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Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine Coated with YSZ

SVMIT Bharuch-Dr. Dipakkumar C. Gosai
SVNIT Surat-Anil Kumar Gillawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2548
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with thermal barrier coating (TBC) bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion. The combination of this ceramic material produces excellent high-temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) resistant to thermal cycling stresses and strains. The engine valves, engine heads, and engine pistons were thermal barrier ceramic coated and computerized experimental results were compared to the base engine. Experimental results justified TBC…
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Study of Effect of Coating of Piston on the Performance of a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

BMS College of Engineering-Kavadiki Veerabhadhrappa
BMSCE-Ram Rohit V
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1021
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Insulation of pistons in engines is aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were used to simulate adiabatic engines with the intention not only for reduced in-cylinder heat rejection and thermal fatigue protection of underlying metallic surfaces, but also for possible reduction of engine emissions. The application of TBCs reduces the heat transfer to the engine cooling jacket through the combustion chamber surfaces (which include the cylinder head, liner, and piston crown) and piston rings. The insulation of the combustion chamber with this coating, which is ceramic based, influences the combustion process and hence the performance and exhaust emissions characteristics of the engines. In the scenario of fast rising oil prices, insulation technologies are gaining importance as they help in saving fuel. A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating was deposited on top of a piston for a Diesel engine and its effect on the engine performance is studied. It is found to increase thermal and mechanical efficiency.
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Advances in surface engineering


India Pistons Ltd-R. Mahadevan
  • Magazine Feature Article
  • 13MEIP12_02
Published 2013-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Newer materials with improved properties can enhance the properties of the working surfaces of cylinder components for the demands of increased temperatures, pressures, and corrosive atmospheres and still satisfy performance and life requirements.

By all accounts, the internal-combustion engine will continue to play a major role as the prime mover for automotive vehicles for decades to come. It has faced a lot of challenges in the past, but it is also true that at every challenge, the industry comes up with an adequate response to meet that challenge in part or in full.

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Concept of “Temperature Swing Heat Insulation” in Combustion Chamber Walls, and Appropriate Thermo-Physical Properties for Heat Insulation Coat

SAE International Journal of Engines

Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.-Hidemasa Kosaka, Yoshifumi Wakisaka, Yoshihiro Nomura, Yoshihiro Hotta, Makoto Koike, Kiyomi Nakakita
Toyota Motor Corp-Akio Kawaguchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0274
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of heat insulation by “Temperature Swing”, that is temperature fluctuation, on combustion chamber walls coated with low-heat-conductivity and low-heat-capacity materials.Adiabatic engines studied in the 1980s, such as ceramic coated engines, caused constantly high temperature on combustion wall surface during the whole cycle including the intake stroke, even if it employed ceramic thermal barrier coating methods. This resulted in increase in NOx and Soot, decrease in volumetric efficiency and combustion efficiency, and facilitated the occurrence of engine knock.On the other hand, “Temperature Swing” coat on the combustion chamber walls leads to a large change in surface temperature. In this case, the surface temperature with this insulation coat follows the transient gas temperature, which decreases heat loss with the prevention of intake air heating, and also which is expected to prevent NOx and Soot from increasing. In our calculations, the increase of the surface temperature fluctuation, “Temperature Swing” results from the coat of lower heat conductivity and lower heat capacity. Particularly in Gasoline engines, the coat with…
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Investigation on the Fuel and Engine Parameters that Affect the Half Mass Fraction Burned (CA50) Optimum Crank Angle

Petrobras-Leonardo de O. Carvalho, Tadeu C. Cordeiro de Melo
UFRJ-Rubelmar M. de Azevedo Cruz Neto
Published 2012-10-02 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder pressure measurements and indicating diagrams have proven to be a valuable research tool for the analysis of combustion in spark-ignition or compression-ignition engines. With the use of thermodynamic models, the rate of heat release and mass fraction burned curves are calculated, and from the latter the CA50 parameter (crank angle fifty), which is the angle in which 50% of the total fuel has been burned. The empirical process of obtaining the optimum start of combustion typically leads to a value of CA50 from 8° to 10° after top dead center. This paper attempts to numerically investigate which properties have an influence on this optimum CA50. A simple thermodynamic model was implemented which used the Wiebe function for the rate heat release. The CA50 was then evaluated for combustion duration in the base configuration and in a theoretical adiabatic engine. Results showed that the CA50 is mildly sensitive to combustion duration and highly sensitive to the wall heat transfer coefficient, reaching very low values (still always located after top dead center). These lower values provided…
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High Efficiency Internal Combustion Stirling Engine Development

