a battery also has to be cooled, Shut-Off valves will be implemented in the system in order to manage the respective heat loads according to the needs. For some system configurations, it is important to have a precise electronic control, which is not following the usually fixed superheat characteristic…
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Methodology to quantify the undesirable effects of the localized inefficiency of heat pick-up in suction line on an automotive air-conditioning system

Y.S.Sarath Reddy
Tata Motors Ltd-Suresh Tadigadapa, Santosh Ghorpade, Ankit Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0036
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being paid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance. Even though most of the automotive HVAC engineers are fairly aware of the undesirable effects of heat pick-up in suction line,…
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Design and development of a condenser for an Air-conditioning systems working in very high ambient temperature and dusty external environment.

Subros Ltd-Arunkumar Goel, Tamal roy
Subros Ltd.-Yogendra Singh Kushwah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0007
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to highlight the unique requirement of air conditioning systems for very high ambient temperature and dusty environment. Typical requirement of such applications are needed for off road vehicles, tractors, railway etc. Among them the system requirement for railway have it’s own challenges in terms of performance, reliability and serviceability. In one of such applications existing design of air conditioning system was facing the issue of frequent tripping during the peak summer condition. One of the reason was very high dust environment around its condenser area. The level of dust was so high that mesh filter was deployed at condenser front area to prevent choking of condenser fins heat transfer area. The condenser filter cleaning was needed on daily basis to run the AC properly. To solve this problem a newly designed multiflow wave fin type condenser was deployed in place of regular multiflow louver fin condenser. The newly designed system with wave fin condenser have eliminated the need of filter and problem of AC tripping got resolved. The performance…
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Experimental Investigation of Dual AC System used for Battery cooling plate

Subros Ltd-Kamlesh Kumar Singh
Subros, Ltd.-Somnath Sen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0021
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
As the global warming due to carbon footprint is very alarming, vehicle emissions are getting stringent day by day. In such situation vehicle hybridization or fully electric vehicles are of obvious choices. However in any of the cases the battery cooling is a big concern area. As the heat produced by the battery need to be dissipated within no time to prevent failure, it is of utmost need to develop and understand the battery cooling system. Present paper describes the experimental investigation of a battery cooling circuit. A complete bench comprising of both primary and secondary circuit is used for the testing. The primary circuit has a cooling unit with TXV, condenser and electric compressor run by high voltage. The secondary circuit consists of a chiller (integrated with TXV) unit responsible for battery cooling. The whole circuit typically resembles with one of dual air conditioning unit and uses one of known refrigerant used in vehicle AC system. However each circuit is connected with a valve for controlling the loop. The battery heat was represented by…
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Experimental analysis of HVAC system level noise in mobile air conditioning (MAC) system

Tata Motors Ltd-Prasanna V Nagarhalli, Uttam Titave
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Anurag Maurya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0035
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
With the advent of new technologies and rigorous research and development in engines, cars are becoming quieter than ever. This has led to the noises which were earlier, masked behind engine noise being audible inside the passenger compartment. Having a quieter air-conditioning (AC) system would aid us in cutting down on this parasitic noise source. Making it one of the important parameters during the design and development of the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for a vehicle program. However, due to packaging constraints improper integration or selection of different AC parts, there is a possibility that the noise generated from the AC compressor to get amplified while the refrigerant flows through the thermal expansion valve (TXV) or through pipes. This is because the pressure pulsation, in the refrigerant flow, travels along the pipes and can amplify the noise if it is not properly dampen out. Also, TXVs can also be a source for noise if the quality of refrigerant - dryness fraction - is not optimized at the entry. The objective of the current…