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A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

Hyundai Motor Co.-Misun Kwon, Taehoon Lee, Sangdo Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0466
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The large luxury sedan seats have a maximum movement of 22 way, each of which offers wide moving ranges from 30mm to 260mm. Although the mechanism provides a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance, the seat’s operating range is the largest and widest out of all moving parts of the interior components, facing many constraints on its movement in the constrained interior space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for users to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike the manual seat adjustment that allows users to decide the adjustment scope according to their power and feeling. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. In this regard, this paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. This paper discusses constraints of power seat movement through seat control logic and methods to devise robust design of control logic. The results of this study are…

Driver’s response prediction using Naturalistic Data Set

Ohio State Univ-Dennis Guenther
Ohio State University-Venkata Raghava Ravi Lanka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0128
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Evaluating the safety of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) is a challenging problem, especially in traffic conditions involving dynamic interactions. A thorough evaluation of the vehicle's decisions at all possible critical scenarios is necessary for estimating and validating its safety. However, predicting the response of the vehicle to dynamic traffic conditions can be the first step in the complex problem of understanding vehicle's behavior. This predicted response of the vehicle can be used in validating vehicle's safety. In this paper, models based on Machine Learning were explored for predicting and classifying driver's response. The Naturalistic Driving Study dataset (NDS), which is part of the Strategic Highway Research Program-2 (SHRP2) was used for training and validating these Machine Learning models. Various popular Machine Learning Algorithms were used for classifying and predicting driver's response, such as Extremely Randomized Trees and Gaussian Mixture Model based Hidden Markov Model, which are widely used in multiple domains. For classifying driver's response, longitudinal acceleration vs lateral acceleration plot (Ax-Ay plot) was divided into nine different classes and selected Machine Learning models were trained…

PHEV Real World Driving Cycle and Energy and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Michigan Technological Univ.-Darrell Robinette, Eric Kostreva, Alexandra Krisztian, Anthony Lackey, Christopher Morgan, Joshua Orlando, Neeraj Rama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0307
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents real world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charges. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.4% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge. After completing 30 baseline drive cycles, a design for six sigma (DFSS) L18 array was designed to look at sensitivity of a range of parameters to energy consumption as related to connected and automated vehicles to target highest return on engineering development effort. The parameters explored in the DFSS array that showed the most sensitivity, in order…

Risk of Concussion in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent, Inc.-Stephanie A. Pasquesi, Alexander Bruno, Amy Courtney, Stacy M. Imler, Janine Smedley, Michael T. Prange
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1218
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There were approximately 2.5 million traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States in 2013, an increase of more than 50% since 2007. In particular, TBI-related ED visits associated with motor vehicle crashes increased by 19% over that period. This estimate includes patients with a diagnosis of concussion or mild TBI (mTBI). Therefore, a better understanding of the risk of concussion associated with motor vehicle crashes is needed. A scientific evaluation of concussion risk is strengthened by objective, quantitative data. However, the diagnostic criteria have broadened; for example, a diagnosis of concussion no longer requires loss of consciousness, and an affected individual may not have a reduced Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Moreover, there are often no objective findings based on current diagnostic imaging techniques. As a result, clinical assessment of mTBI may be based only on self-reported symptoms and history. Peer-reviewed research conducted using field accident data, human surrogates, and biomechanical models have resulted in the development of correlations between head accelerations and the risk of brain injury, which can…

Thoracic Spine Extension Injuries in Occupants with Pre-Existing Conditions during Rear End Collisions

Exponent, Inc.-Mathieu S. Davis, Jessica L. Isaacs, Martin A. Graber, Jacob L. Fisher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1222
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Certain ankylosing spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) can significantly alter clinicopathologic spine biomechanics and injury mechanisms in rear end motor vehicle collisions. AS is an inflammatory disease which can lead to structural impairments of the spine secondary to flowing ossification along the spinal column, including ossification across the spinal discs, facet joints, and ligaments, and has been associated with diffuse osteoporosis of the spine. DISH is characterized by excess bone formation along the spinal column, encompassing the annulus and forming the thickest and strongest bridging of the vertebral bodies at the level of the disc space. In both conditions the spine is generally stiffer and more kyphotic than a healthy spine. This paper presents a series of case studies in which a front-seat occupant with ankylosing spondyloarthropathy experienced a moderate- or high-speed rear-end collision and sustained a thoracic spine fracture/dislocation, often with spinal cord injuries. Forward acceleration of the occupant by the seat back in each case resulted in straightening of the kyphotic thoracic spine and consequent extension…

