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Vehicle Control History: Data from Driver Input and Pre-Collision System Activation Events on Toyota Vehicles

Toyota Motor North America-Lance Lewis
Toyota Motor North America, Inc.-Barry Hare, Harold Clyde, Robert Landis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5094
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Separate from the event data recorder (EDR), which records and stores data from qualifying vehicle crash events, the Vehicle Control History (VCH) on Toyota vehicles records and stores certain vehicle data based on select driver inputs, such as hard acceleration or braking, or upon the activation of certain vehicle dynamic control systems such as antilock braking system (ABS), traction control (TRAC), vehicle stability control (VSC), and the pre-collision system (PCS). In the United States, VCH was first equipped on the 2013 Toyota RAV4 and has been subsequently introduced into other Toyota and Lexus models. Most recently, in addition to VCH data, additional PCS operational data (PCS-O) and image data (PCS-I) may be recorded and stored. The image storage capability may record under certain conditions such as if the system has automatically applied the vehicle brakes. PCS-O and PCS-I data became available with the launch of Toyota Safety Sense (TSS), a grouping of advanced active safety features equipped on many Toyota vehicles generally available in 2017. Multiple dynamic tests with a 2017 Toyota Corolla were performed…
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Vision Based Solution for Auto-Maneuvering of Vehicle for Emerging Market

General Motors Technical Center-Souvik Bose, Ashwani Kumar Singh, D V Ram Kumar Singampalli
General Motors Technical Center India-Chandraprakash lalwani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2517
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Advance Active Safety Systems play a preventive role in mitigating crashes and accidents by providing warning, additional assistance to the driver and maneuverability of vehicle by itself. Some of the features include forward collision warning system and lane departure warning system activate a warning alert when potentially dangerous situations are detected. These active safety features present in developed markets work with Fusion based algorithm combining Radar, Lidar, Camera, Ultrasonic sensor’s input. Application of these algorithms are Intelligent Cruise Control, Collision avoidance, parking assistance, identify pedestrian etc. The complexity of the algorithm, cost of the control unit and road infrastructure are hindrance to emerging market. The solution presented in this paper is towards camera-based solution, describing the method to determine the predictive path, that is obstacle free space and use the predictive space to navigate or steer. This paper focuses on vehicle maneuverability in poor road infrastructure (lane irregularities or no lane marking) by using only cameras.
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Axle Torque Distribution to Improve Vehicle Handling and Stability

First Automobile Works Group Corporation Research and Develo-Aibin Wu, Chao Li, Yongqiang Zhao, Jinlong Cui
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
The majority of the fully electric vehicles currently on the market have a basic drivetrain configuration, consisting of multiple electric motors, which promise considerable performance enhancements in terms of vehicle behavior and active safety. A significant advantage was achieving measurable benefits in terms of vehicle cornering response through controlling the individual drivetrains. This paper presents an axle torque distribution method to improve a 4WD vehicle steering performance. The method can automatically adjust the output drive torque of the front and rear motors of the vehicle to change the vehicle yaw rate before ESP intervention, and at the same time remain the driver torque demand unchanged. In this paper we present a feedback yaw rate controller. When the estimated yaw rate differs from the actual yaw rate with a pre-defined small threshold, a yaw rate control is active, the purpose of the controller is to reduce the vehicle understeer characteristic. The simulation and experimental test results shows that this proposed method can reduce the vehicle understeer characteristic and improve the vehicle handling and stability performance.
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Active Safety System for Connected Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Michigan State University, USA-Hothaifa Al-Qassab, Su Pang, Mohammed Al-Qizwini, Daniel Kent, Hayder Radha
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-03-0013
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of connected-vehicle technology, which includes vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, opens the door for unprecedented active safety and driver-enhanced systems. In addition to exchanging basic traffic messages among vehicles for safety applications, a significantly higher level of safety can be achieved when vehicles and designated infrastructure locations share their sensors’ data. In this article, we propose a new system where cameras installed on multiple vehicles and infrastructure locations share and fuse their visual data and detected objects in real time. The transmission of camera data and/or detected objects (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, cyclists, etc.) can be accomplished by many communication methods. In particular, such communications can be accomplished using the emerging Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) technology. In our proposed system the vehicle receiving the visual data from an adjacent vehicle fuses the received visual data with its own camera views to create a much richer visual scene. We conducted several experiments across a pair of vehicles equipped with DSRC devices and our proposed system. These experiments demonstrated that our system achieves high accuracy,…
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Braking Requirements for Optimizing Autonomous Emergency Braking Performance

