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Tools for the Conceptual Design of a Stratospheric Hybrid Platform

CIRA - Italian Aerospace Research Centre-Vincenzo Rosario Baraniello, Giuseppe Persechino, Roberto Borsa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0025
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The Italian Aerospace Research Center is currently developing the design of a HAPS (High Altitude Pseudo Satellite). Different HAPS configurations have been proposed in recent years. Airbus Zephyr family and Aurora Odysseus are based on the flying wing configuration. Thales Stratobus is an airship, while Google Loon project is based on balloons. Our proposal concerns a hybrid configuration where the weight is balanced by both aerodynamic and aerostatic forces. In this paper we present the tools we have implemented to develop the conceptual design of our platform. The tools have been implemented in Mathworks Matlab® and Grasshopper® integrated with Rhino 3-D. In the Matlab environment, we have developed an optimization algorithm which can estimate some geometric and energetic global parameters of the platform (weight, surface, volume, required power, width, length and height) using as input the desired speed, altitude and period of the year in which the mission will be performed. In this algorithm, we have included a modelling of the principal subsystems affecting the overall platform weight and energy consumption and availability, the aerodynamic…
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Cable Impedance Calculations Employed in Designing Aerospace Electrical Power Systems

Astronics AES-Jon Fifield
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0037
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents design considerations in utilizing cable impedance calculations in the design of an aerospace electrical power system. (EPS) Past wiring design guidelines featured a tabular constructed single-point design reference. This results in a cable selection which adds unnecessary weight and under-utilized the wire’s performance ability when considering a vehicle’s design requirements. Present wiring design guidelines have lagged behind the growing movement to achieve an optimized wire selection. Understanding the shortfalls with past and present wiring design methods will improve future methods to comply with increasingly restrictive vehicle performance requirements. This paper will discuss two of the most important design requirements for future aerospace electrical power and distribution feeders, which are weight and thermal limits assigned to an EPS design.
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Extended Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle via Structural Electrical Power Storage and Energy Generation Devices

Geoffrey Smith Oetting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0041
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Through the substitution of some aircraft structural components with power storage and generation devices that possess adequate structural strength and stiffness, flight endurance time and performance of solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) may be increased by reducing the parasitic weight penalties of the power systems. This innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’ along with energy generation devices such as structural solar cells, thermo-electric generators, and vibration induced power generators are integral to creating a flying structure that will be more efficient and more useful to the electric powered commercial and hobby markets. This paper discusses plans and the progress toward achieving potential endurance and efficiency increases in unmanned aerial vehicles through laboratory and eventual model flight experiments of novel structural designs for graphene super-capacitors, solar cells, and other power generation devices.
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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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Numerical Simulation Aero-engine Air-Oil Separator

Collins Aerospace-William W. Ni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0001
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Aero-engine oil systems need to pump and de-aerate air-oil in a two-phase flow. The oil lubrication systems combine three important functions of the Main Oil Pump (MOP) for lubrication and scavenging: the de-aeration and de-oiling of the air-oil mixture generated in the bearing and gearbox sumps, and pumping the oil towards the tank. These are critical functions for the engine. An engine lubrication system and an integrated pump and separation of gas-liquid mixture has been developed and characterized experimentally to increase UTAS Engine and Control Systems research and development productivity, as well as engine reliability and system performance. This pump and separator system is specially designed to handle air-oil mixtures generated in aero-engine lubrication systems. To address this need, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of the pump and separation system that allows in-flight performance prediction is presented in this paper. This CFD model applies different flight conditions under different engine rotational speed that change during each flight phase, bleed air flow rate, and gearbox rotational speed leading to the variables that compromise the design…
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A MATLAB Simulink Based Co-Simulation Approach for Vehicle Systems Model Integration

Army Corps Of Engineers-Mark Bodie
PC Krause & Associates-Brian C. Raczkowski, Nicholas Jones, Tim Deppen, Charles Lucas, Rodney Yeu, Eric Walters
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0005
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a MATLAB-Simulink based general co-simulation approach is presented which supports multi-resolution simulation of distributed models in an integrated architecture. This approach was applied to simulating aircraft thermal performance in our Vehicle Systems Model Integration (VSMI) framework. A representative advanced aircraft thermal management system consisting of an engine, engine fuel thermal management system, aircraft fuel thermal management system and a power and thermal management system was used to evaluate the advantages and tradeoffs in using a co-simulation approach to system integration modeling. For a system constituting of multiple interacting sub-systems, an integrated model architecture can rapidly, and cost effectively address technology insertions and system evaluations. Utilizing standalone sub-system models with table-based boundary conditions often fails to effectively capture dynamic subsystem interactions that occurs in an integrated system. Additionally, any control adjustments, model changes or technology insertions that are applied to any one of the connecting subsystems requires iterative updates to the boundary conditions. When evaluating a large set of trade studies, the number of boundary condition models and time to generate these models…
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Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Turbo-Electric Aircraft

