Development of a Real-Time Stroke Detection System for Elderly Drivers Using Quad-Chamber Air Cushion and IoT Devices
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0046
IoT (Internet of things) is considered most innovative technology in smart healthcare monitoring system which is able to show real-time physiological parameters feed data to web cloud, analysis using machine learning, artificial intelligence and big data. Stroke is most deadly diseases and real-time monitoring is desired to detect stroke onset during regular activities. The aim of our study is to develop a Real-time health monitoring system for elderly drivers using air cushion seat and IoT devices in order to detect stroke onset during driving. We have also made a prototype of brain stroke detection system using Quad-chamber air cushion system and IoT devices. This system can measure ECG, EEG, heart rate, seat pressure balance data, face/eye tracking etc. using IoT sensors, compare real-time data with reference data, predict abnormality, generate alarm and send message to relatives and emergency services if any stroke onset happens in order to provide emergency assistance to driver.
- Magazine Article
Fine-grained human motion tracing — the ability to trace the trajectory of a moving human hand or leg, or even the whole body — is a general capability that is useful in a wide variety of applications. It can be used for gesture recognition and virtual touch-screens (e.g. Kinect-style natural user interfaces), activity recognition, monitoring of young infants and the elderly, or security applications such as intruder detection. Motivated by these applications, depth-sensing-based systems have been developed to implement motion tracing capabilities in cameras; however, these devices are limited because they have a constrained field of view (around 2 to 4 m range with a 60-degree aperture), and do not work in non-line-of-sight scenarios, preventing their use in many applications such as whole-home activity recognition, security, and elderly care.
- Magazine Article
Particulate matter (PM) exposure and health effects have become top U.S. environmental research agenda items over the past decade. Environmental epidemiological studies rely on information from both sides of the dose-response equation: risk factor measures and health outcome data. The ability to resolve relationships from environmental data depends upon the quantity, accuracy, specificity, and precision of both. Although health surveillance and data collection methods have improved dramatically through database system advances, the techniques for PM exposure are not adequate.
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1397
While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems. The first step was to develop the required understanding of accident scenarios, injury mechanisms and risks and to implement these findings in the test tool and test assessment procedures. To this end, accident databases were studied and compared regarding the more critical accident scenarios involving the elderly and their injuries as well as their behavior and the transport modes that represent higher risk. This paper presents a novel statistical study of the accident database in Spain and provides an overview of the main accident situations involving elderly drivers, bicyclists or pedestrians as well as the most typical causes of injury and its severity. Moreover, the in-depth analysis of scenarios, actions and law violations carried out makes it possible to identify the travelling behavior of the elderly. Differences between ages and gender were also identified. The conclusions match with general beliefs and with literature information. Finally a general comparison with results from other countries was done.
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1647
Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the elderly population, automakers are paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor the drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry has been integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of applications is possible for the IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring systems. For example, smart car, smart home, smart bed, etc., Both luxury automakers and key global original equipment manufacturers are integrating healthcare services into their next-generation products.
Two- and Three-Dimensional Near-Infrared Subcutaneous Structure Imager Using Adaptive Nonlinear Video Processing
- Magazine Article
Scientists at NASA’s Glenn Research Center have successfully developed a novel subcutaneous structure imager for locating veins in challenging patient populations, such as juvenile, elderly, dark-skinned, or obese patients. Spurred initially by the needs of pediatric sickle-cell anemia patients in Africa, Glenn’s groundbreaking system includes a camera-processor-display apparatus and uses an innovative image-processing method to provide two- or three-dimensional, high-contrast visualization of veins or other vasculature structures. In addition to assisting practitioners to find veins in challenging populations, this system can also help novice healthcare workers locate veins for procedures such as needle insertion or excision. Compared to other state-of-the-art solutions, the imager is inexpensive, compact, and very portable, so it can be used in remote third-world areas, emergency response situations, or military battlefields.
- Magazine Feature Article
As automakers add advanced driver-assist systems to conventional passenger vehicles, they are developing one path to the fully autonomous vehicle-but not the only one. So, the inevitable question: When will fully self-driving cars arrive and what will they be like?
- Journal Article
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-9132
Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen. IMU is used for calculation of vehicle position to make a compensation about the route information. White line recognition ensures that the vehicle follows road geometry. A non-linear model predictive controller (MPC) model is developed to control three driving variables, namely, brake, speed and steer angle. Platooning is realized by driving information exchange based on Zigbee communication. The conventional platooning control methods, improve the power consumption by shortening the inter-vehicular distance. In contrast, the proposed method controls the speed at the time of acceleration ensuring enhanced ride comfort for elderly people. The vehicle is modelled using CarSim® and is integrated with the MPC modelled in Simulink®. The mathematical vehicle model is validated by performing an ISO lane change test and the proposed autonomous drive and platooning system is judged using simulation and some field tests.
- Magazine Article
The home healthcare market is growing rapidly and is forecasted to continue to grow at a CAGR of eight to nine percent over the next five years. There are several factors driving this growth including an aging population, increases in chronic diseases, increasing healthcare costs, and patient preference to receive care in a familiar setting. The delivery of fluids to and from the patient in applications such as infusion, drainage, and dialysis are increasingly being done at home. The need to make these procedures safe and easy for the home care setting can be a challenge with respect to infection control and exposure to hazardous fluids (drugs and bodily fluids). The introduction of easy to use closed fluid delivery systems will help to reduce and eliminate some of these hazards.
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-1737
The world is aging rapidly. Many countries can already be categorized as aging or aged societies while a few are becoming super-aged societies. In Thailand as well as in other countries, traffic accidents caused by elderly drivers will continue to rise as a significant percentage of elderly people still prefer to drive. Accidents may be prevented with driving tests and screening methods for elderly drivers. However, it is also necessary to understand the effect of aging on driving ability. With this understanding, driver training, driver assistant systems, and improvements on infrastructure may be designed accordingly. Among various physical changes, cognitive ability of the brain is one of the most significant factors affecting driving ability. In this paper, correlation between various cognitive functions of the brain and car following skill of drivers are considered. Car following skill was chosen because rear-end collisions are some of the most frequent type of accidents in Thailand. Car following skill can be measured objectively by using time headway. Furthermore, car following experiments can be studied reproducibly and safely on a driving simulator. Correlations of car following measurements and various cognitive functions measured with CANTAB software were calculated. It was found that Visuoconstructional-perceptual ability, Executive function, and Complex attention have moderate correlation with the time headway, especially at higher speed.