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Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on VPG

CATARC-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang, xin li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0170
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The durable load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by vehicle road load acquisition and load decomposition in the industry, and Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) is gradually replacing this technical route. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel six-component force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the durable load spectrum in the early stage of development.

Experimental investigations of metal oxide nano-additives on working characteristics of CI engine.

Delhi Technological University-Subham Mukhopadhyay, Aahan Malhotra, Mukul Tomar, Naman Choudhary, Naveen Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0794
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel is a potential substitute for diesel and extensive research is carried in India on production and utilization of biodiesel from a variety of edible/non-edible, animal fat and waste oils. However, issues like stability, clogging, increased NOx, and high consumption rate etc. are some of the critical issues which are associated with long-term use of these alternative fuels in a diesel engine. The recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have paved the way to produce nanoscale energetic materials which have tremendous advantages over micron sized materials. Nanofluids are a new class of solid-liquid composite materials consisting of nano-sized solid particles dispersed in any base fluid. The present study investigates the effect of doping metal oxides nanoparticles with waste fish oil-based biodiesel. For the present study, the blends of fuel are prepared by using 30ppm each of titanium dioxide and alumina nanoparticles respectively. The addition of nano-additives in biodiesel is achieved by means of ultrasonicator, to attain uniform suspension. A series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder…

A Visual Investigation of CFD-Predicted In-Cylinder Mechanisms that Control1st and 2nd Stage Ignition in Diesel Jets

Sandia National Laboratories-Mark Musculus
Univ of Wisconsin-Rolf Reitz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0543
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The long-term goal of this work is to develop a conceptual model for multiple injections of diesel jets. The current work contributes to that effort by performing a detailed investigation into mechanisms that are predicted to control 1st and 2nd stage ignition in diesel jets. Here, two n-dodecane axi-symmetric jets, injected into air, are simulated. One jet is injected into 900K air, which produces a classic-burning jet with a negative ignition dwell, -dwell. The other is injected into 760K air. It produces a more volumetric-appearing burn and a positive ignition dwell, +dwell. The way fuel begins to burn for both cases is similar: very early reactions begin off-axis; reaction rates increase as reacting gases flow downstream; once beyond the point of complete fuel evaporation, 1st stage heat release (HR) transitions to 2nd stage as the HR zone starts passing through the premixed charge a second time and the rise in premixed burn spike forms. The chemical and thermodynamic environment surrounding the early-2nd stage reactants for each case are very distinct. The +dwell initial 2nd stage…

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

Daido Steel Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ando
Ikeuchi Seiko Co., Ltd.-Hitoshi Kodama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1116
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In our new Variable compression Turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has multi-link system to control the compression ratio (from 8:1 to 14:1 with this system), the high axial force is required for fastening of multi-link system which has the high input and down-sizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop the fastening bolts of the 1600MPa tensile length. The biggest issue of high strength bolt is delayed fracture with hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for 1600MPa tensile strength bolt by taking into account mass production and low cost. To improve the delayed fracture resistance, we proceeded the optimization of chemical composition and heat treatment condition as follows, 1) high-C and high-Si steel as a base to obtain sufficient strength even at high tempering temperature (around 600 degree) to make the fine and spherical carbide microstructure, 2) combined addition of Si, Cr and Mo as alloying elements for increasing temper softening resistance, 1.5% or more of precipitation hardening type element Mo was required to achieve high temperature tempering. We…

Investigations of composite materials for their applications in designs of vehicles

South Ural State University-Alexander Kheruvimov, Alexander Nikonov, Sergei Aliukov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1120
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
At present, there is a tendency to replace metals with nonmetals, including composite materials. More and more works are devoted to the creation and investigation of the structure and properties of nonmetallic materials. Composites, being a heterogeneous anisotropic or quasi-isotropic system, combining the positive properties of components and possessing a complex of new properties not inherent in any of them, allow to substantially improve the basic characteristics of materials. The main requirement applied to parts of vehicles made of polymer composite materials is the ability to withstand a high operating temperature and pressure. Modern polymer composite materials consist of reinforcing fillers and a polymer matrix. Reinforcing fillers can be made of: fiberglass, organic fiber, carbon fiber and are able to withstand the required operating temperature and pressure with ease. Thus, the task of selecting polymer composite materials for units and details of vehicles is reduced to the selection of a polymer matrix connecting the reinforcing filler. This article analyzes the use of polymer composite materials in the details of vehicles, the most promising components of…