Georgia Institute of Technology-Christopher Perullo
Ohio State University-Aaronn Sergent, Michael Ramunno, Matilde D'Arpino, Marcello Canova
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0050
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid-electric gas turbine generators are considered a promising technology for more efficient and sustainable air transportation. The Ohio State University is leading the NASA University Leadership Initiative (ULI) Electric Propulsion: Challenges and Opportunities, focused on the design and demonstration of advanced components and systems to enable high-efficiency hybrid turboelectric powertrains in regional aircraft to be deployed in 2030. Within this large effort, the team is optimizing the design of the battery energy storage system (ESS) and, concurrently, developing a supervisory energy management strategy for the hybrid system to reduce fuel burn while mitigating the impact on the ESS life. In this paper, an energy-based model was developed to predict the performance of a battery-hybrid turboelectric distributed-propulsion (BHTeDP) regional jet. A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of ESS sizing and cell selection on the optimal power split between the turbogenerators (TGs) and ESS. To this extent, the supervisory energy management strategy is formulated into a discrete time optimal control problem and solved via dynamic programming. The performance of BHTeDP was compared to a turboelectric…
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Unsettled Issues Concerning the Use of Fuel Cells in Electric Ground Vehicles

H2SG Energy Pte Ltd.-Bart Kolodziejczyk
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020002
To be published on 2020-02-27 by SAE International in United States
Lately, the idea of using hydrogen in automotive applications is gaining significant momentum. However, the concept of using clean hydrogen fuel generated from water via electrolysis is nothing new. Because of numerous challenges, previously hydrogen has never managed to become a mainstream industrial or automotive fuel. A decade ago, an attempt to introduce hydrogen for mobility failed miserably and for good reasons. Back then, the fuelcell technology, which efficiently converts hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen into electricity, was not as advanced as it is today. In addition, the fuel cell prototypes were bulky and expensive. After the first failed wave of hydrogen-based economy implementation followed by another ten years of development, hydrogen is back, and it seems that this time it is here to stay. The decade of research allowed for improvements in materials, components, and performance of entire fuel cell systems. In addition, new manufacturing tools and techniques have been developed to reduce system costs. Today’s fuel cell systems use a fraction of platinum catalysts compared to fuel cells ten years ago, yet their performance…
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Developing High-Performance Motorcycle Oils

Maxima Racing Oils, Kawasaki Motors Corp. USA-Mike Marcella, Aaron Johnson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0505
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Published motorcycle lubricant research often focuses on developments to meet certain specifications, regulatory requirements, or a combination of the two. Seemingly missing from the literature is research where the primary goal is development of a lubricant that enables maximum torque, power and acceleration from a machine for the purpose of winning races. The present study combines the two areas of research, where a high-performance motorcycle engine oil platform is developed to be used in competition, while simultaneously meeting the necessary regulations and specifications to be useful for commuters and leisure riders alike. Well-known are the demands on a motorcycle oil, which must lubricate and protect the crankcase, clutch and gears, all of which have competing requirements such that a strategy to improve the performance in one area can cause a detriment in another. Formulating for racing engines that are typically much more powerful than production versions further exacerbates these dichotomies, where the traditional strategies for gaining power through the lubricant of reducing viscosity or adding friction-reducing chemistries can leave the clutch and gears open to…
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RANS simulation of a multicomponent underexpanded gaseous jet mixing – effects of composition and injection conditions

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology-Andy Thawko, Leonid Tartakovsky
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0515
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Fuel injection and mixing processes determine quality of the subsequent combustion in a DI engine, and description of these processes is vital to optimize the engine performance. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach was applied as a cost-effective tool to simulate the mixing process of a multicomponent gaseous fuel jet of various compositions typical for alcohol reformates. To learn about the physics of reformate mixing, a hydrogen-rich multicomponent jet behavior in a constant-volume chamber was investigated at conditions typical for ICE. The CFD model was validated using a reference case from the published literature. Various Impact of the gaseous jet composition, injection pressure and nozzle diameter on its behavior were studied. The important new finding shows that rising the injection pressure or increasing the nozzle diameter won't affect the jet wall impingement timing for bore sizes typical for light-duty vehicle ICEs. Furthermore, it is shown that the integral parameters of a multicomponent gaseous jet in ICE are mainly determined by the molar weight of the injected gas mixture even with high molecular diffusivity species in the mixture like…