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Some Experimental Studies on the Use of Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in an Agricultural Diesel Engine

CASRAE, Delhi Technological University-Naveen Kumar
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology-Ashwni Goyal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0796
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Globally, the demand for energy is increasing due to both increase in population and enhancement in the lifestyle of people. Most of the energy demand at present is met from fossil fuels, which are not only exhaustible but also a threat to the environment. Various routes of sustainable energy resources are being explored to address the above-mentioned issues and fuel made from used tyre may be one of the promising options.India is one of the fastest growing economies and every year 10 million new vehicles are registered. Due to poor road conditions, nearly fourfold tyres of this number are dumped as waste. This large stock of dumped tyres are non-biodegradable and creates other problems like a breeding site for mosquitos, or source of pollution in case of accidental fire. In order to cope with the large pile-up of used tyres, pyrolysis of these tyres could be a sustainable route. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical process carried in absence of oxygen and a sustainable option for conversion into Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO).In the present work, the performance…
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Autonomy Meets Agronomy

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP03_14
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States

John Deere sows some autonomy ideas at CES 2019.

Iconic agricultural equipment giant John Deere is spearheading the expansion of digital controls in farm machinery and in so doing was the first off-highway equipment maker ever to display agriculture machinery at the 2019 CES consumer electronics conference.

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Agricultural and Forestry Off-Road Machinery Control and Communication Network

Truck Bus Control and Communications Network Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1939/2_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-14 by SAE International in United States
SAE J1939-2 specifies the requirements for application of SAE J1939 in agricultural and forestry equipment. This document specifies the series of documents within the set of SAE J1939 documents that are applicable to agricultural and forestry equipment and provides further requirements for this industry. The SAE and ISO groups have cooperated to define agricultural and forestry networks in a manner to allow compatibility of ECUs and messaging protocols between the A&F and the T&B networks.
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Fan Guard for Off-Road Machines

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1308_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-10 by SAE International in United States
This practice applies to guarding of engine cooling fans used on Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines defined in SAE J1116. It does not include guarding for belts, pulleys, or other rotating equipment used on these machines.
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A Study of Significance in Lower Link Draft Sensing and Comparative Study over Top Link

Tractors and Farm Equipment, Ltd.-Partha Sarathi Singha, Arunkumar Selvaraj, Pawan Gundariya, Velmurugan M A, Mulam Sreenivasulu Rao
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
One of the major impacts on tractor performance during cultivation is variation in soil draft. The control strategy shall be developed to maintain the soil draft which mainly depends on the sensitivity and accuracy of draft measurement. This paper presents the theoretical calculation of force on the lower link points of three point hitch system in tractor and selecting an optimum point for the fitment of draft sensor. The force distribution on the lower and top link was studied by developing the suitable mechanical frame with hydraulic actuation to simulate the soil draft. The control strategy was developed to maintain the draft force with tractor hydraulic system and field testing was performed on 58 hp (43 kW) tractor to compare the draft control operation with lower link draft sensing methodology and conventional top link based draft sensing. The Land was cultivated by driving the tractor on all combination of soil type transition (Hard, Medium and Soft soil) and effectiveness of draft control was analyzed. This simulation test results confirmed that the ratio of lower link…
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Method Development to Virtually Validate Farm Tractor Skid for Front End Loader Application

KMW Ltd-Dave Schneider
Mahindra Research Valley-Prasanna Balaji Subbaiyan, Abhay Kumar, Jaju Mayur, Balaramakrishna Nizampatnam, S.A Bhanuprakash
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In farm tractors, front end loaders are becoming popular attachments for primarily material handling such as loading, moving and unloading of woodchips, sand, gravels etc. It is also used for some severe load application such as tree uprooting and ripping operation which requires validation of loader frame and tractor as well. To validate the design, a standard pull-push test is carried out on tractor with loader in a laboratory. In this test front loader bucket is pushed against a rigidly clamped fixture with full engine throttle and maximum hydraulic cylinder pressure of loader. To avoid surprise failures during the test, a virtual simulation method needs to be developed and validated.In this paper, a method has been proposed by authors for the above objective. A multi-body dynamics model of tractor with loader is created in MSC ADAMS and actual event is simulated using test loads & boundary conditions. Forces and moments are extracted on all tractor skid attachments points from MBD model. Afterwards, an inertia relief durability analysis is done in MSC Nastran using the extracted…
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Instrumentation Technique Used for Design Optimization of Front Axle Support Bracket in Agricultural Tractor

