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Effects of Helical Carbon Nanotubes on Mechanical Performance of the Composite Bonded Joints

Wichita State University-Ramanan Sritharan, Davood Askari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0029
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Most composite assemblies and structures generally fail due to the poor performance of their bonded joints that are assembled together with an adhesive layer. Adhesive failure and cohesive failure are among the most commonly observed failure modes in composite bonded joint assemblies. These failure modes occur due to the lack of reinforcement within the adhesive layer in transverse direction. The overall performance of any composite assembly largely depends on the performance of its bonded joints. Various techniques and processes were developed in recent years to improve mechanical performance of the composite bonded joints, one of which includes the use of nanoscale reinforcements within the adhesive layer in between the adherends. However, most prior research have been focused on use of straight carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanomaterials in particle forms. The goal was to improve the properties of the adhesive film and their interfacial bonding effectiveness. Because CNTs are inert in nature, they should be covalently functionalized, before incorporating them into adhesive resins. CNTs can be functionalized using different chemicals to improve their interactions with…
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Unsettled Issues Concerning the Use of Fuel Cells in Electric Ground Vehicles

H2SG Energy Pte Ltd.-Bart Kolodziejczyk
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020002
To be published on 2020-02-27 by SAE International in United States
Lately, the idea of using hydrogen in automotive applications is gaining significant momentum. However, the concept of using clean hydrogen fuel generated from water via electrolysis is nothing new. Because of numerous challenges, previously hydrogen has never managed to become a mainstream industrial or automotive fuel. A decade ago, an attempt to introduce hydrogen for mobility failed miserably and for good reasons. Back then, the fuelcell technology, which efficiently converts hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen into electricity, was not as advanced as it is today. In addition, the fuel cell prototypes were bulky and expensive. After the first failed wave of hydrogen-based economy implementation followed by another ten years of development, hydrogen is back, and it seems that this time it is here to stay. The decade of research allowed for improvements in materials, components, and performance of entire fuel cell systems. In addition, new manufacturing tools and techniques have been developed to reduce system costs. Today’s fuel cell systems use a fraction of platinum catalysts compared to fuel cells ten years ago, yet their performance…
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Sensor Integrated Substrate for Future Exhaust System of Two Wheelers

Vitesco Technologies Japan. K.K., Vitesco Technologies Emite-KOSAKU ITO, SVEN SEIFERT, FRANCOIS JAYAT, THOMAS CARTUS
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0617
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
By upcoming new global two wheelers emission legislation, it is expected that it will become more and more challenging to control exhaust emissions. Therefore, not only optimized catalyst specifications to meet OBDII or RDE, but also new components will be required for future applications in two-wheeler exhaust systems. In such applications, beneath applying new components, it is necessary to ensure mountability while maintaining vehicle design but improving function of the exhaust system at the same time. As exhaust system layout of two wheelers is generally strongly limited by many factors, such as steeply bended exhaust pipes and catalysts which are hard to resize, one of the most challenging tasks is the positioning of sensor behind the catalyst, due to two wheelers unique exhaust design. In order to overcome the challenge, this work describes designs like the catalyst with integrated lambda sensor, which is developed to contribute to high efficient future two wheelers exhaust systems.
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RANS simulation of a multicomponent underexpanded gaseous jet mixing – effects of composition and injection conditions

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology-Andy Thawko, Leonid Tartakovsky
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0515
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Fuel injection and mixing processes determine quality of the subsequent combustion in a DI engine, and description of these processes is vital to optimize the engine performance. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach was applied as a cost-effective tool to simulate the mixing process of a multicomponent gaseous fuel jet of various compositions typical for alcohol reformates. To learn about the physics of reformate mixing, a hydrogen-rich multicomponent jet behavior in a constant-volume chamber was investigated at conditions typical for ICE. The CFD model was validated using a reference case from the published literature. Various Impact of the gaseous jet composition, injection pressure and nozzle diameter on its behavior were studied. The important new finding shows that rising the injection pressure or increasing the nozzle diameter won't affect the jet wall impingement timing for bore sizes typical for light-duty vehicle ICEs. Furthermore, it is shown that the integral parameters of a multicomponent gaseous jet in ICE are mainly determined by the molar weight of the injected gas mixture even with high molecular diffusivity species in the mixture like…
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Influence of the Kind of Fuel Kind in the Ignition of Diesel Dual Fuel Operation with Introduced Natural Gas Combining EGR and Supercharging

Kagoshima University-Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka
Niigata Institute of Technology-Yasufumi Yoshimoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0581
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A number of studies in diesel dual fuel (DDF) operation which introduces natural gas from the intake pipe and ignites it by a diesel fuel injection in the combustion chamber have been conducted using conventional diesel engines. The present study investigated the influence of the ignition fuel on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions with a combination of EGR and supercharging in DDF operation. The experiments employed iso-pentanol blended fuels for the ignition. Isopentanol is a next generation bio-alcohol fuel produced from cellulosic biomass, and actual use can be expected. The experiments were conducted at two CNG supply rates, 0% (ordinary diesel operation) and at a 40±4% (DDF operation) energy basis, and with EGR rates varied from 0 to 26%. The boost pressure was set at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated, N/A) and 120 kPa (supercharged, S/C) with a supercharger. Four kinds of ignition fuels were used, JIS No.2 diesel fuel as a reference, neat methyl laurate (LME) which is a major component of coconut oil biodiesel, and two iso-pentanol blended fuels with 30%…
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Impact of Soot and Engine Oil Additive Characteristics on Metallic Wear using Electron Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy

