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Effects of Helical Carbon Nanotubes on Mechanical Performance of the Composite Bonded Joints

Wichita State University-Ramanan Sritharan, Davood Askari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0029
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Most composite assemblies and structures generally fail due to the poor performance of their bonded joints that are assembled together with an adhesive layer. Adhesive failure and cohesive failure are among the most commonly observed failure modes in composite bonded joint assemblies. These failure modes occur due to the lack of reinforcement within the adhesive layer in transverse direction. The overall performance of any composite assembly largely depends on the performance of its bonded joints. Various techniques and processes were developed in recent years to improve mechanical performance of the composite bonded joints, one of which includes the use of nanoscale reinforcements within the adhesive layer in between the adherends. However, most prior research have been focused on use of straight carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanomaterials in particle forms. The goal was to improve the properties of the adhesive film and their interfacial bonding effectiveness. Because CNTs are inert in nature, they should be covalently functionalized, before incorporating them into adhesive resins. CNTs can be functionalized using different chemicals to improve their interactions with…
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Advancements of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys for Heat Critical Aerospace Applications

The Boeing Company-Eve Taylor Burkhart, Larry Hefti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0033
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Titanium’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance makes it ideal for many aerospace applications, especially in heat critical zones. Superplastic Forming (SPF) can be used to form titanium into near-net, complex shapes without springback. The process uses a machined die where inert gas is applied uniformly to the metal sheet, forming the part into the die cavity. Standard titanium alpha-beta alloys, such as 6Al-4V, form at temperatures between 900 and 925ºC (1650-1700ºF). Recent efforts have demonstrated alloys that form at lower temperatures ranging between 760 and 790ºC (1400-1450ºF). Lowering the forming temperature reduces the amount of alpha case that forms on the part, which must be removed. This provides an opportunity of starting with a lower gauge material. Lower forming temperatures also limit the amount of oxidation and wear on the tool and increase the life of certain press components, such as heaters and platens. A variation of this process is SPF combined with Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB) of two or more titanium sheets to produce integrally stiffened structures with limited fasteners and less weight than…
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Advances in drilling Composites with PCD drills.

Facet Precision Tool GmbH-Jeremy Bunting, John Bunting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0035
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The use of PCD drills for drilling stack ups of CFRP/Titanium is reviewed. The effect of improvements in PCD micro structure. cutting edge drill design, and coolant flow are documented with improvements in cycle time, hole quality, and and exit burrs.
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Tapered Hole Automation for Hard Metals – Enabling Producibility

Electroimpact Inc.-Russell DeVlieg
The Boeing Company-Trevor Hartnagel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0006
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Assembly of the F-15 wing utilizes the Taper-Lok fastening system which requires precise preparation of conical holes to enable tapered fasteners to provide a uniform interference fit. The controlled interference fit directly affects fastener preload to reduce stress and improve fatigue life. Traditional methods for generating tapered holes in thick aluminum and titanium structures require heavy duty tooling. Fixtures are clamped to aircraft structure which hold large power feed to complete the hole generation processes in multiple steps. Manual drilling for Taper-Loks is labor intensive, non-ergonomic, and requires extreme care to ensure quality holes are produced. Automated hole generation was a logical solution to the complex Taper-Lok fastening system, however replicating traditional drilling methods proved challenging. Extensive testing was completed to ensure hole quality generated with automation would meet or exceed existing power feed equipment. Once process capabilities were proven and equipment requirements were generated, an articulated arm-based drilling system was developed and implemented. The automation was designed to accurately position and complete the hole preparation process in a single pass by the use of…
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Putting Failure in Context - Importance of the Digital Twin & Digital Thread for Predictive Maintenance in Aerospace

Aras Corp.-Suresh Iyer, Marc lind
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0051
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
KEYWORDS Digital Thread, Digital Twin, Predictive Maintenance ABSTRACT Competitive disruption combined with economic uncertainty and regulatory pressure is forcing fundamental changes in the maintenance industry. At the same time, new complexities are being introduced with next generation aircraft and changing business models. Initiatives for greater efficiencies, optimization and predictive maintenance are becoming critical to survival as market realities continue to unfold. Yet, most organization's digital strategies focus on technology infrastructure like big data clouds, data lakes and analytics for performance data without taking into account the necessary context for interpretation, analysis and simulation - the Digital Twin configuration. In many cases, the disconnected nature of existing processes and systems actually make utilizing time series data generated during operation difficult or even impossible. In addition, the ability to understand and act upon these data often require traceability to information from previous activities - a Digital Thread. To complicate matters further when artificial intelligence / machine learning is introduced the necessity becomes even greater. In this session, the authors will discuss why global maintenance operations will require…
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AFP Processing of Dry Fiber Materials (DFP) for Improved Rates and Reliability

