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A Case Study on Golf Car Powertrain NVH Sources and Mitigation Methods

Club Car, LLC-Adam Clark
Roush Industries, Inc.-Steven Carter, Kenneth Buczek, Mayuresh Pathak
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The golf market has remained flat in North America. Whereas, it has grown worldwide. A trend is seen where the number of young adults and adults over the age of 65 years involved with the game has increased. The demographics in golf showing the most growth also have high standards for the operation of the golf car. They have transcended their expectations to align with some of the qualities expected of automobiles. There is a shift in consumer expectations. Moreover, the market competition has also increased. This drives the OEMs to deliver refined golf cars with NVH being a key aspect in development. This paper showcases a recent study to improve the powertrain N&V performance of an internal combustion engine golf car. Primarily, a test-based approach is followed. Chassis rolls and on road testing are performed for benchmarking and target setting. System and component tests are performed to root cause issues. The tests further help to provide input for mitigation methods for application on the golf cars. Structural modifications address structure-borne noise and perceived vibration.…
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Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

University of Michigan-Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert, Monica Jones
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
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Side Impact Assessment and Comparison of Appropriate Size and Age Equivalent Porcine Surrogates to Scaled Human Side Impact Response Biofidelity Corridors

Vehicle Safety Sciences, LLC (Ford Retired)-Stephen W. Rouhana
Wayne State University-Jennifer L. Yaek, Christopher J. Andrecovich, John M. Cavanaugh
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Analysis and validation of current scaling relationships and existing response corridors using animal surrogate test data is valuable, and may lead to the development of new or improved scaling relationships. For this reason, lateral pendulum impact testing of appropriate size cadaveric porcine surrogates of human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male age equivalence, were performed at the thorax and abdomen body regions to compare swine test data to already established human lateral impact response corridors scaled from the 50th percentile human adult male to the pediatric level to establish viability of current scaling laws. Appropriate Porcine Surrogate Equivalents PSE for the human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male, based on whole body mass, were established. A series of lateral impact thorax and abdomen pendulum testing was performed based on previously established scaled lateral impact assessment test protocols. The PSE thorax and abdominal impact response data were assessed against previously established scaled human thorax lateral impact response corridors and scaled abdominal oblique impact response corridors for the 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile human…
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Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGM), Proven Cost-Effective, Add to Quality of Life for Diabetics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29007
Published 2018-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Continuous glucose monitors (CGM) offer significant, daily benefits to people with type 1 diabetes, providing near-real time measurements of blood sugar levels, but they can be expensive. A new study by researchers from the University of Chicago Medicine, based on a six-month clinical trial, finds that use of a CGM is cost-effective for adult patients with type 1 diabetes when compared to daily use of test strips. The results are well within the thresholds normally used by insurance plans to cover medical devices. During the trial, CGMs improved overall blood glucose control for the study group and reduced hypoglycemia — low blood sugar episodes.

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Spinal Disc Herniations in Occupants Involved in Frontal Impacts

Tack Lam
Biomechanics Scientific LLC-B. Johan Ivarsson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Disc herniations in the spine are commonly associated with degenerative changes, and the prevalence increases with age. Though rare, spinal disc herniations can also be caused by trauma. With increasing number of older drivers on U.S. roads, there is an expected proportionate increase in clinical findings of disc herniations in occupants involved in vehicle impacts. Our goal in this study is to determine whether there is a causal relationship between frontal impacts and the occurrence of disc herniations in the occupants of these impacts. We further aim to determine the prevalence of different types of spinal injury and to evaluate the effects of crash severity and other parameters on different types of spinal injury in such impacts. Using data from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database from 1993 through 2014, we examined the reported occurrence of all spine injuries for adult occupants in frontal impact. The results show that the most common spine injury is an acute muscle strain of the neck, followed by strain of the low back. The…
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Emergency Autonomous to Manual Takeover in a Driving Simulator: Teen vs. Adult Drivers – A Pilot Study

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia-Aditya Belwadi, Helen Loeb, Chelsea Ward McIntosh
University of Pennsylvania-Michelle Shen, Saniyah Shaikh
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous and/or automated vehicles offer a host of future opportunities but leave many questions unanswered regarding their impact on crash avoidance or the ability of drivers to effectively scan and re-engage from self-driving mode when necessary to avoid crash scenarios. Considering a 16-year-old is several times more likely to die in an automobile crash than other licensed drivers, it was crucial to test both teenage drivers and adults to determine head-on collision avoidance abilities when subjected to a failing autopilot in a simulated autonomous vehicle. In this study, eight teenagers ages 16-19 and four experienced adults underwent four simulated drives (one manual practice drive and three simulated autonomous drives) using a hi-fidelity, Real Time Technologies SimDriver Simulator to represent being in a self-driving vehicle. When exposed to a head-on crash event where the opposing vehicle crosses the dividing line and drives towards the subject, most subjects successfully swerved to avoid the car albeit with several oscillations before stabilization.
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App Enables Smartphone Camera to Screen for Pancreatic Cancer

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-27807
Published 2017-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The five-year survival rate of pancreatic cancer is one of the worst — 9 percent — in part because there are no obvious symptoms or non-invasive screening tools to catch a tumor before it spreads. One of the earliest symptoms of pancreatic cancer, as well as other diseases, is jaundice, a yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. The ability to detect signs of jaundice when bilirubin levels are minimally elevated — but before they're visible to the naked eye — could enable an entirely new screening program for at-risk individuals.

Bionic Pancreas Passes Critical Science Hurdle

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-26700
Published 2017-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

On the heels of winning $12 million in supplemental funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to conduct a major, multicenter, national clinical trial of his iLet™ bionic pancreas, Edward Damiano, a College of Engineering professor of biomedical engineering, has coauthored a study in The Lancet that affirms the technology's effectiveness in managing type 1 diabetes (T1D) better than current conventional methods.

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Morphomics of the Talus

General Motors LLC-Sikui Wang, Annette L. Irwin
General Motors LLC and International Center for Automotive M-David Gorman, Ebram Handy
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. A logistic regression model was developed indicating occupant weight, impact delta velocity and gender to be significant predictors of talus fracture (p<0.05). Separately, a specific set of Computed Tomography (CT) scans from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) scan database was used to characterize the talar dome. This control population consisted of 207 adults aged 18 to 84, with no foot or ankle trauma, and scans that…
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Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

D. J. Dalmotas Consulting, Inc.-Dainius J. Dalmotas
General Motors Corporation-Harold J. Mertz
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
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