P&B Enterprises, Inc.-Richard Patton, George Bennett
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A unique engine, based on the regenerative principle, is being developed with the goal of achieving high brake efficiency over a wide power range. It can be characterized as an internal combustion Stirling engine (ICSE). The engine is a split-cycle configuration with a regenerator between the intake/compression cylinder and the power/exhaust cylinder. The regenerator acts as a counter-flow heat exchanger. During exhaust, the hot gases are cooled by the regenerator. The regenerator stores this heat. On the next cycle, compressed gases flow in the opposite direction and are heated by the regenerator. The gases coming from the regenerator into the power cylinder are very hot (~900°C), which provides the necessary gas temperature for auto-ignition of diesel and other fuels.A simplified Air Cycle analysis of the ICS engine is presented to validate the concept thermodynamics and to show the inherent difference between the ICS and conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) indicated efficiency. The ICE engine indicated efficiency increases with increasing compression ratio and is insensitive to peak temperatures, whereas in the ICS engine indicated efficiency increases…
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Experimental Study on Thermal Barrier Coated Diesel Engine Performance with Blends of Diesel and Palm Biodiesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shri S'ad Vidya Mandal Institute of Technology-A. J. Modi, D. C. Gosai
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1519
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Energy conservation and efficiency have been the quest of engineers concerned with internal combustion engine. Theoretically, if the heat rejected could be reduced, then the thermal efficiency would be improved, at least up to the limit set by the second law of thermodynamics. Low Heat Rejection engines aim to do this by reducing the heat lost to the coolant. For current work a ceramic coated twin cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using blends of diesel and palm biodiesel as the fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. In recent years, Considerable efforts were made to develop and introduce alternative renewable fuel, to replace conventional petroleum-base fuels. Here, the diesel engine was insulated by Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) as ceramic material attaining an adiabatic condition. The cycle average gas temperature and metal surface temperature are higher in adiabatic engine. For the present study the biodiesel was prepared in laboratory from non-edible vegetable oil (Palm oil) by transesterification process with methanol, where potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as a catalyst. An experimental investigation of the performance…
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Numerical Modeling of Charge Stratification for the Combustion Control of HCCI Engines

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company-Jeffrey M. Grenda
Published 2005-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Numerical modeling is used to estimate the realizable potential of combustion control and burn duration extension in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines using in-cylinder charge stratification. Parametric analyses of several fuels using a range of operating conditions illustrate the potential physical variables have on ignition timing and burn duration. The detailed stratification model utilizes a one-dimensional CFD gas dynamics representation of radial gas motion in an engine cylinder with time-varying chamber volume and detailed combustion chemistry of n-pentane fuel. This approach provides the ability to incorporate the effects of in-cylinder temperature and species concentration non-uniformities while remaining sufficiently tractable to include a detailed kinetic model of combustion chemistry.A parametric set of conditions was studied to determine the effect of stratified temperature, equivalence ratio, and EGR on the ignition timing and burn duration of a representative HCCI engine. The assumption of adiabatic engine operation was made to assess the potential of combustion control mechanisms separate from heat transfer effects. The results demonstrate that moderate and potentially achievable amounts of in-cylinder charge stratification result in extended…
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Development of an Adiabatic Engine Installed Energy Recover Turbines and Converters of CNG Fuel

Ship & Ocean Foundation, Fujiceratech Co., Ltd.-Hideo Kawamura, Mitsuru Akama
Published 2003-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the fuel consumption and control exhaust emissions in a heat insulation engine, fuels reformed CH4 by CO2 and steam were used. Porous metal plate coated Li2ZrO3 was used to make CO2 separate from the exhaust gas of the engine. CH4 and CO2 gas are supplied to the catalytic converter and reformed CO and H2gas increased to 30% on kinetic energy are supplied to the engine as well as gas and steam turbine is installed to recover the exhaust gas energy. As the result the thermal efficiency of the engine systems will be improved to about 57.5% compared with 42% of conventional diesel engine.
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The Hydrocycle Rocket Free-Piston Instant-Conversion Adiabatic Engine and One-Range, Infinitely Variable Hydrostatic Transmission System

Consultant-Howard W. Christenson
Published 1996-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The ideal internal-combustion crankshaft engine would burn all the fuel near top center without detonation, then expand the whole charge until exhaust Both events are impossible with current piston engines.The Hydrocycle Rocket Piston Engine concept employs a free piston in the head of a two-stroke-cycle engine. Combustion between the crank piston and the free piston allows direct conversion of combustion fluid expansion to hydrostatic fluid flow and accumulator gas compression with perfect timing and minimum thermal and mechanical losses.An infinitely variable, radial hydrostatic motor gives the driver smooth, gas-cushioned acceleration and stepless performance. Maximum economy is attained since the driver is forced to run the engine at optimum minimum speed to match road load oadin all traffic conditions.
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