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Braking Requirements for Optimizing Autonomous Emergency Braking Performance

Applus IDIADA-Álvaro Esquer Molina, Jordi Bargallo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2127
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The continuous improvement on vehicle technology has successfully helped to decrease general road fatalities figures in the last years. Vehicle technology new developments have contributed to improve vehicle structural performance and therefore passive protection, but also the inclusion of electronic control units has provided new opportunities to expand active safety systems. This is the case for systems like anti-lock braking systems (ABS), electronic stability control (ESC) and brake assist (BA) among many others. A more advanced generation of active systems includes sensorial units that monitor vehicle’s surrounding and detect potential hazards, such as an imminent collision, and performs an automatically and commanded emergency braking to lessen or mitigate the consequences of the impending accident. For this latest system, the so-called autonomous emergency braking (AEB), various consumer testing protocols, such as NHTSA and NCAP protocols, propose and periodically update test catalogues in order to evaluate the performance of such systems and later to inform potential consumers. This study aims to determine what basic braking system requirements and its target setting shall be demanded on the definition…
 
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EDITORIAL: AI, ADAS & AVs-oh my!

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP08_06
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Active safety and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS), along with increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence (AI) platforms-are the building blocks essential to climbing the SAE levels of automation. Acquisitions, partnerships and advanced-technology demonstrations in these areas are occurring at a dizzying rate, as the industry has set its sights on Level 4 (L4) automated vehicles (AVs).

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New Mercedes-Benz Actros loaded with ADAS, active safety tech

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Dan Gilkes
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP08_12
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Mercedes-Benz Trucks, the European arm of the Daimler Trucks business, has launched an updated Actros heavy-duty truck flagship, packed with new technologies, vehicle safety and driver-assistance features. While this fifth-generation Actros may have changed little in outward appearance, there have been significant updates under the skin.

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Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation with Adaptive Kalman Filter: Theory and Experiment

China Automotive Engineering Research Institute Co., Ltd.-Yaming Zhang
Tongji University-Bo Leng, Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Dequan Zeng
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Velocity is one of the most important inputs of active safety systems such as ABS, TCS, ESC, ACC, AEB et al. In a distributed drive electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, velocity is hard to obtain due to all-wheel drive, especially in wheel slipping conditions. This paper focus on longitudinal velocity estimation of the distributed drive electric vehicle. Firstly, a basic longitudinal velocity estimation method is built based on a typical Kalman filter, where four wheel speeds obtained by wheel speed sensors constitute an observation variable and the longitudinal acceleration measured by an inertia moment unit is chosen as input variable. In simulations, the typical Kalman filter show good results when no wheel slips; when one or more wheels slip, the typical Kalman filter with constant covariance matrices does not work well. Therefore, a gain matrix adjusting Kalman filter which can detect the wheel slip and cope with that is proposed. Simulations are carried out in different conditions, including no wheel slips, one wheel slips, all wheel slip, passing a bump, and variable acceleration…
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Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

Indiana University; Purdue University-Jun Lin, Stanley Chien, Qiang Yi, Yaobin Chen
Ohio State University-Chi-Chih Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
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A Dynamic Local Trajectory Planning and Tracking Method for UGV Based on Optimal Algorithm

Chongqing University-Yangxin Sun, Zhenfei Zhan, Yudong Fang, Ling Zheng, Liuhui Wang, Gang Guo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) is gaining increasing amounts of attention from both industry and academic communities in recent years. Local trajectory planning is one of the most important parts of designing a UGV. However, there has been little research into local trajectory planning and tracking, and current research has not considered the dynamic of the surrounding environment. Therefore, we propose a dynamic local trajectory planning and tracking method for UGV driving on the highway in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can make the UGV travel from the navigation starting point to the navigation end point without collision on both straight and curve road. The key technology for this method is trajectory planning, trajectory tracking and trajectory update signal generation. Trajectory planning algorithm calculates a reference trajectory satisfying the demands of safety, comfort and traffic efficiency. A trajectory tracking controller based on model predictive control is used to calculate the control inputs to make the UGV travel along the reference trajectory. The trajectory update signal is generated when needed (e.g. there has a…
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Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Max Bareiss, H. Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions. The number of potential SCP conflicts was modeled as increasing year over year due to a predicted increase in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) each year. Finally, the combined effect of…
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Pressure Estimation Algorithms in Decoupled Electro-Hydraulic Brake System Considering the Friction and Pressure-Position Relationship

Lu Xiong
Tongji University-Wei Han, Zhuoping Yu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents several pressure estimation algorithms (PEAs) for a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), which is driven by an electric motor + reduction gear. Most of the pressure control solutions are based on standard pressure-based feedback control, requiring a pressure signal. Although the pressure sensor can produce the pressure feedback signal, it will increase cost and enlarge installation space. The rotation angle of electric motor is available by the built-in sensor, so the pressure can be estimated by using the rotation angle. Considering the typical nonlinearities (i.e. friction, pressure-position relationship) and uncertainties (i.e. disturbance caused by friction model), the estimation-oriented model is established. The LuGre model is selected to describe the friction, and the pressure-position relationship is fitted by a quadratic polynomial. Based on the estimation-oriented model, the force-based PEA (FPEA) and the interconnected PEA (IPEA) are designed, respectively. What makes these two PEAs different is that the IPEA considers the pressure-position relationship. The comparison and analysis of the proposed PEAs have been conducted via some typical ordinary braking scenarios. The sensitivity analysis has…
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Interface Protection - Ground Equipment to Aircraft

AGE-3 Aircraft Ground Support Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1558
  • Current
Published 2019-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses damage to aircraft fuselages caused by ground equipment contact at servicing and recommends methods to be incorporated or considered in ground equipment design for protection against that damage.
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Safety Testing for AVs is Just Beginning

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2019

Christopher O'Connor
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP03_09
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States

There is much work to be done in creating accurate, reliable tests for occupant crashworthiness tailored to new AV designs and seating configurations.

NHTSA's plan to eventually update its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) with new crash-test protocols is good news for both consumers and the mobility safety-systems industry. A revised NCAP will likely feature enhanced occupant safety testing as well as testing of active-safety features such as adaptive cruise control and automatic braking.

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