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Numerical Study of the Maximum Impact on Engine Efficiency When Insulating the Engine Exhaust Manifold and Ports During Steady and Transient Conditions

Universitat Politècnica de València-Alberto Broatch, Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Amin Dreif
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0002
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, a study about the impact on engine performance, fuel consumption and turbine inlet and outlet temperatures adding thermal insulation to the exhaust ports, manifold and pipes before the turbocharger of a 1.6L Diesel engine is presented. First, a 0D/1D model of the engine was developed and thoroughly validated by means of an extensive testing campaign. The validation was performed by means of steady state or transient running conditions and in two different room temperatures: 20ºC and -7ºC d. Once the validation was complete, in order to quantify the significance of adding thermal isolations, the simulations were performed setting the exhaust air path before the turbine as adiabatic. This is evaluated the maximum gain of the technology. Results showed that the thermal insulation proved to have a great potential in regard to T4 increase since this would reduce the warm up time of the aftertreatment systems. However, its impact on engine efficiency was limited in both steady and transient conditions.
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Simplified Cost-effective Aftertreatment System for Electrified Diesel Applications

Exothermia SA-Dimitrios Karamitros, Christos Avgerinos, Stavros Skarlis, Grigorios Koltsakis
GM Global Propulsion System-Giuseppe Previtero, Fransesco Bechis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0023
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The Diesel powertrain remains an important CO2 reduction technology in specific market segments due to its inherent thermodynamic combustion efficiency advantages. Diesel powertrain hybridization can bring further potential for CO2 emissions reduction. However, the associated reduction in the exhaust gas temperature may negatively impact the performance of the exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) system and challenge the abatement of other emissions, especially NOx. Considering that active urea-SCR systems may be required to ensure compliance with the legislative limits, the total cost of the hybrid Diesel powertrain is expected to increase even more, therefore making it less commercially attractive. We present a model-based analysis of a 48V Diesel mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) which is combined with an exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) system using Lean-NOx trap (LNT) technology. The overall de-NOx performance is further enhanced with the addition of passive SCR catalysts to benefit from the on-board ammonia formation during rich combustion events. Since the modeling framework is fully physico-chemically informed, it allows the investigation of various topologies, catalyst geometrical and chemical properties. Moreover, the model includes a simplified…
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Design and Sustainability Assessment of Lightweight Concept for an Automotive Car Module

Benteler-Joern Toelle
Toyota Motor Europe-Martin Kerschbaum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0033
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Recently sustainability has become a priority for industry production. This issue is even more valid for the automotive sector, where Original Equipment Manufacturers have to address the environmental protection additionally to traditional design issues. Against this background, many research and industry advancements are concentrated in the development of lightweight car components through the application of new materials and manufacturing technologies. The paper deals with an innovative lightweight design solution for the bumper system module of a B-segment car. The study has been developed within the Affordable LIght-weight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 framework programme of the European Commission. A bumper demonstrator, that is currently in series production and mainly consists of conventional aluminum materials, is re-engineered making use of 7000 series aluminum alloys. The design alternatives are described and assessed regarding the achieved weight saving. The study is complemented by a sustainability assessment of the different modules performed through the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The analysis takes into account production, use and End-of-Life stages and the results are expressed in terms…
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Inverse Vibration Problem Used for the Characterization of the Damping Added by a Trim Foam on a Plate

CEVAA-Nicolas Merlette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1580
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Many solutions exist to insure the NVH comfort of ground and air vehicles, like heavy mass (bitumen pads), viscoelastic treatments and absorbing foams. The trim foam is an alternative to heavy solutions. To know the potential of the foam, a study of its capacity to damp vibration is done. A system, composed by a suspended plate, with a foam on it, is characterized in different cases of contact at the foam-plate interface (glued or not) and with different types of foam. An experimental test facility is developed to identify the global damping of the structure: a laser vibrometer measures the displacement field of the foam-plate structure, an inverse method is used to determine the structural parameters. By changing the contact at the interface, it is possible to identify the contribution of the friction forces to the global damping of the structure. Another type of damping is the viscoelastic damping due to the intrinsic characteristics of the trim foam. With the help of FEA, it is possible to understand the influence of the damping effect. The…
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Asian Consumers Challenging the NVH Performance of European Cars – Implications on the Product Development in the 2020ies

MAGNA STEYR Automotive Technologies-Paulo Padilha
NVH Experts-Christoph Fankhauser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1552
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Sales of SUV and luxury cars on the largest market of the world – China – are growing at a high rate. The highways in large cities like Beijing or Shanghai are increasingly populated with cars from all over the world like Japan, USA, Europe and Korea and even some refined domestic brands. More than 10 million rich people can afford those cars and are skilled drivers. This huge group of potential consumers is targeted by luxury brand OEMs and by startup companies. It has been understood, that these people have a strong attitude towards comfort. The twistbeam rear axle was replaced by multilink, double clutch transmissions were improved by comfort-mode drive programs, interior trims raised to Western standard performance levels, tyres specially developed for comfort in China, localized insulation materials and packages engineered to a one vehicle class higher level. The European avant-garde is capable of such high levels of complete vehicle NVH performance, whereas premium brands often compromise NVH with respect to high vehicle dynamics performance and passive safety requirements. At the same…
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Innovative Material Characterisation Methodology for Tyre Static and Dynamic Analyses

