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Footrest Design to Reduce Lower Leg Injury in Frontal Crashes

General Motors do Brazil-Tsuguo Eduardo Kimura, Gilvan Prada Rossi, Paulus Hanser de Freitas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0090
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The frontal impact is the most common vehicle crash type in accidents involving cars. During a vehicle frontal impact, the injuries are caused by occupant body moving forward and impacting the vehicle interior parts. The performance of the vehicle body and the interior parts design may influence on the occupant injury levels. Injuries in the occupant lower body are usually affected by the vehicle lower body deformation and the design of the interior lower parts (lower instrument panel, pedals, floor and footrest). When the purpose is to reduce the injury of a specific body region, the modification of the interior part design can be more effective in terms of impacts in mass, costs and development time than a modification in the vehicle body. The objective of the study was to develop a new footrest design to reduce the injury level of the left driver leg in a frontal crash condition. It was also evaluated the influence of the vehicle body deformation on the driver leg injury. There were manufactured footrest prototypes with different shapes and…
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Factors Affecting the Severity of Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes in Tunisia

Najran University, Saudi Arabia-Mounir Belloumi
University of Sousse, Tunisia-Fedy Ouni
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0006
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
We investigate the contribution of several variables concerning the severity of accidents involving vehicle occupant and pedestrian victims in Tunisia. In order to investigate the effect of various explanatory variables, Odds Ratio (OR) effects are considered for both serious injury accidents and fatal accidents. The empirical results are of great variety. The vehicle-occupant severity model indicates that male drivers are associated with higher severity levels as compared to female drivers. Added to that, accidents occurring in rainy conditions increase the likelihood of fatal injuries but have no significant effect on other injury severity levels. Among driver contributory factors, a driver under the influence of alcohol or drug is associated with an increased risk of sustaining fatal injuries compared to other driver contributory factors. The season factor shows that accident severity during the summer season is high. Among time of accident, daytime periods indicate a high likelihood of severe injuries as compared to nighttime periods. Another finding of the study is that the day of accident and region of accident increases the probability of severe injury.…
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Design and Optimization of Crash-Box of Passenger Vehicle to Enhance Energy Absorption

ARAI Academy-Shreyas Sarage
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, K.C. Vora
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Frontal crash is the most common type of accidents in passenger vehicles which results in severe injuries or fatalities. During frontal crash, some frontal vehicle body has plastic deformation and absorbs impact energy. Hence vehicle crashworthiness is important consideration for safety aspect. The crash box is one of the most important parts in vehicle frontal structure assembly which absorb crash energy during impact. In case of frontal crash accident, crash box is expected to be collapsed by absorbing crash energy prior to the other parts so that the damage to the main cabin frame and occupant injury can be minimized. The main objective of this work is to design and optimize the crash box of passenger vehicle to enhance energy absorption. The modeling of the crash box is done in CATIA V5 and simulations are carried out by using ANSYS. The results show significant improvement in the energy absorption with new design of the crash box and it is validated experimentally on UTM. Further numerical analysis of bumper beam assembly is performed with consideration of…
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Relation Between Sacroilium and Other Pelvic Fractures Based on Real-World Automotive Accidents

CEESAR (Nanterre - France)-Sophie Cuny, Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault (Nanterre - France)-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
The study firstly aimed at looking whether sacroilium (SI) fractures could be sustained as unique pelvic injuries in side impact real world automotive accidents. Secondarily, the sacroilium fractures observed in conjunction with other pelvic fractures were analyzed to investigate the existence of injury association patterns.Two real world accident databases were searched for SI fractures. The occupants selected were front car passengers older than 16, involved in side, oblique or frontal impact, with AIS2+ pelvic injuries. In frontal impact, only the belted occupants were selected. The cases were sorted by the principal direction of force (dof) and the type of pelvic injury, namely SI, pubic rami, iliac wing, acetabulum, pubic symphysis, and sacrum injuries. The relation between SI and pubic rami injuries were investigated first.The first database is an accident database composed of cases collected in France by car manufacturers over a period of approximately 40 years. In total it contains approximately 28 000 occupants involved in all types of accident configurations. The occupant injuries, as well as the vehicle deformations, are described in detail. The…
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AV testing is for DUMMIES

Automotive Engineering: November 2018

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 18AUTP11_12
Published 2018-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Rapid development of automated vehicles is driving ATD innovations, as Humanetics' CEO explains.

A few years ago, Chris O'Connor started to notice a common talking point emerging from within the many autonomous vehicle conferences and meetings he was attending.

