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Materials for DPF and its Cleaning Methodologies

ARAI-Kamalkishore Vora, Kartik Gurnule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2565
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Accumulation of ash in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) with engine operating over the time is a major concern for all vehicle manufacturers, with BS VI and BS VII emission norms mandating the use of DPF. Ash deposition leads to increase in pressure drop across the filter and more frequent regeneration pattern, which can lead to sintering. It can hamper the capacity of soot loading, properties of DPF substrate material and can lower catalyst activity in case of Catalysed-DPF. Hence, removal of ash is important by defining the DPF cleaning methods. Primary source of ash is lubricant oil, taking part in the combustion. Lubricant additives like detergents and anti-wear agents are responsible for formation of metallic ash inside the DPF. Secondary source of metallic ash is fuel and engine wear out. The present paper elucidates the preparation of DPF samples including coating and canning of DPF substrates, with proper GBD. Pressure drop and weight with and without coating is estimated and validated through actual measurement of fresh as well as soot loaded samples. Soot loading…

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp Ltd-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studi-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.

Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission. Lower soot emission will leads to smaller exhaust after-treatment size. There is trade-off between higher cost due to hybridization and lower cost due to lower after-treatment size. A cost…

New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

Afton Chemical, Ltd.-Jonathan James Pilbeam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2392
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions. For this paper, injectors from the new VW injector coking test in a clean and coked state were compared to injectors from vehicles in the market in respect of deposit geometry, elemental composition and injector spray…


Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Boobala Krishnan D, T Vijayan, Apurbo Kirty
Mahindra Research Valley-Himanshi Dua
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2571
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP J-case fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively. Similarly, micro relay and mini relay were replaced with Ultra micro and High current micro relay respectively. Results We took MPV segment vehicle for our initial testing and validation…

Impact of wheel-housing on aerodynamic drag and effect on energy consumption on an electric bus body

ARAI Academy-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of Wheel and underbody Aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a Bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption. Keywords: Wheel-housing, Drag Coefficient, CFD Simulation, Bus, Energy consumption

Aerodynamic analysis of electric passenger car using wind turbine concept at front end

ARAI Academy-Snehil Mendiratta, Sugat Sharma
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2396
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of the work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Active front grill shutters will be used to optimize the aerodynamic drag at different vehicle speeds. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and then it is validated with the scaled model by using wind tunnel testing. The modified model is designed with wind turbines and with add-on-devices - vortex generator, spoiler and diffuser and then simulated. Based on the simulation carried out in ANSYS Fluent, our scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in Wind Tunnel for validation. A successful reduction in the Drag Coefficient by 5.9% is achieved.

Entry Level Connected Infotainment Unit with Smartphone and vehicle integration

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd-Tarun Aggarwal, Ritesh Khandelwal, Satish Pandey, Satish Kumar Pandey, Himanshu Kumar Ojha
Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Soundharya N
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2434
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
As we transition towards Internet of Things (IoT) - humans are connected to each other & outside world through the smartphone. Customers tend to use smartphones for varied purposes ranging from communication to entertainment. However, the concern of distraction exists due to poor visibility & accessibility of the phone's screen in driving condition. One of the repercussion of being connected to smartphone particularly in driving condition includes higher number of road accidents due to distraction. This paper explains one of the key initiatives taken by Maruti Suzuki India Limited to address the same. This is done by offering an entry level connected infotainment system which comprises of the following three components: (a) An entry-level infotainment with basic display & vehicle connectivity, (b) A Dock mounted on infotainment panel enabling safe usage of smartphone due to its position i.e. accessibly and visibility in driving condition, (c) A Driving App specifically designed for driving usage where one can access calling, messaging, navigation on the go with a vibrant UI & easy to use gestures. The infotainment unit…

Design improvements in advanced automotive batteries using AI

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Devesh Pareek Sachin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2505
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and with this comes challenges to improve the performance of battery to optimize power consumption in electric vehicles. Objective: This paper would focus on the optimization of battery performance incoherent with vehicle power consumption behavior in terms of efficiency using decision-making ability based on given input signals

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…