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Multidisciplinary Investigation of Truck Platooning

Altair-Bastian Schnepf, Christian Kehrer, Christoph Maeurer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0028
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In the age of environmental challenges and with it, the demand for increasing energy efficiency of commercial vehicles, truck platooning is discussed as a promising approach. The idea is several trucks forming an automated convoy – with the lead truck sending out acceleration, braking and steering signals for the following trucks to react accordingly. The benefits address fuel savings, traffic capacity, safety requirements and convenience. In our study, we will motivate why platooning requires a multidisciplinary approach in the sense of connecting different modeling and simulation methods. The simulation topics covered are aerodynamic analysis, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, radar antenna placement and virtual drive cycle test for the energetic evaluation of a truck platoon in comparison to a single truck. Aerodynamic analyses are conducted using a transient Lattice Boltzmann approach on GPUs capturing the complex vehicle wake interactions for different platooning distances with acceptable computational effort. Thereby, a generic truck convoy, consisting of three vehicles, is considered for distance intervals between 7 and 40 meters. From these computations for each vehicle look-up-tables are derived for interpolation…
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Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
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A Novel Option for Direct Waste Heat Recovery From Exhaust Gases of Internal Combustion Engines

Universita degli Studi dell Aquila-Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone PhD, Roberto Carapellucci PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0004
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Among the different opportunities to save fuel and reduce Co2 emissions from internal combustion engines, great attention has been done on the waste heat recovery: the energy wasted is, in fact, almost two thirds of the energy input and even a partial recovery into mechanical energy is really promising . Usually, thermal energy recovery has been referred to a direct heat recovery (furtherly expanding the gases expelled by the engine thanks to their high pressure and temperature) or an indirect one (using the thermal energy of the exhaust gases – or of any other thermal streams discharged into the atmosphere – as upper source of a conversion power unit which favour a thermodynamic cycle of a working fluid ). Limiting the attention to the exhaust gases, a novel opportunity can be represented by directly exploiting the residual pressure and temperature of the flue gases through an Inverted Brayton cycle (IBC), in which the gases are expanded at a pressure below the environmental one, cooled down and then recompressed to the environmental pressure. Considering the thermodynamic…
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Simulation of Driving Cycles by Means of a Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of IC Engine Tailpipe Emissions

Exothermia SA-Vasileios Tziolas, Nikolaos Zingopis
Politecnico di Milano-Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati, Gianluca D'Errico, Tarcisio Cerri, Andrea Marinoni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0011
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The current European legislation concerning pollutant emissions from IC engine vehicles is very stringent and demanding. In addition, the CO2 fleet emission must obey to a significant reduction path during the next decade, to cope with the prescribed targets recently agreed. The prediction of pollutant emissions from IC engines has been a challenge since the introduction of the emission regulation legislation. During the last decade, along with the more tightening limits and increased public concern about air quality, the capability of simulating different operating conditions and driving cycles with an acceptable computational effort has become a key feature for modern simulation codes. The role of 1D thermo-fluid dynamic simulation models is extremely important to achieve this task, in order to investigate the performances of the next generation of IC engines working over a wide range of operating conditions, under steady-state and transient conditions. This work is based on the idea of integrating two different 1D simulation tools in a co-simulation environment, realizing a strict numerical coupling between the two codes. The main goal is to…
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Design of the Compression Chamber and Optimization of the Sealing of a Novel Rotary Internal Combustion Engine using CFD

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Savvas S. Savvakis, Elias Nassiopoulos, Dimitrios Mertzis, Zissis Samaras
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0007
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demand for lower fuel consumption and pollutant emissions favours the development of novel engine configurations. In line with this demand, the present contribution aims to investigate the sealing performance of a new concept rotary split-engine with a very promising thermal efficiency, a very low NOx emissions' level, and a much higher power density than any conventional internal combustion engine can. It uses the Atkinson cycle, a low-temperature combustion process and when it uses two pistons, symmetrically positioned around its shaft, it gives one power stroke every 180 degrees. The main focus of this work is to provide all the steps followed so far in order to ensure an efficient sealing and operation of the compression process of this engine, including the 1D & CFD simulations, CAD design & optimisation, and experimental campaign for verifying the digital results. The so-far investigation and experiments conclude that this new rotary engine can work with no oil lubrication inside the compression chamber and with much lower mechanical losses compared to the existing reciprocating engines.
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How Should Innovative Combustion Engines be Developed, Operated and Built in Order to Turn From Climate Sinners Into Climate Savers?