Applus IDIADA-Álvaro Esquer Molina, Jordi Bargallo
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle technology new developments have contributed to improve vehicle structural performance and therefore passive protection, but also the inclusion of electronic control units has provided new opportunities to expand active safety systems. This is the case for systems like anti-lock braking systems (ABS), electronic stability control (ESC) and brake assist (BA) among others. A more advanced generation of active systems includes sensorial units that monitor vehicle’s surrounding and detect potential hazards, such as an imminent collision, and performs an automatically and commanded emergency braking to lessen or mitigate the consequences of the impending accident. For this latest system, the so-called autonomous emergency braking (AEB), various consumer testing protocols, such as Euro NCAP protocols [1], propose and periodically update test catalogues in order to evaluate the performance of such systems and later to inform potential consumers.The aim of this study is to investigate the means of improving AEB performance in terms of efficiency and driver acceptance. For this, performance of current AEB system will be studied and compared with the limits of vehicle’s braking capabilities.
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EDITORIAL: AI, ADAS & AVs-oh my!

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP08_06
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Active safety and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS), along with increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence (AI) platforms-are the building blocks essential to climbing the SAE levels of automation. Acquisitions, partnerships and advanced-technology demonstrations in these areas are occurring at a dizzying rate, as the industry has set its sights on Level 4 (L4) automated vehicles (AVs).

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New Mercedes-Benz Actros loaded with ADAS, active safety tech

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Dan Gilkes
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP08_12
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Mercedes-Benz Trucks, the European arm of the Daimler Trucks business, has launched an updated Actros heavy-duty truck flagship, packed with new technologies, vehicle safety and driver-assistance features. While this fifth-generation Actros may have changed little in outward appearance, there have been significant updates under the skin.

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Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation with Adaptive Kalman Filter: Theory and Experiment

China Automotive Engineering Research Institute Co., Ltd.-Yaming Zhang
Tongji University-Bo Leng, Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Dequan Zeng
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Velocity is one of the most important inputs of active safety systems such as ABS, TCS, ESC, ACC, AEB et al. In a distributed drive electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, velocity is hard to obtain due to all-wheel drive, especially in wheel slipping conditions. This paper focus on longitudinal velocity estimation of the distributed drive electric vehicle. Firstly, a basic longitudinal velocity estimation method is built based on a typical Kalman filter, where four wheel speeds obtained by wheel speed sensors constitute an observation variable and the longitudinal acceleration measured by an inertia moment unit is chosen as input variable. In simulations, the typical Kalman filter show good results when no wheel slips; when one or more wheels slip, the typical Kalman filter with constant covariance matrices does not work well. Therefore, a gain matrix adjusting Kalman filter which can detect the wheel slip and cope with that is proposed. Simulations are carried out in different conditions, including no wheel slips, one wheel slips, all wheel slip, passing a bump, and variable acceleration…
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Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

Indiana University; Purdue University-Jun Lin, Stanley Chien, Qiang Yi, Yaobin Chen
Ohio State University-Chi-Chih Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
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A Dynamic Local Trajectory Planning and Tracking Method for UGV Based on Optimal Algorithm

Chongqing University-Yangxin Sun, Zhenfei Zhan, Yudong Fang, Ling Zheng, Liuhui Wang, Gang Guo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) is gaining increasing amounts of attention from both industry and academic communities in recent years. Local trajectory planning is one of the most important parts of designing a UGV. However, there has been little research into local trajectory planning and tracking, and current research has not considered the dynamic of the surrounding environment. Therefore, we propose a dynamic local trajectory planning and tracking method for UGV driving on the highway in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can make the UGV travel from the navigation starting point to the navigation end point without collision on both straight and curve road. The key technology for this method is trajectory planning, trajectory tracking and trajectory update signal generation. Trajectory planning algorithm calculates a reference trajectory satisfying the demands of safety, comfort and traffic efficiency. A trajectory tracking controller based on model predictive control is used to calculate the control inputs to make the UGV travel along the reference trajectory. The trajectory update signal is generated when needed (e.g. there has a…
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