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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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Human Health Risk Assessment of Space Radiation

University of Pittsburgh-Ashmita Rajkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0020
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Mars has been the topic of colonization and discovery for the last few decades but there have been hindrances in implementing the mission. This focus on Mars colonization has only deepened after the discovery of water on its surface. The discovery of water on Mars has led researchers to believe that its sustainability of life is higher than any other uncolonized planet. Although, life can survive on Mars, it is highly unethical to send communities to Mars without acknowledging the risks, especially those concerning the well being of humans. The risks of living on Mars are slowly unraveling through extensive research, but it is evident that certain health care measures must be taken in order to prevent potentially fatal conditions. One of the biggest problems is health concerns that astronauts face after returning from Mars. Health problems in space have been increasingly difficult to deal with because of the lasting circumstances that astronauts suffer upon returning back to Earth. As a result of these issues, NASA has delayed its Mars mission to circa 2028. Another…
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Optimum Design of an Assist Mechanism for a Motorcycle Multi-Plate Clutch

EXEDY Corporation-Misaki Minoha, Koji Yoneyama, Ryoichi Imai, Hidenori Kitazawa, Osamu Mano, Shinya Miyagawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0523
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the popularity of leisure-motivated large motorcycles has increased as the demand for high-added value motorcycles is growing. Therefore, large motorcycle engines have become more powerful. Due to this trend, the capacity of the clutch is also required to increase. Contrary to the demand for high engine power and high clutch capacity, reductions in weight, space, operational load, and shock at deceleration are permanent issues of motorcycle development. The consideration of all these issues are required during development of a clutch for large motorcycles. Considering the above issues, a clutch with an assist cam and slipper cam mechanism is effective for cost and performance. The assist cam mechanism allows the clutch to have a larger transmittable torque without an increase of the clutch lever load. The slipper cam mechanism can automatically reduce the transmitted torque when shock from sudden engine braking happens during downshifting. Therefore, the installation of the clutch with cam mechanism on large motorcycles is becoming standard in the motorcycle industry. Regarding smaller motorcycles, the reduction of the number of clutch…
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Utilization of Castor Oil-Based Ethyl Ester Biodiesel in a Diesel Engine

National Metal and Materials Technology Center-Manida Tongroon
Ratchasima Wittayalai School, SCiUS-Suranaree University of-Disatorn Dejvajara, Phannathon Samaiklang, Somluethai Sanluecha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0606
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Biodiesel was prepared through transesterification of castor oil and ethanol. The optimization of parameters related to the yield of transesterification, such as oil to ethanol molar ratio, concentration of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time, was investigated. The results indicated that the optimum condition for castor oil ethyl ester (COEE) production was 1:12 oil to ethanol molar ratio, 1.5% catalyst concentration, 40 °C reaction temperature and 150 minutes reaction time. To avoid extremely high viscosity of castor oil which can affect the fuel injection system, COEE was blended with commercial diesel fuel at different concentrations ranged from 5%-15% volume and key properties of fuel blends, mainly focused on fuel lubricity and viscosity were evaluated. The presence of 8% COEE in diesel fuel was concluded as the optimum concentration because the smallest wear scar diameter was obtained after the lubricity test and its viscosity was within acceptable limits prescribed by the standard specification of diesel fuel. Consequently, the blend of 8% COEE and diesel fuel was selected in the engine test. The results showed that the…
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Advanced 2-Wheeler Powertrain Test Setup for Dynamic Fuel Consumption Measurement with Increased Accuracy, Repeatability and Data Quality

AVL List GmbH, Croda Europe Ltd.-Harald Mayrhofer, Dr. David Gillespie, Michael Kastner, Karl Köck, Arnold Berger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0518
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Specific test systems are essential for the development and optimization of powertrains for two-wheeler applications. The World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) is prevalently used for type approval certification in terms of emissions and fuel consumption. In this respect, decreasing fuel consumption and increasing efficiency within the WMTC is an important development goal. The aim of the development project presented in this paper was to investigate how the robustness and repeatability of the measurement data can be increased by using a specific measurement procedure and test setup. As fuel consumption and emission levels reach ever lower levels, any influencing factors related to performance and emissions are of particular interest within the powertrain development phase.When it comes to the differentiation of specific influencing factors such as lube oil behavior and its contribution to fuel consumption, very high measurement-repeatability and accuracy must be maintained. High measurement repeatability enables the effects resulting from deliberate changes in engineering variabilities to be distinguished from unintended measurement uncertainties.This paper describes a measurement procedure to increase repeatability by using a dedicated test system…
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Acoustics and Drivability as the Main Drivers for Customer Satisfaction for electrified 2-Wheeler