Hamburg University of Applied Sciences-Victor Gheorghiu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0009
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
KEYWORDS – Strict Atkinson Cycle implementation, Extended Expansion Cycle, VCR, Enhanced Thermal Conversion Efficiency, High Pressure Turbocharging, Hydrogen DI, stoichiometric mixture, new load control ABSTRACT The Ultra-Downsizing is introduced as an even higher stage of downsizing of ICE. Ultra-downsizing will be implemented here by means of real Atkinson cycles using an asymmetrical crank mechanisms with continuous VCR capabilities, combined with two-stage high-pressure turbocharging and very intensive intercooling. This will allow an increase of ICE performance while keeping the thermal and mechanical strain strength of engine components within the current usual limits. Research Objective The principal purpose of this investigation is to analyze and evaluate a strict implementations of Atkinson cycles on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) by means of the VCSR asymmetrical crank mechanisms (VCSR means Variable Compression and Strokes Ratios) for DI-Hydrogen-fueled (or with H2-CNG blends) case. The VCSR will be presented in two constructive variants. The mechanical loads as torque and forces within the VCSR crank mechanism will be presented and analyzed in some engine operation points. Methodology A small size SI NA MPI…
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A Detailed Finite Element Thermal Analysis of a 18650 Format Battery Cell for Automotive Applications

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Valerio Mangeruga, Dario Cusati, Matteo Giacopini, Francesco Cicci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0022
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology for the thermal analysis of a cylindrical Li-Ion battery cell. In particular, the 18650 format is considered. First, an electrical current drain cycle is applied to measure the electrical internal resistance of the cell and to estimate the consequent thermal energy release. A battery cell is then dissected and the inner structure is reproduced in detail with the adoption of microscopic images. By this way, the heat generation areas and the different thermal paths are correctly identified. Thermal Finite Element analyses are performed faithfully reproducing the inner geometry of the cell, and different cooling strategies are compared. The numerical results are then validated versus experimental evidence obtained considering the thermal behaviour of a small section, made by three cells, of a water cooled battery pack. The proposed approach can drive the design process towards more efficient battery pack cooling strategies. The numerical model may be then applied to perform thermo-structural analyses and, consequently, structural failures of the battery cells might be predicted.
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Reduction of the Effect of the Creep Groan Brake Excitation in a Comercial Vehicle

IDIADA Automotive Technology SA-Angel Sanchez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1530
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
One of the results generated by the stick-slip intermittent motion of a brake at the friction interface is the Creep Groan Noise which is a low frequency self-excited vibration, normally less than 220 Hz. This local vibration generated between the brake couple, is transmitted through the suspension system until the passengers of the vehicle in form of vibration and noise. This paper presents a methodology that combines testing and numerical models in order to 1) detect the source of the Creep Groan, 2) create a correlated numerical model and 3) produce countermeasures that reduce the amplitude of the noise at occupant positions. The vehicle under investigation was a commercial vehicle employing air-actuated brake drums. From testing, global vehicles modes and displacements under operational conditions were respectively investigated by means of Operational Deflection Shapes and Real Time Animation. These techniques allowed to prove the existence of a feedback loop with a positive gain that excites a suspension resonance mode, creating an unstable shaking effect in the whole vehicle. In-service data suggest that the brake actuation system…
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Enhancement of Occupant Ride Comfort by GA Optimized PID Control Active Suspension System

Anna University-Arivazhagan Anandan, Arunachalam K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1532
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of this work is to enhance the occupant ride comfort. Ride comfort is quantified in terms of measuring distinct accelerations like sprung mass, seat and occupant head. For this theoretical evaluation, a 7- degrees of freedom (DOF) human-vehicle-road model was established and the system investigation was limited to vertical motion. Besides, this work also focused to guarantee other vehicle performance indices like suspension working space and tire deflection. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced in the vehicle model and optimized with the aid of the genetic algorithm (GA). Actuator dynamics is incorporated into the system. The objective function for PID optimization was carried out using root mean square error (RMSE) concept. The severity of various suspension indices and biomechanics responses of the developed model under proposed approach were theoretically analyzed using various road profiles and compared with conventional passive system. Furthermore, this work discussed the seat to head transmissibility ratio (STH) response to examine the severity of whole-body vibration (WBV). Subsequently, the respective performance measures were statistically analyzed using root mean square…
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Development of the Active Sound Generation Technology using Motor Driven Power Steering System

Hyundai Motor Co.-Kyoung-Jin Chang
Mdynamix AG-Leonhard Angerpointner, Dominik Schubert, Matthias Niegl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1536
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
As original engine sound is usually not enough to satisfy the driver’s desire for the sporty and fascinating sound, active noise control (ANC) and active sound design (ASD) have been great technologies in automobiles for a long time. However, these technologies which enhance the sound of vehicle using loud speakers or electromagnetic actuators etc. lead to the increase of cost and weight due to the use of external amplifier or external actuators. This paper presents a new technology of generating a target sound by the active control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is already mounted in vehicle. Firstly, an algorithm of this technology, called an active sound generation (ASG), is introduced with those signal conversion process, and then the high frequency noise issue and its countermeasure are presented. Secondly, ASG test bench is designed using a motor driven power steering (MDPS) system and then it is checked if ASG has any influence on an original function of MDPS. Thirdly, motor-induced vibration is measured in the transfer path and then the appropriate level…