King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand-Panyakorn Rungsritanapaisan, Preechar Karin, Warawut Amornprapa
National Metal and Material Technology Center, Thailand-Dhritti Tanprayoon, Ruangdaj Tongsri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0601
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Soot particles are produced inside the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engines and will later be exhausted into the thermosphere. Part of these particles will contaminate the engine oil. When this happens, diesel engine abrasion or, in a worst-case scenario, lubricant starvation will occur. This circumstance will eventually cause engine wear. This research uses X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique to analyze the additive element in engine oil. For wear test, this research uses tribology Four ball wear tester to substitute point contact wear mechanism. Then the worn surface is analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Confocal Microscope are used to study the effect of additive on soot dispersion in engine oil, which affects the metal wear mechanism. This research use Laser Particle Size Analyzer to investigate performance of soot dispersant additive in each engine oil. The results show that, the wear scar diameters significantly increased when the American Petroleum Institute (API) CD standard engine oil is contaminated with soot. On the other hand, American Petroleum Institute (API) CF-4 standard engine oil which contains higher amount…
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Performance Investigation of a PFI Gasoline Engine by Applying Various Kinds of Fuel Injectors

Bosch Corporation-Toshiya Iio, Yudai Miyatani, Akira Tsunoi
Chiba University-Fuchao Shen, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0546
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this report, the effect of injection specification, such as droplet size, lengths of nozzle tip and spray angle, on the engine performance was investigated using a 1.2 L port fuel injection (PFI) four-cylinder gasoline engine. The experimental conditions were selected to cover the daily operating mode, including the cold start and catalyst heating process. The experiments were conducted by varying not only the injectors but also the injection timing which was shifted from the exhaust to intake stroke. The results were evaluated by the fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. When these tests were conducted on a production engine, a carefully designed tumble generator was installed at the intake port to enhance the intake air flow. As a result, the injection specifications showed a potential to obtain less fuel consumption and lower engine-out emissions was evaluated.
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Application of Porous Material as Heat Storage Medium to a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

Chiba University, Chiba, Japan-Dongsheng Dong, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Fuchao Shen, Naohiro Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0541
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Porous materials, which have large surface areas, have been used for heat storage. However, porous Si-SiC material, as heat storage medium to be applied to a turbocharged gasoline engine has not been investigated extensively. In this study, porous Si-SiC material was used in the upstream of the turbine as heat storage medium and a model was thereby developed for further study. Substrate surface area and substrate volume of Si-SiC were calculated for structure model calibration. Following these calculations and test results, the pressure loss and thermal model were validated. Results show that the weaken exhaust gas pulsation amplitude by porous Si-SiC leads to better turbine performance and BSFC in steady engine condition for a turbocharged gasoline engine. In addition, its transient operation response needs to be improved under transient engine conditions. Hence the possibility of improving the transient response is investigated with characteristics of porous Si-SiC material. It was observed that less time was required for the engine to reach the target torque in transient conditions.
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Piston Temperature Measurement during Engine Warm-up and Application for Analysis of Piston Behavior

Digital Engineering Dept., Suzuki Motor Corporation-Shinya Kubota
Environment, Material & Manufacturing Engineering Develo-Akira Ishibashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0548
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, internal-combustion engines have been required to satisfy various performance standards against emission regulations and fuel-efficiency targets. To this end, accurate measurement of piston temperature under various engine operating conditions is important.Some studies reported the use of wireless methods to confirm the reliability of the measurement system at the highest engine speed and create a piston temperature map under all operating conditions. However, previous case studies only considered relatively large displacement engines, and the advantage of wireless methods—a high degree of freedom for design—was not used. In terms of engine operating conditions, few cases focus on the piston to cylinder wall clearance during engine warm-up conditions. Thus, wireless methods are still space to use their features.In this study, we develop and implement a telemetry-type method for a motorcycle engine, which has smaller displacement and is therefore more restrictive relative to measurement system design than past case studies. The temperature distribution in the entire piston is measured, considering the temperature distribution of a cylinder bore wall surface during the period between a cold start…
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The Combustion Characteristic of Fuel Additives with Diesel–Ethanol Fuel blends on Engine Performance

Kasetsart University-Sathaporn Chuepeng
King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok-Kampanart Theinnoi, Boonlue Sawatmongkhon, Thawatchai Wongchang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0611
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Reducing carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) is one of the most important drivers to promote biofuels. Fuel from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and can gradually reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. However, fuel properties can differ significantly from standard diesel fuel and this will affect exhaust emissions and environmental pollution. Diesel – ethanol fuel blends development and specification are currently driven by the engine technology, existing fossil fuel specification and availability of feedstock. Thus, the aims of this study to investigate the effects of fuel additives with diesel–ethanol fuel blend under steady-state conditions. In the present study, the additives were palm diesel, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). The ratio of conventional diesel fuel to ethanol fuel to fuel additive are 80:15:5 by volume of fuel blends. The comparative studies on the effects of fuel additives in the engine performance and phase separation in diesel–ethanol blends. The effects of engine performance included exhaust gas emissions with different fuel additives on small diesel engine are also investigated under different engine conditions…