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Energy Recovery Rate from an Electric Air-cycle System under the Cruising Altitude and Speed.

Akita University-Takahiro Adachi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1905
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we focus on an electric air-cycle system in an electric aircraft, where the system has an electric compressor instead of a hydraulically-operated oil-based compressor. The electric compressor consumes the power to compress the rarefied air outside and take it in the system. The air goes through the air-cycle as a working fluid to exchange the heat and work. The main purpose of the air-cycle is to adjust the temperature and pressure in a cabin. Therefore, the working fluid of the air repeats compression and expansion. The working fluid passing through the cabin absorbs heat from the passengers and avionics. After that, the air is discharged outside with higher heat level and pressure levels. This means that the discharged air has a potential energy to recover the power consumption in the electric compressor. So, we have analytically estimated an energy recovery rate which is defined as a ratio of the potential energy of the discharged air to the energy consumption in the compressor, and shown the recovery rate under the condition of cruising…
 

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori
Mitsubishi Electric Corp.-Tetsuya Kojima, Masahiro Sugahara, Yusuke Shirouchi, Hisatoshi Fukumoto, Akihiko Iwata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1913
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Over recent decades, there has been a lot of progress toward a more electric aircraft (MEA) to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems with inverters and electrical machines. Therefore, MEAs reduce the weight, i.e. fuel consumption, and maintenance cost. To achieve advanced electrical systems, the weight of inverters has significant importance. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed to reduce the weight and enhance reliability. A GCV inverter can supply gradational quasi-sinusoidal voltages combining two different voltages from a 3-phase 3-level (main) inverter and three single-phase H-bridge (sub) inverters. A dc power supply is required only for the main inverter. A main inverter with Si-IGBTs supplies the fundamental voltage by only one switching in the fundamental period. Consequently, the switching loss is minimized and hence the weight of cooling systems can be reduced. Sub inverters, which have the half of dc-link voltage of the main inverter, employ SiC-MOSFETs with higher switching frequency and compensate for…
 

Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations.

Alok Kumar Mohapatra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1863
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gases emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present study aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied. Selected exergetic measures under consideration are Exergy Efficiency, Fuel Exergy Depletion Ratio, Relative Exergy Consumption Ratio, Exergetic Improvement potential and Productivity Lack ratio. The total fuel exergy depletion ratio of the turboprop engine is estimated to be around 44%. . Also, among the identified…
 

Noise and Vibration Optimization Using TMR Analysis for CI Engine Fueled by Blends of Simarouba Methyl Ester

SVPM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING-Sangram Dashrath Jadhav
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1894
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Generally, vehicle extensively tested to withstand against mechanical shocks, noise, vibration etc. While, accordingly make the provision such as suspension, dampers, air bags etc. still the problem of noise/vibration day-by-day incrementally arise and become severe with the age of vehicles. Noise/vibration is a controllable pollutant that deserves the attention were all the scientific community work hard for controlling their harmful effects. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to reduce Noise/vibration on predominantly basis while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. Noise/vibration cause and adverse effect on C.I engine, engine component and ultimately vehicle, may reduce the life of the engine. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the…
 

Waste Plastic oil used as an Alternative fuel for Aero Diesel Engines: an Analysis

GIFT, Bhubaneswar-Alok Mohapatra
VSSUT, Burla-amar kumar das
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1896
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The use of plastics and its production has seen a significant increase in recent years and accordingly the amount of plastic waste that gets accumulated in the environment has increased to an alarming level. Since plastics are primarily a petroleum based product, this increase in demand for plastics has to certain extent reduced the availability of petroleum as a non-renewable fossil fuel. One of the options to reduce the pollution due to waste plastic and create an alternate source of energy is to recycle the plastic waste by converting them into valuable energy resource. In this regard, oil derived by pyrolysis of waste plastics becomes a promising one to be used as a resource of aviation fuel. The current study analyses the oil derived by pyrolysis of waste plastics to be used in aero diesel engines. The study focusses on the use of waste plastic oil with diesel blend and compared its performance with diesel. The thermodynamic performance of the plastic oil blended with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% diesel are examined and related…
 

Flight Optimization Model on Global and Interval Ranges for Conceptual Studies of MEA Systems