Vehicle auxiliary energy supply device based on composite solar module

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Shuai Wang, Zebiao Ma, Xiaofei Ma, Jingfeng Sun, Daolin Zhou, Yiran Ding, Yifeng Jiang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1258
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The degree of electrification of vehicles is gradually increasing and the demand for electric energy is increasing. The solar energy is clean, rich and widely distributed, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells is low. In this paper, a composite vehicle-mounted solar module integrating photovoltaic and thermoelectricity is designed. According to the spectral absorption characteristics of photovoltaic cells and solar selective absorbing coatings. The sunlight that cannot be absorbed by the photovoltaic cell is fully used for collecting heat, and the generated high-temperature heat energy is transmitted to the hot end of the thermal electric generator (TEG) by using heat pipes, and the TEG cold end is connected to the vehicle body through the heat pipe for cooling to achieve temperature difference power generation. It improves the comprehensive utilization efficiency of the solar energy within the limited range of the roof and provide energy supply for the vehicle. Based on the photoelectric conversion model and the photothermal thermal model, the effects of solar illuminance, ambient temperature and air velocity on the energy conversion effect…

Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspenson System (CLASS)

Ford Motor Co.-Alan James Banks
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1122
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System is a high volume composite rear suspension knuckle/tieblade consisting of UD prepreg (epoxy resin), SMC (vinylester resin) carbon fibre and a steel insert to reduce the weight of the component by 35% and reduce Co2. The compression moulding manufacturing process and CAE optimisation are unique and ground-breaking for this product. The manufacturing techniques employed allow for multi-material construction within a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the design actually lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. It is a well-known fact that the performance of a composite part is primarily determined by the way it is manufactured. The design team were able to use their extensive knowledge of material behaviour and state of the art manufacturing cells to enable a component that meets the required functional requirements. The CAE optimisation techniques developed during the project made a significant contribution to the project by bypassing a traditional approach and also reducing the amount of physical…

Numerical modelling of metal forming by SPH with multi-GPU acceleration

ESS (Engineering Software Steyr GmbH)-Alireza Eslamian
ESS Engineering Software Steyr-Md Rushdie Ibne Islam, Chong Peng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1085
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Large material distortion, plastic deformation and forging make the numerical modelling of metal forming a difficult task. Grid-based methods such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) are incapable of simulating this process as these schemes suffer from mesh distortion, mesh entanglement and require mesh refinement. The mesh-based numerical frameworks with discontinuous enrichment can model finite deformation problems with limited success. Moreover, the presence of flaws, multiple crack surfaces and their interaction make the simulation even more numerically and computationally intensive. In this regard, the particle-based or meshfree methods are more relevant. There exist several mesh-free methods and among these Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a truly meshfree. In SPH the computational domain is discretised by a set of particles. A given particle interacts only with its neighbouring particles through a kernel function with a constant radius. The interaction between particles stops when these move out of each other influence domain. Due to the absence of mesh/grids, SPH is naturally equipped to handle large material deformation. Based on the SPH, a solver with multi GPU acceleration…

R410A BASED AUTOMOTIVE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM THAT HITS CABIN HEATING GOAL SUCECCESFULLY IN -30 °C EXTREME AMBIENT

BAIC Motor Corp., Ltd. New Energy-KELVIN Zhai
BYD Auto Industry Company Limited-xuefeng Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0910
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
R410A BASED AUTOMOTIVE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM THAT HITS CABIN HEATING GOAL SUCECCESFULLY IN -30 °C EXTREME AMBIENT KELVIN ZHAI, HAOJIE WANG, BAIC MOTOR CO. LTD. XUEFENG CHEN, BYD AUTO CO. LTD ABSTRACT It is a big wave in the world towards to future to replace traditional vehicles by Battery powered Electric Vehicles (BEV). However, it’s also well known that there are critical technical barriers for BEV based AC systems to work in very low ambient to heat up the cabin sufficiently for human comfort requirement, due to weak battery output impacted by the low ambient. The regular heat pump systems with R134A/R1234YF, even with Vapor Injection cycle (VI) added, due to -26°C boiling temperature limits, are still encountering serious challenges to meet -30 °C or lower ambient needs, although VI heat pump may reach COP>=1.7 at ambient -18 °C. There are so many areas in the world where are so cold that lower than -30°C, and may last couple of months per year, in most Canada, northern USA and northern China. Somehow, limited by the…

Predicting FLCs of Hot Stamping Boron Steel by Z’-DFC

General Motors-ZiQiang Sheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1089
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, combined with an improved Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z’), a previously proposed ductile failure criterion (DFC) is used to predict forming limit curves (FLCs) of Boron steel at hot stamping temperatures. The ductile failure criterion takes into account the critical damage at localized necking or fracture as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. The improved Zener-Hollomon equation accounts for the strain rate sensitivity of the material at high temperatures. Compared with published experimental result, the criterion is able to provide accurate prediction of FLCs of different thick Boron sheet steel at different hot stamping temperatures.