Kinematics and Compliance Analysis of a 3.5 tonnes Load Capacity Independent Front Suspension for LCV

Hexagon Studio-Salih Kuris, Efe Gungor, Baris Aykent
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0935
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper deals with the development of a 3.5 ton carrying double wishbone front suspension for a low floor LCV. It is a novelty in this class of vehicles. It has a trackwidth of 1810 mm and it has a recirculating ball steering system. The steering mechanism has been arranged so that the steering angle could reach to 48° that is a very effective angle in that vehicle range. This results as a lower turning radius which indicates a better handling for the vehicle. The steering and the front suspension system here has been optimised in terms of comfort and handling by using DOE based on sequential programming technique (design of experiments). In order to achieve better suspension and steering system geometry, this technique has been applied. The results have been compared with the benchmark vehicle.

Prediction of Human Actions in Assembly Process by a Spatial-Temporal End-to-End Learning Model

Clemson Univ-Zhujun Zhang, Weitian Wang, Yi Chen, Yunyi Jia
Harbin Institute of Technology-Zhujun Zhang, Gaoliang Peng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0509
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
It’s important to predict the future actions of human in the industry assembly process. Foreseeing future actions before they have happened is an essential part for flexible human-robot collaboration and crucial safety issues. Vision-based human actions prediction from videos provides intuitive and adequate knowledge for many complex applications. This problem can be interpreted as deducing the next action of people from a short video clip. The history information needs to be considered to learn these relations between each time step for predicting the future steps. However, it is difficult to extract the history information and use it to infer the future situation with the traditional methods. In this scenario, a model is needed to handle the spatial and temporal details stored in past human motions and construct the future action based on limited accessible human demonstrations. In this paper, we apply an autoencoder based deep learning framework for human actions construction, merging into the RNN pipeline for human future actions prediction. This contrasts with traditional approaches which use hand-crafted features and different domain output. The…

Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

Purdue University-Andrew Robison, Andrea Vacca
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0827
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Gerotor pumps are common in low pressure automotive applications such as fuel delivery, lubrication, and automatic transmissions. Recent automotive trends, such as electrification, demand these units to perform in more demanding conditions, so modern design methodologies must be developed to meet these challenges. Previous work in gerotor gear geometry design used the kinematic flow ripple as an objective function during extensive profile optimization. Although more sophisticated methods exist for predicting the flow ripple, the kinematic flow ripple was used to reduce the computation time of optimizations. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. As a way to counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual…

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

Univ of Michigan-Dearborn-Pranove Bandi, Sang-Hwan Kim
Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn-Abhishek Mosalikanti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1006
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With ever-rising automotive safety standards, automotive manufacturers have been pushing towards improving occupant safety and convenience by adding sophistication to vehicles using ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems). Recent developments in the industry have been towards adding additional display systems to work in collaboration with the aforementioned ADAS systems to educate the passengers on vehicle status and information. The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of ADAS warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic birds eye view for warnings. Sixteen normal drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. A full factorial between subject design was employed in the experiment. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and adjustability of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking…

Automated Vehicle Disengagement Reaction Time Compared to Human Reaction Times in Both Automobile and Motorcycle Operation

Dynamic Analysis Group LLC-Jeffrey T. Dinges, Nicholas J. Durisek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1010
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous Vehicle Disengagement Reports have been published by the California Department of Motor Vehicles since 2015. Some of the autonomous control system manufacturers and vehicle manufacturers provide information that includes the time that it takes for a human driver to take manual control of the vehicle when reporting on vehicle disengagements. This study compares the reported autonomous vehicle operation disengagement reaction time to field literature in testing and experimentation on human reaction times for both automobile and motorcycle operation. The study will address the types of autonomous vehicle disengagements that occurred during the collection along with the understood conditions that surround the disengagement. It will also address how autonomous vehicle disengagements and general human perception and reaction performance influences autonomous vehicle operation.