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Accuracy of Anthropometric Scaling: Using Stature to Estimate Body Segment Lengths

Explico Engineering Co.-Karla Petroskey
Jensen Hughes-Julius Campbell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0523
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the fields of forensic accident reconstruction and biomechanical engineering, it is often necessary to estimate the length of a specific body segment for an individual, about whom little is known besides overall stature. Since body proportions and body segment lengths vary throughout the population, there will be some error in these estimations. The current study provides estimates for the accuracy of human body segment length predictions based on stature. In this study, four different methods for predicting body segment lengths based on stature were evaluated. Using publicly available adult and child anthropometric datasets, a leave-one-out cross validation analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of each of the four methods in predicting body segment lengths. The results of the leave-one-out analysis showed that different prediction methods produced the best estimates for different body segment length measurements. When using the best method for each body segment, body segment lengths for an individual on average can be predicted within 2.5% of the actual measurement. The 50th percentile best estimates for each body segment length studied are…
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Development of an open source finite element adult model for seating discomfort investigation

Beihang University-Li Ding
Beihang University, Univ Lyon1, Univ Eiffel, IFSTTAR, LBMC-Shenghui Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0874
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To understand the causes of seating discomfort, computational finite element (FE) human body models (HBM) could be useful to estimate internal loads and soft tissue deformation, which cannot be easily measured experimentally. However, most existing models only represent a limited number of body sizes and postures and cannot be easily personalized and repositioned. Moreover, these models are proprietary and not publicly available, thus limiting the possibilities for research purposes. In recent years, an open source software package has been developed within the European project PIPER (available at www.piper-project.org), making it possible to personalize and to position an HBM used for crash injury simulation. In addition to the personalizing and positioning tools, a child model has also been developed and is also now available. The present study aims to derive an adult HBM to study seating discomfort from the PIPER child model using the PIPER personalizing tools and publicly available information concerning both external body dimensions and internal skeleton. The paper describes the model development approach, main encountered difficulties, and perspective of using such an approach…
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Empirical Study of the Braking Performance of Pedestrian Autonomous Emergency Braking (P-AEB)

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Omair Siddiqui, Nicholas Famiglietti, Benjamin Nguyen, Ryan Hoang, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0878
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle manufacturers are beginning to improve existing autonomous emergency braking (AEB) algorithms by pedestrian identification and avoidance capability. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has performed tests on eleven such vehicles; data is publicly available and was analyzed for this study. The IIHS tests were divided into three scenarios- 1) An adult pedestrian crossing a street on a path perpendicular to the travel line of vehicle, with a vehicle approach speed of 20 or 40 km/h, 2) a child pedestrian crossing a street from behind an obstruction on a path perpendicular to the travel line of a vehicle (approach speeds 20, 40 km/h), and 3) an adult pedestrian near the edge of a road in a path parallel to the travel path of a vehicle (approach speeds 40, 60 kph). An analysis was performed to compare Forward Collision Warning (FCW) engagement time, brake application time, and probability of impact across different manufacturers. It was observed that FCW on time for the 2019 Volvo XC40 lasted from 0.95 sec. - 2.36 sec., whereas for the…
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Characterization of Thoracic Spinal Development by Age and Gender and Possible Effect on Crash Occupants

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau
University of Michigan Hospital-Michelle Caird, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Sven Holcombe, Stewart Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0520
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Spine degeneration can lower injury tolerance and influence injury outcomes in vehicle crashes. To date, limited information exists on the effect of age and gender on thoracic spine 3-dimensional geometry. The purpose of this study is to quantify thoracic spinal column and canal geometry using selected geometrical measurement from a large and continuous sample of CT scans. More than 33,488 scans were obtained from the International Center for Automotive Medicine database at the University of Michigan under Institutional Review Board approval (HUM00041441). The sample consisted of CT scans obtained from 31,537 adult and 1,951 pediatric patients between the ages of 0 to 99 years old. Each scan was processed semi-automatically using custom algorithms written in MATLAB (The Math Works, Natick, MA). Five geometrical measurements were collected including: 1) maximum spinal curvature depth (D), 2) T1-to-T12 vertical height (H), 3) Kyphosis Index (KI), 4) kyphosis angle, and 5) spinal canal radius. The data were analyzed by gender and age. Maximum spinal curvature depth occurred at T6, irrespective of age and gender. It continuously increased with age.…
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Human Health Risk Assessment of Space Radiation

