- Technical Paper
The purpose of this study was to use detailed medical information to evaluate thoracic injury of elderly patients in real world frontal crashes. In this study, we used analytic morphomics to predict the effect of torso geometry on thoracic injury. This method, extracts body features from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients in a semi-automated fashion. Thoracic injuries were examined in front row occupants involved in frontal crashes from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database. Among these occupants, two age groups (age < 60yr. [Nonelderly] and age ≧ 60yr. [Elderly]) who suffered severe thoracic injury were analyzed. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate injury outcomes considering variables including those for vehicle, demographics, and morphomics. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group sustained more rib fractures. Logistic regression models were fitted with different configurations of variables predictive of the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale of thoracic region (MAISthx 3+). The model developed based solely on vehicle data had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.60. When demographic data was combined with vehicle data, the model prediction improved to an AUC of 0.70. The AUC associated with vehicle and morphomics data increased to 0.74 and increased again to 0.82 when combining vehicle, demographic, and morphomics variables. The important morphomics variables were rib geometry, bone density, and spin-to-back skin, which represents fat thickness in the posterior trunk. Morphomics variables such as skeletal geometry and fat distribution can be precisely adjusted in a finite element human body model or anthropomorphic testing device to represent occupants of different body shapes and sizes and are thus more valuable in assessing injury during vehicle crashes.
- Technical Paper
Development a prototype of Real-time Brain stroke detection system using Quad-chamber air cushion and IoT devices for elderly drivers.
- Technical Paper
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1397
While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems. The first step was to develop the required understanding of accident scenarios, injury mechanisms and risks and to implement these findings in the test tool and test assessment procedures. To this end, accident databases were studied and compared regarding the more critical accident scenarios involving the elderly and their injuries as well as their behavior and the transport modes that represent higher risk. This paper presents a novel statistical study of the accident database in Spain and provides an overview of the main accident situations involving elderly drivers, bicyclists or pedestrians as well as the most typical causes of injury and its severity. Moreover, the in-depth analysis of scenarios, actions and law violations carried out makes it possible to identify the travelling behavior of the elderly. Differences between ages and gender were also identified. The conclusions match with general beliefs and with literature information. Finally a general comparison with results from other countries was done.
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1647
Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the elderly population, automakers are paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor the drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry has been integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of applications is possible for the IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring systems. For example, smart car, smart home, smart bed, etc., Both luxury automakers and key global original equipment manufacturers are integrating healthcare services into their next-generation products.
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1396
Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized. Pedal movements were recorded in response to traffic lights that turned yellow at four different vehicle-to-stop bar distances, or were red-on-approach (i.e. the light was red when it entered the driver’s visual field). Pedal movements were grouped into four categories based on foot trajectory (ballistic, above-pedal hovering, pedal tapping, or between-pedal hesitation). At the shortest stopping distance (165 ft), drivers only utilized ballistic movements; at intermediate stopping distances (275 ft and 365 ft), drivers displayed other pedal movement behaviors including hovering and tapping, but continued to utilize a ballistic approach for the majority of the trials (approximately 76%); at long stopping distances (500 ft and red-on-approach) drivers utilized hovering, pedal tapping, and between-pedal hesitation behaviors more frequently (in approximately 48% of trials). Such non-ballistic approaches to pedal transitions could lead to an increased incidence of pedal misapplication. Our findings imply that more long duration braking scenerios may predispose drivers to pedal errors, as more variability is observed when long duration braking is available as an option.
- Magazine Article
Among the challenges faced by the healthcare sector is a population that is growing older. The elderly population is expected to grow significantly over the next 20 years. Having an independent lifestyle is highly desired by elderly people, but independence for older adults often comes with high risks. Many smart home technologies have been developed to track and monitor activities of the elderly at home and assist their independent living. Buildings and urban environments fitted out with sensor networks offer the elderly the chance to retain their independence for longer. Wearable sensor technologies can also play a major role.
- Magazine Article
The healthcare world today is one that is rapidly changing and ever-evolving. Several dynamics are driving these changes, including an aging population, the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, and pressure on healthcare providers to deliver high-quality medical care at the lowest cost possible. Factors like these are putting pressure on an already strained healthcare system, fueling the need for medical solutions that are aimed at enhancing efficiencies, reducing costs, and helping improve patient care, the patient experience, and patient satisfaction.
- Journal Article
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-9132
Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen. IMU is used for calculation of vehicle position to make a compensation about the route information. White line recognition ensures that the vehicle follows road geometry. A non-linear model predictive controller (MPC) model is developed to control three driving variables, namely, brake, speed and steer angle. Platooning is realized by driving information exchange based on Zigbee communication. The conventional platooning control methods, improve the power consumption by shortening the inter-vehicular distance. In contrast, the proposed method controls the speed at the time of acceleration ensuring enhanced ride comfort for elderly people. The vehicle is modelled using CarSim® and is integrated with the MPC modelled in Simulink®. The mathematical vehicle model is validated by performing an ISO lane change test and the proposed autonomous drive and platooning system is judged using simulation and some field tests.
Preliminary study of uniform restraint concept for protection of rear-seat occupant under mid and high crash severities
- Technical Paper
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-1528
As the restraint technologies for front-seat occupant protection advance, such as seatbelt pre-tensioner, seatbelt load limiter and airbag, relative effectiveness of rear-seat occupant protection decreases, especially for the elderly. Some occupant protection systems for front-seat have been proved to be effective for rear-seat occupant protection as well, but they also have some drawbacks. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen. And for rear-seat occupants, it might be difficult to install airbag and set deployment time. For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection in wide range of impact severity for rear-seat occupants. In this study, we use THUMS 50th percentile occupant model to simulate response under sled test frontal impact loading. The occupant is restrained by uniform restraint forces respectively acting on head, upper torso and shoulders, and lower extremities in a spread way, through three “plates” respectively positioned against head, upper torso and shoulders, and knees. The force levels are control parameters, which are manually optimized for adapting to crash severity, for maintaining reasonable occupant posture and body kinematics, and resulting in acceptable injuries. Rib fractures, chest deflection, chest acceleration and head acceleration are monitored in simulations. The results show that the restraint forces distributed on the sturdy parts of human body in such a spread way could be more efficient than seatbelt, and can provide rear-seat occupants protection in a wider range of impact velocity with adaptable level of restraint force.