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A Novel Prediction Algorithm for Heavy Vehicles System Rollover Risk Based on Failure Probability Analysis and SVM Empirical Model

China Automotive Technology and Reseach Center Co.,Ltd-Zhenfeng Wang, Fei Li, Xinyu Wang
Harbin Institute of Technology-Zheng Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0701
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The study of heavy vehicles rollover prediction, especially in algorithm-based heavy vehicles active safety control for improving road handling, is a challenging task for the heavy vehicle industry. Due to the high fatality rate caused by vehicle rollover, how to precisely and effectively predict the rollover of heavy vehicles became a hot topic in both academia and industry. Because of the strong non-linear characteristics of Human-Vehicle-Road interaction and the uncertainty of modeling, the traditional deterministic method cannot predict the rollover hazard of heavy vehicles accurately. To deal with the above issues, this paper applies a probability method of uncertainty to the design of a dynamic rollover prediction algorithm for heavy vehicles and proposes a novel algorithm for predicting the rollover hazard based on the combined empirical model of reliability index and failure probability. Moreover, the paper establishes a classification model of heavy vehicles based on the support vector machine (SVM) and uses the Monte Carlo method to calculate the failure probability of rollover limit state of heavy vehicles. The fishhook, double lane change, and slalom…
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Simulation of Curved Road Collision Prevention Warning System of Automobile Based on V2X

Jilin University-Xuanhe Li, Jian Wu, Rui He, Bing Zhu, Jian Zhao, Hang Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0707
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The high popularity of automobiles has led to frequent collisions. According to the latest statistics of the United Nations, about 1.25 million people worldwide die from road traffic accidents each year. In order to improve the safety of vehicles in driving, the active safety system has become a research hotspot of various car companies and research institutions around the world. Among them, the more mature and popular active security system are Forward Collision Warning(FCW) and Autonomous Emergency Braking(AEB). However, the current active safety system is based on traditional sensors such as radar and camera. Therefore, the system itself has many limitations due to the shortage of traditional sensors. Compared to traditional sensors, Vehicle to Everything (V2X) technology has the advantages of richer vehicle parameter information, no perceived blind spots, dynamic prediction of dangerous vehicle status, and no occlusion restriction. In order to overcome the many shortcomings of the existing anti-collision warning system and strategy, this paper proposes a curved road collision prevention warning strategy based on V2X technology. Through V2X technology, the state information released…
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Development of a Procedure to Correlate, Validate and Confirm Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Targets for ADAS Testing

Dynamic Research Inc.-Jordan Silberling, John Lenkeit
Michigan Technological University-William Buller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0716
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Surrogate targets are used throughout the automotive industry to safely and repeatably test Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and will likely find similar applications in tests of Automated Driving Systems. For those test results to be applicable to real-world scenarios, the surrogate targets must be representative of the real-world objects that they emulate. Early target development efforts were generally divided into those that relied on sophisticated radar measurement facilities and those that relied on ad-hoc measurements using automotive grade equipment. This situation made communication and interpretation of results between research groups, target developers and target users difficult. SAE J3122, “Test Target Correlation - Radar Characteristics”, was developed by the SAE Active Safety Systems Standards Committee to address this and other challenges associated with target development and use. J3122 addresses four topics. First, it describes standardized equipment and procedures for making various types of calibrated radar measurements using automotive grade equipment, with minimal measurement site restrictions. Second, a correlation procedure is provided that is used to define validity regions and properties of representative real-world objects. Third,…
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Real-time and Accurate Estimation of Road Slope for Intelligent Speed Planning System of Commercial Vehicle

Wuhan University of Technology-Mi Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Meng Sun, Zhongpeng Tian, Fangyu Zhou, ZhiQiang Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0115
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the intelligent speed planning system, real-time estimation of road slope is the key to calculate slope resistance and realize the vehicles’ active safety control. However, if the road slope is measured by the sensor while the commercial vehicle is driving, the vibration of the vehicle body will affect its measurement accuracy. Therefore, the relevant algorithm is used to estimate the real-time slope of the road when the commercial vehicle is driving. At present, many domestic and foreign scholars have analyzed and tested the estimation of road slope by the least square method or Kalman filter algorithm. Although the two methods both can achieve the estimation, the real-time performance and accuracy still need to be improved.In this paper, for traditional fuel commercial vehicle, the Kalman filter algorithm based on the kinematics and the extended Kalman filter algorithm based on the longitudinal dynamics are respectively used to estimate the road slope. In the process of estimation based on kinematics, considering the influence of road slope rate to estimate, the recursive least squares method with forgetting factor…
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Testing methods and recommended validation strategies for Active Safety to optimize efficiency

General Motors LLC-Winston Koo, Dhyaneshwar Murugesan, Chad Zagorski
dSPACE Inc.-Jace Allen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1348
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Given the current proliferation of active safety features on new vehicles, especially for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Highly Automated Driving (HAD) technologies, it is evident that there is a need for testing methods beyond a vehicle level physical test. This paper will discuss the current state of the art in the industry for simulation-based verification and validation (V&V) testing methods. These will include, but are not limited to, "Hardware-in-the-Loop", "Software-in-the-Loop", "Model-in-the-Loop", "Driver-in-the-Loop", and any other suitable combinations of the aforementioned. Aspects of the test processes and needed components for simulation will be addressed, detailing the scope of work needed for various types of testing. The paper will provide an overview of standardized test aspects, active safety software validation methods, best practices and standards. The focus will be on trade-offs of cost and performance, as well as providing general guidance for the type of testing necessary for different phases of product development and implementation. Specific example applications, such as Forward Collision Warning and Automatic Emergency Braking functions, will be examined relative to the V&V…
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Research on AEB Collision Avoidance Strategy Based on Characteristics of Driver-Vehicle-Road