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Dinesh Soundararajan
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Agriculture tractor industry is highly competitive in the current market scenario with global majors competing in various markets. A tractor having an optimum design is of prime importance to keep the cost low while providing higher value to the customers. Technology advances in instrumentation methodology and data acquisition helps not only in providing the right inputs for the design of a component/system but also very much useful for design/system optimization.Front Axle Support of an agricultural tractor is one of the structural member which is connected to the Chassis which is called skid of the tractor to which the Front Axle is mounted through Pillow block (Plummer block) arrangement to facilitate axle oscillation about the tractor longitudinal center line. Front ballast weights are mounted on a bracket which is intern mounted to the front axle support to maintain the required front reaction in various agricultural operations. The front axle support experiences stresses and strains due to the vertical & lateral movement of the ballast weight as a result of the tractor travel and turning.Strain gauges and…
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Necessity of Advance Damper Technology for Future Agriculture Domain

Schaeffler India, Ltd.-Vijaykumar Shankar Bagadekar, Satya Pavan Alavilli, Salim Malik Kadhar Maideen, Ashok Kumar Rajendran, Padmanaban Radhakrishnan, Sandeep Soni
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
There is an increasing demand from end-users of tractors for longer clutch durability, reduction in driver fatigue and comfort during field operations. Tractor manufacturers are moving towards Wet Clutch Pack with torsion dampers to meet this emerging customer needs. However, in Conventional Torsion Dampers, there is a technical challenge to withstand harsh clutch engagement or high unexpected impacts of agri-implements, which are common in field operations. This is in addition to, torsional vibrations produced by the power-train. There are constraints, to further optimize a conventional damper without compromising important parameters like factor of safety, noise and durability issues. Hence the proposed next generation damper technology can meet all the new technical requirements and can ensure smooth and durable power shift transmission in tractors. This case study has been done with help of SCHAEFFLER’s tailor made “Tornado Instrument” and “Software” by acquiring real time data (directly from agricultural field operations) from several OEMs followed by quantitative analysis of unexpected impacts, and addressing this issue with next generation damper technology.
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Analysis of Multiple Hybrid Electric Concept in Agricultural Tractor through Simulation Technique

Tractors and Farm Equipment, Ltd.-Latha KannusamyMY, Ravindran V, Nageshwara Rao P
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper analyses multiple hybrid electric concept for different agricultural applications for getting better vehicle efficiency through simulation modelling.Agricultural applications are entirely different from on road vehicles, so obtaining optimized vehicle efficiency is difficult because tractor is used for different applications and usage pattern on the same day. During design concept stage, the current diesel engine bare vehicle data will be used to set the required target of vehicle efficiency for hybrid electric vehicle. Design of Experiments (DOE) technique was used to predict the vehicle efficiency by modelling and analysis through AMESim Simulation tool for different hybrid electric types. The results were compared with the current vehicle performance. This simulation model integrates the vehicle, transmission, PTO, engine, hybrid electric model which consists of Motor/Generator, Battery and coupling mechanism, control model for both vehicle and hybrid. Operating environmental conditions, usage patterns were used as input to the model.The final result is to find the optimized vehicle efficiency by choosing the optimal hybrid concept through conducting virtual DOE of various parameter like Battery, Motor/Generator sizing and Control…
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Physical Layer, 250 Kbps, Un-Shielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Truck Bus Control and Communications Network Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1939/15_201812
  • Current
Published 2018-12-14 by SAE International in United States
This document describes a physical layer utilizing Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable with extended stub lengths for flexibility in ECU placement and network topology. Also, connectors are not specified. CAN controllers used on SAE J1939-15 networks must be restricted to use only Classical Frames as defined in ISO 11898- 1. A network which may have legacy controllers cannot tolerate FD Frames. These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
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