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Christian Hubmann, Patrick Falk, Bernhard Graf, Hubert Friedl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0525
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Along with the global trend for electrification, also motorcycle industry is entering new spheres of highly advanced products and is increasing customer demands for electric mobility. Beside hard facts such as performance, driving range, durability and ease of use, also the brand specific attributes such as styling, driveability and even sound for electrified 2-wheeler are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To determine the subjective parameters for driveability and acoustics, AVL has developed dedicated tools and methods to quantify these attributes with high maturity.In terms of acoustics and NVH there are several crucial noise sources within electrified powertrains, which have to be treated with high attention from the initial development phase to avoid any kind of unforeseen annoyances: E-motor with inverter, transmission and secondary drive are most relevant. This issue becomes even more important with the ongoing market trend of products featuring increased power.Electrified motorcycles commonly are expected to offer supreme acceleration performance, but even this attribute may lead into driver's disappointment if throttle response and overall vehicle driveability parameters are inhomogeneous. The driveability and the…
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Acoustic Study on Motorcycle Helmets with Application of Novel Porous Material

AcouTech Lab, Dept of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,-Jüri Lavrentjev, Hans Rämmal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0531
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A critically high noise level inside protective helmet is a prevalent concern for motorcyclists. Especially at highway speeds where the noise level, regardless of helmet type can exceed 100 dB(A) and approaches threshold of discomfort, often resulting in temporary hearing loss. Despite of large share of persons exposed to such noise disturbance around the world, the in helmet noise levels have not significantly decreased over the last decades. Only few scientific publications can be found to systematically address this issue. Furthermore, in respect of driving safety even moderate noise levels are reported to impair reaction times and reduce attention of motorcyclists. At higher speeds the dominant helmet noise source is linked to aerodynamic turbulence around the helmet shell. The loudness and spectral contents mainly depend on the driving speed, windscreen configuration, riding position and helmet geometry. In this paper a series of on-road tests and laboratory experiments with three main types of helmets (“full face”, “flip up” and “open face” type) have been performed with the focus on in-helmet acoustics. Noise spectra at the location…
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Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag Control on Bluff Body using Synthetic Jets

Utsunomiya University-Naoto Kato, Shunsuke Watanabe, Hiroaki Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0538
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Since flow separation causes increase of the drag on bluff bodies, its control method has been studied for many years. Active control methods are currently focused as an alternative to passive ones because they impose a larger drag penalty under certain conditions. Although the effectiveness of a steady jet using suction, blowing or pulsed jets has been demonstrated, it is difficult to obtain an effect commensurate with weight increase because the mechanism is complicated.One method of solving this problem is a synthetic jet. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from an orifice induced by oscillation of a diaphragm inside a cavity. Small engine powered vehicles demand less drag, a compact package and light weight because the drivers expect fuel efficiency, load capacity and economy. Synthetic jets can supply them because they contribute drag reduction and require only simple components.In this study, the influence of synthetic jets on the drag of a simple bluff body representing a road vehicle is measured. Drag measurement was performed by varying synthetic jet parameters: jet…
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Estimating a Rider’s Compensatory Control Actions by Vehicle Dynamics Simulation to Evaluate Controllability Class in ISO 26262

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0537
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Controllability is defined in ISO 26262 as a driver’s ability to avoid a specified harm caused by a malfunction of electrical and electronic systems installed in road vehicles. According to Annex C of Part 12 of ISO 26262, simulation is one of the techniques that the Controllability Classification Panel (CCP) can use to evaluate comprehensively the controllability class (C class) of motorcycles. With outputs of (i) an index for the success of harm avoidance and (ii) the magnitude of the rider’s compensatory control action required to avoid harm, the simulation is useful for evaluating the C class of the degrees of malfunction that cannot be implemented in practice for the sake of the test rider’s safety.To aim at supplying data that the CCP can use to judge the C class, we try to estimate the vehicle behavior and a rider’s compensatory control actions following a malfunction using vehicle dynamics simulations. The simulated scenario is the occurrence of unintended deceleration during cornering caused by a malfunction of the electronically controlled combined braking system. The parameter values…
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Recommendations for Children’s Snowmobile

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1038_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedures, performance requirements, and criteria necessary to evaluate minimum safety and reliability requirements of a children's snowmobile as identified in 1.2.