Electroimpact Inc.-Michael Assadi, Tyler Field
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0030
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper explores the differences found when processing dry-fiber, thermoset, carbon materials (DFP) as compared to processing pre-preg, thermoset materials with Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) equipment. When comparing these two processes, heating systems and tension control must be modified from traditional AFP systems. These new heating systems also require enhanced safety measures. Existing safety systems have been designed to accommodate high performance AFP equipment. As a result, the changes required to accommodate DFP heating systems have become negligible. Although processing dry fiber requires a higher level of heating, tension control and added safety measures, once these differences are overcome, processing rates and reliability are significantly improved. Specifically, overall payout speeds and steering speeds can be increased for dry fiber resulting in increased laydown rates. The lack of resin within the material greatly reduces resin build-up for longer maintenance intervals. This also results in greater reliability by minimizing or eliminating the associated problems with resin build-up. All of these advantages increase the machine utilization when processing aerospace parts made from dry fiber materials with AFP equipment.
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Tool wear analysis on drilling process of Inconel 718 superalloy

Federal University of Sao Carlos-Pedro Cabegi Barros, Gustavo Franco Barbosa, Carlos Eiji Hirata Ventura
OSG Sulamericana-Gustavo Roberto Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0034
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The inconel 718 is an alloy based on nickel of high thermal and mechanical resistance, which allows its wide application in the aerospace industry, being generally implemented in aircraft tail cone and engine components. On the other hand, these features become a recurring problem when the machining of this material is performed. For example, in the drilling process of this superalloy, the cutting tools used exhibit excessive wear due to the high temperature and pressure at the cutting edge. However, there are numerous parameters that can influence the cutting tool life, and when analyzed and well defined, determine the types of modifications needed to enable less wear, and consequently an increase of its useful life in service. Given this context and knowing that the study of tool life in the inconel 718 drilling process is extremely relevant in the aerospace sector, this paper presents a wear study in order to evaluate the behavior of different types of cutting tools used to drill the Inconel 718. It was accomplished by the combination of different cutting parameters…
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Validation Testing of Lithium Battery Performance-Based Packaging for use in Air Transportation (SAE G-27)

National Research Council Canada-Khalid Fatih, Manuel Hernandez
Transport Canada-Ian Whittal, Kiran Shoib
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0042
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The SAE G-27 committee was tasked by ICAO to develop a performance-based packaging standard for lithium batteries transported as cargo on aircraft. The standard details test criteria to qualify packages of lithium batteries & cells for transportation as cargo on-board passenger aircraft. Lithium batteries and cells have been prohibited from shipment as cargo on passenger aircraft since 2016. This paper summarizes the results of the tests conducted by Transport Canada and National Research Council Canada to support the development of this standard with evidence-based recommendations. It includes a description of the test specimens, the test set up, instrumentation used, and test procedures following the standard as drafted to date. The study considered several lithium-ion battery and cell chemistries that were tested under various proposed testing scenarios in the draft standard. The aim was to assess the feasibility of proposed tests, and to determine whether the tests are able to accurately capture hazards which may arise from a catastrophic battery or a cell failure within the package. Laboratory results were also simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics…
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Non- Destructive method for measuring Fastener Preload via Electromagnetic acoustic resonance

Arconic Fastening Systems-Luke Leonard Haylock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0011
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
We describe a novel, non-destructive fastener preload measurement technique based on electromagnetic acoustic resonance, an emerging ultrasonic spectroscopy technique for nondestructive and noncontact materials characterization, relying on the use of electromagnetic-acoustic transducers and the synchronous envelope detection circuitry for processing the received reverberation signals excited by continuous wave excitation method achieved through narrow band radio-frequency (RF) sweeps. The transduction occurs through the Lorenz force mechanism and, for ferrous metals, the dynamic response of magnetostriction and the magnetic force as well. High signal to noise ratio is achieved by receiving the overlapping coherent echoes at resonant frequencies. The spectral response can be interpreted and the propagation velocities can be correlated to stress applied by fasteners to the area medially surrounding the fasteners. The acoustoelastic effect involves a change in the velocity of acoustic waves when a material is under mechanical stress. This is state of stress in the structure immediately surrounding fasteners is commonly referred to as preload and is a considered a reaction to the tightening action of the fastener. The acoustoelastic effect of material…
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AMS Index - January 2020

  • Index
  • AMSJAN-2020
To be published on 2020-02-20 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.