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A Study on Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension Systems

BYD Auto Co., Ltd.-Pu Xu
South China University of Technology-Wu Qin, Wen-Bin Shangguan, Huayuan Feng, Yi Sun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1084
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A sliding mode control with a disturbance observer is proposed for suppressing the sprung mass vibration in a quarter-car with double-wishbone active suspension systems (ASSs). The suspension structure containing upper and lower control arms is considered in double-wishbone ASSs. The governing equations of ASSs are obtained by the balance-force analysis of the sprung mass in ASSs. Since ASSs include uncertainties in damping, stiffness, and external disturbance acting on the sprung mass, we design a disturbance observer based on a sliding mode control to estimate these uncertainties under the unknown road excitation. By the Lyapunov minimax approach, the uniform boundedness and the uniform ultimate boundedness for ASSs with the proposed control are proved. The efficacy of the design control is verified through co-simulation of ADAMS software and MATLAB/Simulink software for the road excitation of the step displacement. The sprung mass acceleration of ASSs is obtained with and without the proposed control. The results show that ASSs with the proposed control can yield better riding comfort performance of vibration attenuation of the sprung mass. Furthermore, the effects…
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Behavioral Study on Passenger and Driver Dynamics Utilizing 14-DOF Half Car Active Suspension System

Anna University-Arivazhagan Anandan, Arunachalam K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1006
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The main aim of the current research work is to investigate the behavior of passenger and driver biomechanics when the vehicle is excited under road irregularities. For this purpose, a 14-degree of freedom (DOF) human-vehicle-road model was proposed. In addition to that, the ride comfort of the occupant with the aid of active suspension and its influence on other performance indices like suspension working space and road holding were also investigated. Besides sprung mass acceleration, the ride comfort was evaluated with representation from pitching acceleration and occupant’s head acceleration. Active suspension based on Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller with hydraulic actuator was implemented. Then, the parameters of the PID controller are optimally tuned by adopting genetic algorithm (GA) on the basis of integral time absolute error (ITAE) method. The objective function was obtained by reducing the ITAE of tire deflection, suspension deflection and sprung mass motion. Various road profiles such as sinusoidal road, single bump, and random profile were generated and tested on the proposed controller vehicle model to guarantee the robustness. Numerical examples were…
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Crank-Lever Electromagnetic Damper (CLEMD) Design for Automobile Suspension System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Politecnico Di Milano, Italy-Stefano Melzi
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, India-Prashant Eknath Todmal
  • Journal Article
  • 06-13-01-0002
Published 2020-02-04 by SAE International in United States
An effective damper is among the most important components of the suspension system. It ensures the right amount of damping force is acting on the suspension system to provide comfort to the passengers and proper road holding to tires. Unfortunately, the energy absorbed by the dampers from the suspension system gets wasted in the form of heat. In this article, it is proposed to use innovative electromagnetic damper (EMD) with a crank-lever mechanism to recover energy from the suspension system. The goal is to develop a lightweight design of EMD that can recover a high amount of power. For the design, an off-road vehicle is used since in off-road vehicles the amount of power wasted in the suspension system is high. Three different design approaches are used, which include single-stage gearbox type, two-stage gearbox type, and three-stage gearbox type of CLEMD. Out of them, the best design, i.e. three-stage gearbox type of CLEMD is selected because of minimum weight and inertia of the components. This article is focused on the design and analysis of the…
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Robustness Analysis of the Model Reference Control for Active Suspension System

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Benha University, Egypt-Aref M.A. Soliman, Sayed A. Abdallah, Fomel F. Amien
Minia University, Egypt-Mina M. Kaldas
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-02-0012
Published 2020-02-04 by SAE International in United States
This article presents a robustness analysis study for the model reference controller (“MRC”) of active suspension system. The MRC employs both suspension look-ahead preview and wheelbase preview concepts. The methodology of the MRC is based on the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook scheme. A 13 degree of freedom full vehicle model is developed and validated. The engine mass, driver seat, and anti-roll bar are considered in the model. The MRC strategy uses eight proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers for both body and wheel control. A gradient based on optimization algorithm is applied to obtain the controller parameters using a cost function including both ride comfort and road holding performance. The robustness analysis of the controller is performed by evaluating the MRC controller performance under different driving conditions, including different road profiles, different vehicle speeds, and different vehicle loading. Furthermore, the effect of the variable design parameters of the suspension system is also investigated. The results showed that the MRC for active suspension provides robust and significant improvement in both ride comfort and road holding performance of the vehicle under…
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Design and Development of a Semi Active Electromagnetic Suspension System

ARAI-Kiran Pralhad Wani
B.Tech Research Student ARAI Academy-Palash Agrawal, Amey Desai, Jaya Surya Mallireddy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This research paper includes the design and development of semi active suspension system using the permanent magnet, electromagnet and its control. The combination of permanent magnets is used to withstand static load of 20 kg. The controller is used to deploy the control logic and decide the supply of the required quantity of current to the electromagnets. There are two inputs given to the controller, one of them is air gap between upper magnets and lower magnets and second is the nature of the road profile in terms of amplitude of irregularity of the road. Based on the values of these two inputs the current supplied to the electromagnet is varied which results in variable damping force. The experimental setup for semi active suspension is developed. It includes a metallic roller fitted with irregularity similar to road profile, chain and sprocket connected to electric motor, whose magnitude is sensed and given as an input to the controller. Based on this input value, the current supplied is varied as per the predefined look-up table in the…
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Minimizing Power Consumption of Fully Active Vehicle Suspension System Using Combined Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization