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Passenger Car 25% Overlapping Collision Accident Study Base on CIDAS

CATARC-Xudong Li, Miao Lin, Xiaowei Lian
Chang'an University-Fujun Cui
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
With the development of vehicle technologies, vehicle safety is much better than before, many companies put research focus on harder accident scenarios. The 25% overlapping collision is considered as one type of most dangerous collision, this paper study this type accidents base on CIDAS database. Paper showed 7 scenarios appeared frequency in China, 11, 12, 1 o’clock are main impact direction. High way and freeway are the main places, and the head, thorax and lower extremities were the main sites of injury.
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Analysis of Single-Vehicle Accidents in Japan Involving Elderly Drivers

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0002
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The Japanese population is aging rapidly, raising the number of traffic accidents involving elderly drivers. In Japan, single-vehicle accidents are a serious problem because they often result in fatalities. We analyzed these accidents by vehicle type, age group, and driving area. To examine the risk of accidents of the elderly drivers, their driving frequency needs to be considered, which is less. Moreover, it is difficult to know the actual distance driven by them. Therefore, in this article, based on the assumption that the number of rear-end collisions is a proxy for the traffic volume, we used the number of such collisions as a control for the driving frequency. It was found that in single-vehicle accidents, elderly drivers were at higher risk than other age groups, especially when driving light motor vehicles (K-type vehicles) in non-urban areas. A possible explanation is the higher frequency with which the elderly drive K-type vehicles in areas where there are few other vehicles on the road.
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Characteristics and Casualty Analysis of Two- Wheeler Accidents in China, Data Source: The China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS)

CATARC-Qiang Chen, Bing Dai
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The two-wheeler is a vehicle that runs on two wheels, which is classified as motorcycle, electric-bicycle, and bicycle in this research. China has the largest number of two-wheelers and relevant accidents in the world. The two-wheeler riders have a high level of vulnerability, creating a significant necessity to better understand the characteristics according to the road-user group. The objective of this paper is to study the characteristics and analyze the causes of two-wheeler accidents in China using the CIDAS (China In-Depth Accident Study) Database. 2012 cases of two-wheeler accidents with riders injured or dead were collected from the CIDAS Database from 5 cities (Changchun, Beijing, Weihai, Ningbo and Foshan) in China over a period of 5 years (2011.07-2016.06). Several key parameters such as accident characteristics, accident scenarios (containing collision point distribution, accident type, clock direction distribution and head WAD distribution) were analyzed using measurement and mathematical statistical methods. Results show that the motorcycle accident was the most frequent two-wheeler accident type in China, which accounted for 52.7% of the total two-wheeler accidents. The two-wheeler riders’ injury…
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Brazil's Option to Join iGLAD - International Harmonized In-Depth Accident Data

Daimler-Jörg Bakker
IDIADA-Alejandro Longton, Nuria Parera, Joel Leitao
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
A strong local initiative in Campinas - Brazil is studying how to be more effective in the improvement of road safety in order to align to other worldwide initiatives with similar goals. This paper describes the Brazilian initiative’s approach to the challenge of being aligned with iGLAD (Initiative for the Global Harmonization of Accident Data, starting as a project in 2011 and collecting data since 2007) on the delivery of its first set of accident cases from 2016. The Brazilian source of data started as a pilot project collecting local data with the aim of extending it within the next years to a larger region.In fact, a consistent method for the development of strategies and measures to prevent accidents and mitigate injury severity comes from accident database analysis. Although databases such as national statistics are available for many countries for assessing accident situations, examining trends, or carrying out similar analysis; the identification of accident and injury causation and the evaluation of countermeasures require a higher level of detail. Comparison with other regions or countries in…
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Investigation on the Effects of Medium and High Voltage Power Cables in Direct Contact with Vehicles and Passengers

ESSS - Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software-Juliano Mologni, Jefferson Ribas, Cesareo Siqueira
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
In Brazil there is a significant number of medium and high voltage power cables falling on vehicles causing catastrophic accidents leading to serious injuries and deceases. It is advised that the car works as a shield so passengers inside the vehicle should not open doors and windows, but to the knowledge of the authors no work has presented a quantified study showing details like electromagnetic field intensity and 3D plots to really illustrate this situation. This work uses numerical simulation to replicate a scenario of a high power cable in direct contact with a vehicle and numerous positions of human body models inside and outside of the vehicle. Electromagnetic field is calculated showing the shielding effectiveness of the vehicle chassis. Also, current density are calculated to show the path of the current including the human body models. Safety guidelines are presented based on electromagnetic field strength and several scenarios are simulated and quantified.
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