Jiangsu University-Ren He, Dong Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1213
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the rise of intelligent transportation systems around the world, research on automobile active safety technology has gained widespread attention. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) which can avoid or mitigate collision by active braking has become a hot research topic in the field of automobile. However, there are some limitations in the present AEB collision avoidance strategy, including lack of effective identification of road adhesion conditions, mismatch of active braking system parameters and imperfection of target vehicle motion information, which leads to poor collision avoidance performance on low adhesion coefficient road surface and intervention with the normal driving operation of the driver. A new collision avoidance strategy for AEB is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new safe distance collision avoidance model is established based on the peak adhesion coefficient in real time, the performance parameters of the active braking system and the motion information of the target vehicle. Secondly, under the premise of not interfering with the driver's normal collision avoidance operation, an AEB collision avoidance strategy that can balance vehicle safety and intervention comfort…
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Enhancement of Longitudinal Energy Absorption Efficiency in FMVSS 301

Benteler Automotive Corp.-Tomohiro Shimizu
Honda R & D-Atsushi Hasegawa, Takayuki Fujii, Norikazu Matsuura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1225
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While active safety has become a focus of attention, passive safety protocols are still being updated, and evaluation standards are becoming stringent worldwide. This paper focused on FMVSS301, the North American regulation for rear impacts. As it is an offset impact with deformable barrier, it is difficult to control bending modes of rear frames. Furthermore, there is a considerable difference in load input to the left and right frames, and the amount of bending deformation experienced by the frame on the non-collision side, which does not directly contact with the barrier, is low. The purpose of this research was to enhance rear frames energy absorption efficiency in such collisions. To achieve this goal, this research focused on enhancement of deformation mode of the rear frames, and also minimizing the difference in their input loads. For the enhancement of deformation mode, the number and arrangement of collapse points were optimized, and multi-stage bending mode with a high level of energy absorption efficiency was achieved. A partial softening was applied to create an initialization point of bending…
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Vehicle validation for pressure estimation algorithms of decoupled EHB based on actuator characteristics and vehicle dynamics

DIAS Automotive Electronics Co.,.Ltd.-Songyun Xu
Tongji University-Wei Han, Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0210
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive field, electro-hydraulic brake systems (EHB) has been developed to take place of the vacuum booster, having the advantage of faster pressure built-up and continuously pressure regulation. Most of the pressure control solutions are based on standard pressure-based feedback control, requiring a pressure signal. Although the pressure sensor can produce the pressure feedback signal, it will increase cost and enlarge installation space. The rotation angle of electric motor is available by the built-in sensor, so the pressure can be estimated by using the rotation angle. The pressure control is influenced intensely by the typical nonlinearities (i.e. friction, pressure-position relationship) and uncertainties (i.e. brake pads wear, temperature effect). To address these issues, this work improves an interconnected pressure estimation algorithm based on actuator characteristics [W. Han, L. Xiong, and Z. Yu, “Pressure estimation algorithms in decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system considering the friction and pressure-position relationship,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0438, 2019] by introducing the vehicle dynamics and validates it via vehicle tests. The mathematical model of the motor-type EHB is built. The Gauss exponential model…
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Runtime Active Safety Risk-Assessment of Highly Autonomous Vehicles for Safe Nominal Behavior

Hitachi Ltd.-Swarn Singh Rathour, Tasuku Ishigooka, Satoshi Otsuka
University of Seville-RAUL MARTIN
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0107
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fatal crashes involving automated driving systems, raised the concern of minimum standard requirement for safety, reliability and performance of Autonomous Driving System (ADS)/Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) before this cutting-edge technology take on public roads. However, limited knowledge and understanding of the complex driving scenario followed by highly uncertain behavior of dynamic occupants introduce enormous challenges in design and analyzing the required minimum safety function to insure necessary level of safety. Hence, in order to overcome the challenges to ensure necessary safety requirements of AD/ADAS systems we propose a runtime active safety assurance module to provide required necessary level of safety as well as to overcome the limitation of safety by design risk of an AD/ADAS system. The proposed runtime active assurance safety performs dynamic risk assessment of “Sensing Risk, Planning risk and Action Risk”; to determine whether specified normal performance can be achieved or not in order to guarantee minimal risk maneuver in a given driving scenario. The dynamic risk assessment of AD/ADAS system that comprises of sensing, planning and acting module is based…
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Influence Analysis of AEB Two-Wheeler on Passenger Car Impact Two-Wheeler Traffic Accidents in China

China-Li Xudong
China Automotive Technology and Research Center-Lian Xiaowei, Wang Xingchang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5023
Published 2020-02-24 by SAE International in United States
AEB two-wheeler system is an active safety technology which developed for avoiding two-wheeler accidents. With a large number of two wheelers, China needs to conduct research and analysis of this system. In this paper, real traffic accident data in China are used to analyze the possible influence of AEB two-wheeler system on traffic accidents. The paper chooses real passenger car impact two wheeler accidents happen in China, and gets the characteristics of data analysis. Then the paper analysis the influence of AEB system using position data when TTC=3s. According to the analysis, the detection range of 90 meters and the detection angle of 45 degrees can improve the recognition rate of day crossing accident by 17.7%, night crossing accident by 21.5% and longitudinal accident by 38.8%. The paper provides effective support for the development and test of AEB two-wheeler system in China.Car-to-two-wheeler accidentAEB two-wheeler systemInfluence of the accident
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