University of Pittsburgh-Ashmita Rajkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0020
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Mars has been the topic of colonization and discovery for the last few decades but there have been hindrances in implementing the mission. This focus on Mars colonization has only deepened after the discovery of water on its surface. The discovery of water on Mars has led researchers to believe that its sustainability of life is higher than any other uncolonized planet. Although, life can survive on Mars, it is highly unethical to send communities to Mars without acknowledging the risks, especially those concerning the well being of humans. The risks of living on Mars are slowly unraveling through extensive research, but it is evident that certain health care measures must be taken in order to prevent potentially fatal conditions. One of the biggest problems is health concerns that astronauts face after returning from Mars. Health problems in space have been increasingly difficult to deal with because of the lasting circumstances that astronauts suffer upon returning back to Earth. As a result of these issues, NASA has delayed its Mars mission to circa 2028. Another…
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Mass Optimized Hood Design for Conflicting Performances

General Motors Technical Center-Santosh Swamy, Shivakumar Chidanandappa
University of Agder, Norway-Gulshan Noorsumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2546
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Passenger vehicles have stringent safety regulations for pedestrian protection to meet child and adult head impact requirements to minimize injuries. These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with stiffness and durability performance criteria, which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. There is a growing need for performance balancing to meet both these loadcases. This paper uses Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach involving shape variables to achieve optimized performance for stiffness, durability and pedestrian safety.The current study describes an approach that helps reduce time and efforts needed to resolve performance issues between both stiffness/durability and Pedestrian safety requirements. This approach not only helps find a feasible cross-functional solution but also provides an opportunity to reduce the overall development cycle time and mass whenever possible. It also demonstrates the importance of shapes and dimensions of slots on the inner panel as variables. The slots on inner panel and palm reinforcement are observed to be most sensitive, whereas thicknesses of inner panel, palm and latch reinforcement are the most sensitive size variables. It also involves using a reduced content…
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Snowmobile Passenger Handgrips

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1062_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to give information to engineers and designers in order that access to a passenger handgrip, when used, is easily obtained, and that such handgrips offer maximum safety for a person at least as large as a 95th percentile adult male during snowmobile operation.
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A Case Study on Golf Car Powertrain NVH Sources and Mitigation Methods

Club Car, LLC-Adam Clark
Roush Industries, Inc.-Steven Carter, Kenneth Buczek, Mayuresh Pathak
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The golf market has remained flat in North America. Whereas, it has grown worldwide. A trend is seen where the number of young adults and adults over the age of 65 years involved with the game has increased. The demographics in golf showing the most growth also have high standards for the operation of the golf car. They have transcended their expectations to align with some of the qualities expected of automobiles. There is a shift in consumer expectations. Moreover, the market competition has also increased. This drives the OEMs to deliver refined golf cars with NVH being a key aspect in development. This paper showcases a recent study to improve the powertrain N&V performance of an internal combustion engine golf car. Primarily, a test-based approach is followed. Chassis rolls and on road testing are performed for benchmarking and target setting. System and component tests are performed to root cause issues. The tests further help to provide input for mitigation methods for application on the golf cars. Structural modifications address structure-borne noise and perceived vibration.…
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Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

University of Michigan-Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert, Monica Jones
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
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Side Impact Assessment and Comparison of Appropriate Size and Age Equivalent Porcine Surrogates to Scaled Human Side Impact Response Biofidelity Corridors

Vehicle Safety Sciences, LLC (Ford Retired)-Stephen W. Rouhana
Wayne State University-Jennifer L. Yaek, Christopher J. Andrecovich, John M. Cavanaugh
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Analysis and validation of current scaling relationships and existing response corridors using animal surrogate test data is valuable, and may lead to the development of new or improved scaling relationships. For this reason, lateral pendulum impact testing of appropriate size cadaveric porcine surrogates of human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male age equivalence, were performed at the thorax and abdomen body regions to compare swine test data to already established human lateral impact response corridors scaled from the 50th percentile human adult male to the pediatric level to establish viability of current scaling laws. Appropriate Porcine Surrogate Equivalents PSE for the human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male, based on whole body mass, were established. A series of lateral impact thorax and abdomen pendulum testing was performed based on previously established scaled lateral impact assessment test protocols. The PSE thorax and abdominal impact response data were assessed against previously established scaled human thorax lateral impact response corridors and scaled abdominal oblique impact response corridors for the 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile human…
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