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Simulation Analysis of a Dual-purpose Intelligent Mobile Platform for Highway and Railway

University of Science & Development-Wenming Zhang SUN
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1499
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Railways play a huge role in China's transportation industry. In order to ensure intelligence, advanced technology, and high efficiency in functions such as railway inspection, rescue, and transportation, a dual-purpose intelligent mobile platform for both roads and railways was developed. Due to the height limitation of this platform, resilient wheels and rubber dampers with short stroke are used as the suspension system for the rail chassis. Based on this special suspension form, the dynamic model of the whole platform is derived, and the simulation model of the whole platform is established in SIMPACK software. The effects of resilient wheels’ axial stiffness, radial stiffness and vertical stiffness, lateral stiffness of rubber dampers on the vertical and lateral smoothness of the platform were studied. It is found that the increase of the radial stiffness of the resilient wheels will deteriorate the vertical smoothness and lateral smoothness of the platform. The increase in the axial stiffness of the resilient wheels will deteriorate the vertical smoothness of the platform and the lateral smoothness will be improved. The increase of…

Development of an Accelerated Laboratory Test to Simulate Real-World Tire Flat-Spotting

Nissan Technical Center North America-Scott Fritz
NissanTechnical Center North America-Farokh Kavarana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1509
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Tire flat-spotting occurs when tires remain in a loaded condition without rolling for an extended period of time, and can be temporary or permanent depending on the length of storage, vehicle loading and environmental factors. Tire non-uniformity caused due to flat-spots often induce shake and shimmy vibration in vehicles due to increased tire-wheel force variation input into the chassis. This results in increased warranty costs for OEMs / tire suppliers and customer dissatisfaction in third-party quality surveys such as J. D. Power IQS. Flat-spotting is of particular concern for slow-moving vehicle inventory that remains parked for long periods at OEM plants and/or dealership lots. OEMs often stipulate or recommend inventory storage practices for dealers that require physical movement of vehicles every 30 days to reduce the risk of tires developing permanent flat-spots. OEMs also provide component level flat-spotting requirements to tire manufacturers during sourcing and specification timing to secure their internal requirements and targets. The study in this paper initially determined real-world flat-spotting levels on an actual vehicle during the adverse summer months of Arizona.…

Application of Model Order Reduction to nonlinear Finite Element tire models for NVH design

Goodyear SA-Peter Kindt
Goodyear SA/KU Leuven-Daniel De Gregoriis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1507
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet customer NVH performance requirements, tire manufacturers continuously strive to improve their tire designs. Building and testing new designs has been the standard procedure for many years now. However, as the need to simultaneously optimize multiple performance criteria increases and development cycles become shorter, predictive numerical simulation techniques could be used rather than time consuming physical experiments. Especially since many tire performance areas are coupled, the experimental approach often lacks detailed insights which numerical simulations can provide. Currently, no industrially applicable fully predictive high fidelity numerical approach that incorporates the use of nonlinear Finite Element (FE) tire models for NVH design is available in literature. Therefore, a fully predictive numerical simulation approach that predicts the rolling of a tire over a coarse road surface is described in this work. The proposed approach allows to predict the dynamic contact- and hub forces that arise during rolling without the need for experimental data. These results are useful to assess and optimize the NVH performance of a specific tire design. One of the main drawbacks…

Simulation of Damping Force for aMagnetoRheological Damper Featuring Bypass Holes in Piston

Li Guojie
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1515
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Bypass holes in piston brings a much broader range that damping force of a magneto rheological(MR) damper increases quasi-linearly along with piston velocity. However, few papers explain the mechanism. This paper successfully obtained the damping force by simulation. The procedure of simulation will help understand the mechanism of bypass holes. Local head loss was introduced in the procedure of simulation. And the result of simulation is in better agreement with experiment than that when no local head loss was introduced in.

Brake squeal noise reduction in city buses

Tata Motors Ltd-Ravi Ranjan
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Harish Kumar Gangwar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1572
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Buses have become one of the most widely used mode of public transportation, particularly for city applications. Indeed, passenger comfort and vehicle noise are a major concern faced by automotive industry. Brake system is one such contributor to undesired vibrations and obnoxious noise. Squeal noise, caused due to friction-induced vibrations, is a serious customer irritant to the bus passengers as well as the environment, also leading to brake performance deterioration and monetary abominations in terms of warranty costs. Brake squeal noise has been considerably studied for over years. Several design modifications and structural changes have been incorporated to prevent the occurrence of squeal noise, but the issue persists. In this paper, we have discussed on brake squeal noise reduction in city buses by optimisation brake drum diameter, selection of different friction liner linings and optimising other brake components sizes. Keywords: Squeal, brakes, drum, vibration, bus, comfort

Structure-borne prediction on a tire-suspension assembly using experimental invariant spindle forces.