Helwan University-Ahmed Elsawaf, H. Metered, A. Abdelhamid
Published 2019-07-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces an optimum design for a feedback controller of a fully active vehicle suspension system using the combined multi-objective particle swarm optimization (CMOPSO) in order to minimize the actuator power consumption while enhancing the ride comfort. The proposed CMOPSO algorithm aims to minimize both the vertical body acceleration and the actuator power consumption by searching about the optimum feedback controller gains. A mathematical model and the equations of motion of the quarter-car active suspension system are considered and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. The proposed active suspension is compared with both active suspension system controlled using the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and the passive suspension systems. Suspension performance is evaluated in time and frequency domains to verify the success of the proposed control technique. The simulated results reveal that the proposed controller using CMOPSO grants a significant enhancement of ride comfort and road holding, and reduction of actuator power consumption.
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Vibration Control of an Active Seat Suspension System Integrated Pregnant Woman Body Model

6 th of October Univ. and Helwan University-AM Abdel-Ghany
Helwan University-H. Metered, A. M Bassiuny
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is effective, popular and cost effective for a lot of scientific and engineering applications. In this paper, PID and fuzzy-self-tuning PID (FSTPID) controllers are applied to improve the performance of an active seat suspension system to enhance the pregnant woman comfort. The equations of motion of thirteen-degrees-of-freedom (13-DOF) active seat suspension system incorporating pregnant woman body model are derived and simulated. PID gains are tuned and estimated using genetic algorithm (GA) to formulate GA PID controller. In FSTPID, fuzzy logic technique is used to tune PID controller gains by selecting appropriate fuzzy rules using Matlab/Simulink software. Both controlled active seat suspension systems are compared with a passive seat suspension. Suspension performance is evaluated under bump and random road excitations in order to verify the success of the proposed controllers. Theoretical results reveal that the proposed controllers using GA PID and FSTPID grant a significant enhancement of the pregnant woman comfort and her fetus.
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Model Reference Control for Active Suspension System

Benha University, Egypt-Aref M.A. Soliman, Sayed A. Abdallah, Fomel F. Amien
Minia University, Egypt-Mina M.S. Kaldas
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study is to develop a Model Reference Control (MRC) strategy for active suspension System. The MRC strategy employs both the suspension look-ahead preview and wheelbase preview concepts, and the methodology of the MRC based on the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook concept. The study performed using a 13 degree-of-freedom (DoF) vehicle vertical dynamics model including the active suspension actuators masses. The engine mass, driver seat and anti-roll bar are considered in the model. The MRC strategy uses eight Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers for both body and wheel control. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is applied to obtain the controller parameters using a cost function including both ride comfort and road holding performance. Comparison between the active suspension system provided with proposed MRC strategy, the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook suspension system, and the passive suspension system in terms of ride comfort and road holding is performed. The obtained results showed that, the proposed MRC strategy with the PID controllers are able to track the performance of the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook system, and provided significant improvements in both…
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Study and Analysis of the Behavior of a Seated Human Body in a Vehicle by the Influence of an Active Suspension System

Anna University-Arivazhagan Anandan, Arunachalam K
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to study the influence of a suspension system on the human body with the effect of the controller behavior. For this work, 2-Degree of Freedom (DoF) quarter car suspension system with 4 DoF seated human body is modeled. The mathematical equation is developed by using a lumped mass parameter method. Governing equations of motions are generated by Newton’s Law of motion. Random road profile is also considered for this study. MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used to simulate the system results and system analysis is limited to a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller with hydraulic actuator. Seat to Head transmissibility ratio of the active suspension system is analyzed and compared with the passive suspension system. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed active system, simulated results are compared with ISO 2631 comfort curves. Therefore the result shows that the PID based active suspension system improves the ride comfort of the occupant when compared with passive suspension.
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Influence of Intelligent Active Suspension System Controller Design Techniques on Vehicle Braking Characteristics

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Egyptian Armed Forces, Egypt-Ahmed Mahmoud Onsy, Alhossein Mostafa Sharaf, Mahmoud Mohamed Ashrey
Helwan University, Egypt-Samir Mohamed Eldemerdash
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-01-0003
Published 2018-12-04 by SAE International in United States
This article presents a comprehensive investigation for the interaction between vehicle ride vibration control and braking control using two degrees of freedom (2DOF) quarter vehicle model. A typical limited bandwidth active suspension system with nonlinear spring and damping characteristics of practical hydraulic and pneumatic components is controlled to regulate both suspension and tire forces and therefore provide the optimum ride comfort and braking performance of an anti-lock braking system (ABS). In order to design a suitable controller for this nonlinear integrated system, various control techniques are followed including state feedback tuned using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), state feedback tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA), Proportional Integral (PI) tuned genetically, and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC). The ABS control system is designed to limit skid ratio below threshold of 15%. Several simulations are carried out in MATLAB environment to assess the benefits of the designed integrated controller including vehicle body vertical acceleration, dynamic tire load, stopping time, and distance. Furthermore, the proposed control techniques have been examined in terms of robustness, disturbance rejection, and noise attenuation. The obtained…
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