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Effective Utilization of Low Carbon Fuels in Agricultural Engines Using Low Cost Electronic Primary Fuel Injection Unit

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Sasikumar Nandagopal, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Selvakumar Raja, Vamshidhar Busireddy, Madhu Kovuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reliability and cost effectiveness of electronics demands its usage in all the wings of science and technology. Thus an attempt was made in this work to investigate the potential of using electronics for injecting primary fuel for the compression ignition engine used by farmers for agricultural purpose. In the first phase of the work, a new Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for primary fuel injection was developed and tested for its repeatability on fuel injection quantity for the different input voltages. Test engine was developed and tested under various load condition for its performance, emission, and combustion characteristics with neat diesel and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) as baseline readings in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of work, the developed engine was modified to operate in duel fuel mode with developed ECU. In this work, ethanol was chosen as primary fuel due to its availability and less toxic nature as compared to other green fuels. Pilot fuel (i.e. WCOME) was injected using mechanical fuel injection system. Results inferred that the…
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Nomenclature - Hydraulic Backhoes

MTC1, Loaders, Crawlers, Scrapers and Mounted Attachments
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J326_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard includes hydraulic backhoes which have no more than 190 degrees of rotational swing and are mounted on wheeled tractors and crawler tractors. Illustrations used are not intended to include all existing commercial machines or to be exact descriptions of any particular machine. The illustrations have been chosen to describe the principles to be used in applying this standard.
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Overhead Protection for Agricultural Tractors - Test Procedures and Performance Requirements

OPTC4, Protective Structures
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J167_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-20 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Standard applies to an overhead cover installed on a protective frame or enclosure conforming to SAE J2194 or alternately SAE J1194 and the following additional requirement of a drop test to verify the effectiveness of the overhead cover in protecting the operator from falling objects.

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Engineering the world's fastest tractor

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_05
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

JCB worked with design and engineering specialists to build a spectacular speed record-breaker that topped 150 mph.

For farmers in a hurry, JCB's Fastrac series agricultural tractors are capable of speeds up to 43 mph (69 km/h) in stock form. But the British company believes in challenging its engineers to improve the breed, and in doing so they've taken the concept of a high-speed ag tractor to new heights.

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EDITORIAL: ConExpo: Go big or go home

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_06
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

My inbox has been inundated with notifications of exciting new construction equipment, power systems, and other advanced technologies to be revealed at the rapidly approaching ConExpo/Con-Agg and IFPE shows in March. For example, as I write this in mid-January, Kubota teases that it is entering a new product segment and will unveil new equipment at the Las Vegas event. And the onslaught will only intensify in the coming weeks.

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Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines Operator Enclosure Environment Part 1: Terms and Definitions

HFTC6, Operator Accommodation
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3078/1_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-29 by SAE International in United States
SAE J3078 provides test methods and criteria for the evaluation of the operator enclosure environment in earth-moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165. SAE J3078/1 gives the terms and definitions which are used in other parts of SAE J3078. It is applicable to Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines as defined in SAE J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390.
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High Frequency Vibration Transmission Analysis on Agricultural Tractor by Using Combined Dynamical Energy Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis Approach

University of Nottingham-Gregor Tanner, Martin Richter
Yanmar R&D Europe s.r.l-Satoshi Morita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0527
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) has recently been introduced as a mesh-based high frequency method modelling structure borne sound for complex built-up structures. Using DEA, the structure-borne sound of an assembled agricultural tractor was calculated and good agreement between measurement and DEA calculations has been shown. However, it is still difficult to model a solid structure as currently DEA is based on wave-transmission calculations through plates and plate-to-plate junctions. Additionally, it is often difficult to generate accurate FE meshes of assembled complex structures because of welds, bolts, and rubber brushes between components. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate DEA elements based on measurement data in order to model solid parts of a complex structures. The method of Advanced Transfer Path Analysis (ATPA) is employed to extract energy-transmission characteristics of a structure. Firstly, Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) are measured between interface points on a structure. Then the direct transfer functions between all interface points are calculated using ATPA. Finally, DEA elements connecting interface points are calculated. They are based on the ATPA result…
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Performance Levels and Methods of Measurement of Electromagnetic Compatibility of Vehicles, Boats (up to 15 m), and Machines (16.6 Hz to 18 GHz)

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Standards
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J551/1_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of radio frequency radiated emissions and immunity. Each part details the requirements for a specific type of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test and the applicable frequency range of the test method. The methods are applicable to a vehicle, boat, machine or device powered by an internal combustion engine or battery powered electric motor. Operation of all engines or motors (main and auxiliary) of a vehicle, boat, machine or device is included. All equipment normally operating when the vehicle, boat, machine or device is in operation is included. Operator controlled equipment is included or excluded as specified in the individual document parts. As a special case, CISPR 12 applies to battery powered floor finishing equipment, but robot carpet sweepers are excluded. By reference, IEC CISPR 12 and CISPR 25 are adopted as the standards for the measurement of vehicle emissions. In the event that an amendment is made or a new edition is published, the new IEC document shall become part of this standard six months after the publication of the…
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Auxiliary Power Take-off Drives for Agricultural Tractors

Machine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J717_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-04 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Standard establishes specifications for mid- and side-power take-off drives that will be helpful in designing implements. Design of the implement attaching means must be tailored to each tractor, depending on attaching points available and the exact location of the auxiliary shaft.

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Rolling Circumference Index Groups for Agricultural Tractor Drive Tires

MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2523_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard is established for the following purpose: a Simplify the application of drive wheel tires to agricultural vehicles especially those with multiple drive axles having tires of different sizes. b Provide a pattern to combine similar sized tires into Rolling Circumference Index groups with uniform spacing between groups.
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