Akita University-Yotsugi Shibuya
IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori, Hirotaka Sugawara, Naoki Seki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1906
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In development of more electric aircraft applications, it is important to discuss aircraft energy management on various level of aircraft operation. This paper presents a computationally efficient optimization model for evaluating flight efficiency on global and interval flight ranges. The model is described as an optimal control problem with an objective functional subjected to state condition and control input constraints along a flight path range. A flight model consists of aircraft point-mass equations of motion including engine and aerodynamic models. The engine model generates the engine thrust and fuel consumption rate for operation condition and the aerodynamic model generates the drag force and lift force of an aircraft for flight conditions. These models is identified by data taken from a published literature as an example. First, approximate optimization process is performed for climb, cruise, decent and approach as each interval range path. Next, optimization for global range path involves whole flight path to find optimal operation condition in the flight. In aircraft energy management, fuel consumption converts into not only thrust power, but power of…
 

Electromagnetic Characteristic Comparison of Superconducting Synchronous Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori
The University of Tokyo-Yutaka Terao, Yusuke Ishida, Hiroyuki Ohsaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1912
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft service has been increasing today and it also results in the increase of the greenhouse gas emission. To solve this problem, the electric aircraft propulsion system is the key solutions to realize the clean and high efficiency aircraft, while demanding higher output density motors. So far, though 5 kW/kg is realized with permanent magnet type synchronous motors, the electric aircraft for over 100 passengers demands motors with 16 -20 kW/kg. Superconducting (S.C.) technology is one of the effective candidates for higher output density motors. In comparison with copper wires, the S.C. wires have higher current density at less than –200 ℃. And we can make a lighter weight coil with the S.C. wires. So far, many groups have been studying the S.C. motors over 16 kW/kg. Generally, there are two kinds of S.C motors. One is the S.C. motors made of the S.C. field coils and copper armature windings. The other is the fully S.C. motors using S.C. field and armature windings. We have been studying the fully S.C. motors with two kinds of…
 

Optimization of CI Engine Performance and Emissions Fueled by Blends of Alternative Fuels Methyl Ester Using Taguchi and Multi Regression Analysis

Dr. D. Y.Patil Unitech Society's-Vijay javanjal
SVPM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING-Sangram Dashrath Jadhav
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1893
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to improve the performance and reduce emission using alternative fuel while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the Present study, to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection Single Cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen, Hydrocarbons (HC) etc.. For this investigation, we used Biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel which possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be combined with the diesel fuel in the form of blends. For this investigation…
 

Laser surface treatment machine for Ariane 6 Cryogenic Tanks

Electroimpact-Jeremy FERRER
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1897
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Surface treatment of cryogenic tanks (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) for the Ariane 6 Space Launcher is a critical step for the adhesion of insulation materials. This operation is currently performed by the help of chemical products which are for some of them carcinogenic, mutagenic and repro-toxic. The large tank dimensions require using an important quantity of those products which generate massive recurring costs and health and environment problems. ArianeGroup has previously qualified and patented the Laser Surface Treatment as a replacement solution to chemical process. The aim is to use energy provided by infrared laser beam to modify the top layer of the tank surface. The chosen technology is Nd-YAG pulsed laser. Electroimpact has been chosen to carry out the industrial application. The main components of the laser system are a laser source, to generate the laser beam, an optic fiber to transport the beam and an optic with galvo mirrors to focus and move the laser on the part. The optic scan field is about 50 x 50mm, so it needs to be…
 
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Optimizing Cooling Fan Power Consumption for Improving Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency Using CFD Technique

Tafe Motors and Tractor Ltd., India-Ajay Nain
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0024
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
Fan cooling system of an air-cooled diesel engine is optimized using 3D CFD numerical simulation approach. The main objective of this article is to increase engine fuel efficiency by reducing fan power consumption. It is achieved by optimizing airflow rates and flow distribution over the engine surfaces to keep the maximum temperature of engine oil and engine surfaces well within the lubrication and material limit, respectively, at the expense of lower fan power. Based on basic fan laws, a bigger fan consumes lesser power for the same airflow rate as compared to a smaller fan, provided both fans have similar efficiency. Flow analysis is also conducted with the engine head and block modeled as solid medium and fan cooling system as fluid domain. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence (RANS) equations were solved to get the flow field inside the cooling system and on the engine liner fins. The Moving Reference Frame approach was used for simulating the rotation of a fan. Cowl geometry was modified for providing better guidance to flow over engine surfaces and to get…