Applus + Idiada Group, Spain-Bharath Anantharamaiah
Applus IDIADA Group, Spain-Carlos Fidalgo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1519
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Tyre structures are based on composite materials that constitute numerous layers, each providing specific properties to the tyre mechanic and dynamic behaviour. In principle, the understanding of the partial contributions of the individual layers requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. In case of non-availability of such critical information, it is difficult to perform tyre FE analyses. In the current work, a methodology is proposed to study the tyre static and dynamic behaviour to estimate its constituents properties based on the measured quasi-static responses of the tyre for certain specific loads. As a first step, a simplified tyre numerical model with standard rubber material properties is modeled that can substantively predict the necessary tyre static responses, i.e. radial, longitudinal and lateral stiffness. These responses are correlated with the physical tyre response that are measured using a kinematic and compliance (K&C) test rig in the laboratory. A Design of Experiments (DoE) study, followed by an optimization process, is performed by sampling the material properties of the rubbers to simulate the FE model and match the tyre responses…
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Resabtors - Advanced Multi-Material Muffler Designs for Clean Air Applications

Umfotec-Ralf Buck
Umfotec GmbH-Ingo Krebs
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1554
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The development and production of resonators on the charged air side of combustion engines require profound base of knowledge in designing, simulating and the production of such parts in different materials (aluminum, copper, stainless steel and technical plastic). As combustion engines are under constant discussion, this existing knowledge base should be used for other applications within and outside the automotive industry. Very quickly it became apparent that new challenges often require completely new solutions, designs and materials to meet the requirements of flow noise reducing parts. For example, for clean air applications mufflers based on “special treated foams” and “meta-materials” can be introduced. These materials offer new potentials for tuning of the frequency range and allow improved broad banded flow noise attenuation. Such parts are named “Resabtors” in order to take respect of the different flow noise attenuation principles resonation and absorbing. Since in almost all applications the installation space is very limited, it was necessary to combine these two principles into one component. This results into significant challenges to identify the properties of the…
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Innovative Acoustic Material Concept Integration Into Vehicle Design Process

Odenwald-Chemie GmbH-Michael Feist-Muench
dBVibroAcoustics-Denis Blanchet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1527
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Integration of acoustic material concepts into vehicle design process is an important part of full vehicle design. The ability to assess the acoustic performance of a particular sound package component early in the design process allows designers to test various designs concepts before selecting a final products. This paper describes an innovative acoustic material concept which is easily integrated in a design process through the use of a database of Biot parameters. Biot parameters are widely used in the automotive industry to describe the physical interactions between the acoustics waves travelling through foams, fibers or metamaterials and the solid and fluid phase of these poro-elastic materials. This new acoustic material concept provides a combination of absorption, transmission loss and added damping on the panel it is attached to. It has shown unique vibro-acoustics performance when tested on a German car manufacturer flagship vehicle and provides the ability to reduce the space needed for sound package component compared with classical solutions.
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Impact of Manufacturing Inaccuracies on the Acoustic Performance of Sound Insulation Packages With Plate-like Acoustic Metamaterials

Hamburg University of Applied Sciences-Felix Langfeldt, Wolfgang Gleine
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1562
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Thin plate-like metamaterials (e.g. membrane-type acoustic metamaterials or inhomogeneous plates) have a high potential for improving the sound transmission loss of sound insulation packages, especially in the challenging low-frequency regime. These types of metamaterials have been previously shown to achieve very high sound transmission loss values which can exceed the corresponding mass-law values considerably. However, like many other metamaterial realizations, their extraordinary acoustical performance relies on the periodicity of the sub-wavelength sized unit cells. In particular, for plate-like acoustic metamaterials (PAM) most theoretical and numerical investigations assume a perfect placement of equal added masses - an idealization which cannot be achieved in industrial manufacturing of these metamaterials. This contribution investigates the impact of randomized inaccuracies that can occur in manufacturing on the sound reduction behavior of PAM. First, a numerical model of a finite sized PAM is validated using sound transmission loss measurement data. Then, the simulation model is modified to incorporate randomly varying geometrical parameters of the added masses (such as mass placement, size, etc.). The parameters are randomized according to a Gaussian distribution…
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Materials Characterisation Techniques Used to Develop Polyurethane Foams for Automotive NVH Applications

Huntsman-Mark Brennan, Martino Dossi, Maarten Moesen, Jan Vandenbroeck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1529
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The versatility of polyurethane foam chemistry enables its use in a wide variety of automotive noise and vibration applications. These include low density sound absorbing foam materials with tailored foam microstructures for engine applications and sound insulating viscoelastic materials for carpets and dash insulators. This paper will demonstrate techniques used to develop new NVH materials. For example, X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to characterise the 3D cellular microstructure of a variety of foams, a key attribute for sound absorbing materials. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is required to understand the frequency dependent elasticity and damping properties of polyurethane polymer materials in foams, important for structure-borne vibrations. Foam materials are highly non-linear, even at small loads, so techniques such as digital image correlation are used to study non-linear foam elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. These methods are used to aid interpretation of electromagnetic shaker and acoustic impedance tube measurements of polyurethane foams via higher level poro-elastic models. From this a library of four pole transfer matrices for various materials can be obtained and absorption, reflection and transmission…