Siemens Industry Software NV-Jesús Ortega Almirón, Fabio Bianciardi, Patrick Corbeels
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1541
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Road induced noise is getting more and more significant in context of the electrification of the powertrain. The automotive industry is seeking for technologies to predict the contribution of vehicle components upfront, early in the development process. Classical Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a well-established technique that successfully identifies the transmission paths of noise and vibration from different excitation sources to the target responses, but has some drawbacks, such as that it requires the physical availability of the vehicle. To achieve shorter development cycles, avoid costly and time-consuming design iterations, and due to the limited availability of prototypes, engineers derived a method that addresses these requirements. Component-based TPA is a relatively new TPA approach that allows to characterize the source excitation by a set of equivalent loads (blocked forces) independently from the receiver structure and to predict its behavior when coupled to different receivers. FBS is applied in order to obtain the coupled assembly. However, there are a number of challenges affecting its applicability, such as the proper modelling of the coupling degrees of freedom…

System interactions affecting NVH performance of an Electric Vehicle drivetrain

Romax Technology Ltd-Melanie Michon, Robert Holehouse, Hisham Jafarali, Annabel Shahaj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1545
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present an integrated approach to system NVH analysis, which gives an insight into the system response in an EV driveline due to electrical and mechanical excitations; namely gear transmission error, rotor mechanical imbalance, electrical machine torque ripple, and stator radial force shapes. The paper will address the fact that, as part of a practical design exercise, different subsystems and components may achieve design maturity at different times. It is therefore important to understand to what extent various drivetrain components may be considered in isolation, and at what point it becomes necessary to consider the interactions present in the full system. The paper will compare predicted NVH performance of a representative EV traction motor when different boundary conditions are considered; for example, when considering the motor in isolation, when being tested in a representative test setup, and when included in a representative drivetrain. For each configuration, the response to mechanical and electro-mechanical noise mechanisms will be assessed. In each case, the fidelity of simulation required to achieve an appropriate engineering insight will be…

Development of 1D model of impact force in powertrain equipment

Denso-Yuma Yoshimaru, Makoto Kondo, Yukie Omuro, Masashi Inaba
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1549
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Electromagnetic valves excellent in sealing properties and resistant to sliding are often used in powertrain equipment installed in gasoline- or diesel-engine vehicles. An electromagnetic valve has the function of moving internal valve members by means of electromagnetic force generated by the application of a voltage and thereby changing the flow path. When an electromagnetic valve operates, however, the valve members impact with one another, emitting impact noise caused by it. With the requirement for low noise in electromagnetic valves having become stricter recently from the viewpoint of comfort in the passenger compartment, predicting the noise is needed at the design stage. With this background, this paper describes the development of a 1D model of impact force that will enable the noise and the product performance to be examined simultaneously for a gasoline direct injection high-pressure pump. In contrast to the conventional model in which a movable member is taken as a mass point with a spring and a damper placed at the impact section, this paper proposes a technique in which a spring-mass model with…

Improved measurement procedures for engine noise reduction with advanced microphones

GRAS Sound & Vibration-Jan Hansen, Per Rasmussen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1463
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Introducing a new transducer concept has resulted in considerable reduction in setup time and at the same time improved accuracy and repeatability for engine bay noise transfer studies. The acoustic environment inside cars are one of the primary comfort parameters. This is made up of a number of contributions from drivetrain, auxiliary equipment, wind noise and tire noise, and all are influenced by the transfer from the source to the receiver. With the change from purely internal combustion engines to electrical or electrical assisted propulsion systems, a new set of noise sources are introduced in the engine compartment and this requires renewed focus on the transmission paths to the receivers inside the car cabin. Typically, one of the tools to study these mechanisms is by using a reverse transmission technique, placing a well-defined sound source in the receiver position inside the car and measure the resulting sound pressure levels in the engine compartment. Assuming reciprocity, these measurements can be used to estimate the attenuation of transmission from sound sources in the engine compartment to the…

Dynamics of Amphibious All-terrain Vehicle’s Chassis Having Vibration Energy Harvesting Dampers

Mega Automation inc-Dmytriy Gurevych
Nermar, Ltd.-George Nerubenko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1510
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The rural off-road exploiting of amphibious all-terrain vehicles leads to intensive vibrations of all parts of a vehicle, and specifically of its chassis. The tested amphibian vehicle’s chassis has the lowest natural frequency of 19.34 Hz. Vibration Energy Harvesting Damper (VEHD) is used for mitigation of chassis vibrations. VEHD provides mutually interconnected results: reduction of undesired vibration levels and generating of the additional electrical power. Newly patented VEHD consists of two main components: Tuned Mass Damper and Generator of Electricity. The perspective feature of proposed VEHD is the ability of effective vibration damping in broad range of frequencies due to implementation of a control device, while that device is keeping automatically the changing natural frequency of VEHD equals to current frequency of external force. The mathematical simulation analysis based on parameters of the amphibious all-terrain vehicle chassis is developed. The experiments arranged on recently designed amphibious all-terrain vehicle illustrate the compliance with theoretical predictions, and efficiency of proposed VEHD operating mainly in low frequency interval. The analysis of dynamical performance of developed VEHD demonstrates applicability…