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Kinematics and Compliance Analysis of a 3.5 tonnes Load Capacity Independent Front Suspension for LCV

Hexagon Studio-Salih Kuris, Efe Gungor, Baris Aykent
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0935
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper deals with the development of a 3.5 ton carrying double wishbone front suspension for a low floor LCV. It is a novelty in this class of vehicles. It has a trackwidth of 1810 mm and it has a recirculating ball steering system. The steering mechanism has been arranged so that the steering angle could reach to 48° that is a very effective angle in that vehicle range. This results as a lower turning radius which indicates a better handling for the vehicle. The steering and the front suspension system here has been optimised in terms of comfort and handling by using DOE based on sequential programming technique (design of experiments). In order to achieve better suspension and steering system geometry, this technique has been applied. The results have been compared with the benchmark vehicle.

Rapid Optimal Design of a Light Vehicle Hydraulic Brake System

Politecnico di Torino-Pier Giuseppe Anselma, Shirish Padmakar Patil, Giovanni Belingardi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0831
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automobile brake system design process is complex and time consuming as there are several components in the system as well as the system has to pass all the conflicting government regulations. With these constraints it is not easy to design an optimal configuration. This paper proposes a simple, intuitive and automated methodology that enables rapid optimal design of light vehicle hydraulic brake systems through an efficient exhaustive search of all the possible designs. Firstly, the system is modeled through cascaded analytical equations for each component. A large design space is then generated by varying the operational parameters of each component in its specific reasonable range. The system components under consideration include the brake pedal, the master cylinder, the vacuum-assisted booster, the brake line and the brake pistons. Successful system configurations are identified by implementing the requirements of the two most relevant safety homologation standards for light vehicle brake systems (US and EU legislations). Ergonomics constraints and the compensation for the fluid losses in the system complete the design requirements. The optimal design identification is carried…

Control-Oriented Modeling of a Vehicle Drivetrain for Shuffle and Clunk Mitigation

Ford Research & Advanced Engineering-Maruthi Ravichandran, Mary Farmer, Jeff Doering
Michigan Technological Univ.-Prithvi Reddy, Kaushal Darokar, Darrell Robinette, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Jason Blough
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0345
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Flexibility and backlash of vehicle drivelines typically cause unwanted oscillations and noise, known as shuffle and clunk, during tip-in and tip-out events. Computationally efficient and accurate driveline models are necessary for the design and evaluation of torque shaping strategies to mitigate this shuffle and clunk. To accomplish these goals, this paper develops two control-oriented models, i.e., a full-order physics-based model and a reduced-order model, which capture the main dynamics that influence the shuffle and clunk phenomena. The full-order model comprises several components, including the engine as a torque generator, backlash elements as discontinuities, and propeller and axle shafts as compliant elements. This model is experimentally validated using the data collected from a Ford truck. The validation results indicate less than 1% error between the model and measured shuffle oscillation frequencies. The reduced-order model is derived by lumping 24 inertia elements into 2 elements, 4 stiffness and damping elements into 2 elements, and 2 backlashes into 1 element. As part of the reduced-order model development, the paper investigates: (i) the effect of lumping transmission and final…

Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on VPG

CATARC-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang, xin li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0170
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The durable load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by vehicle road load acquisition and load decomposition in the industry, and Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) is gradually replacing this technical route. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel six-component force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the durable load spectrum in the early stage of development.

An Application of Vehicle Accurate Fault Isolation and Prognostic Maintenance

Xiaoli Li
HeFei University of Technology-Yujie Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1081
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As Internet of things for vehicle is getting more and more attention and developing strength, how to release the data power on vehicle safety and usability is a valuable topic to research.Accurate fault isolation and prognostic maintenance is one of the most promising application direction, since it can reduce maintenance time, achieve more asset availability, and promote reliability and safety. In this paper, a comprehensive approach which combined with model-based and knowledge-based method is proposed to addressing the challenges. This paper also presents an application using the comprehensive approach applied in vehicle electric power steering(EPS) system. It can help maintenance person to quickly find out the root cause of the failures in a vehicle. Component and system behaving modes are collected for vehicle manufacture user to access vehicle health status.

Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation with Adaptive Kalman Filter: Theory and Experiment

CAERI-Yaming Zhang PhD
Tongji University-Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Dequan Zeng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0439
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Velocity is one of the most important inputs of active safety system such as ABS, TCS, ESP et al. Sensors which can measure velocity directly are still expensive and not widely assembled in production automobiles. In a distributed drive electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, velocity is hard to obtain due to all wheel drive, especially in wheel slip conditions. This paper focus on longitudinal velocity estimation of the distributed drive electric vehicle. Firstly, a basic longitudinal velocity estimation model is built based on a typical used Kalman filter, where four wheel speeds obtained by wheel speed sensors constitute an observation variable and the longitudinal acceleration measured by an inertia moment unit is chosen as input variable. In simulations, the typical Kalman filter show good results when no wheel slips severely; when one or more wheels slip, the typical Kalman filter with constant covariance matrices does not work well, while estimation results can be improved by calibrating observation error covariance matrix and/ or system error covariance matrix. Therefore, the adjusting gain matrix-based Kalman filter…

A Study of Triple Skyhook Control for Semi-Active Suspension System

Toyota Motor Corporation-Naoto Shimoya, Etsuo Katsuyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0168
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
It is said that a vertical vibration from 4 to 8 Hz (the mid-frequency range) particularly affects ride comfort. In order to suppress the mid-frequency range vibration, a number of control methods using a semi-active suspension system have been proposed. Skyhook damper control (SH) is a well-known strategy to suppress the vibration around the sprung mass resonance frequency about 1-2 Hz (the low-frequency range). However, the mid-frequency range vibration can’t be suppressed by SH. Therefore, dampers of the semi-active suspensions adopting SH are usually set soft to balance the low- and mid-frequency vibration. However, the soft dampers increase unsprung vibration opposite ride comfort. H-infinity and gain-scheduled approaches also have been proposed to achieve these multiple objectives. However, those controls have many tuning parameters and require information of unsprung vibration from sensors or accurate estimations. To solve those problems, the triple skyhook control (tSH) hooked by a virtual spring, inerter, and damper was proposed. This strategy has advantages of suppressing vibration from under 1 Hz to the mid-frequency without changing the hardware, and it requires no…

Vibration Control of an Active Seat Suspension System Integrated Pregnant Woman Body Model

6 th of October Univ. and Helwan Univ.-AM Abdel-Ghany
Helwan Univ.-H. Metered, A. M Bassiuny
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0172
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is the most popular controller which is widely applied in engineering systems and has been accepted in industry field. In this paper, PID tuned using genetic algorithm (GA PID) and Fuzzy Self Tuning PID (FSTPID) controllers are applied to improve the performance of the active seat suspension system to enhance the pregnant woman comfort. A mathematical model of thirteen degrees–of– freedom (13DOF) seat suspension system incorporating pregnant woman body and an active seat suspension model is derived and simulated. The controller is designed based on the mathematical model of the system which is estimated by using system identification technique. Fuzzy logic is applied to tune all parameters of PID controller (〖 K〗_p, K_iand〖 K〗_d) by selecting fitted fuzzy rules using Matlab/Simulink software. The proposed active seat suspension is compared with the passive seat suspension systems. Suspension performance is evaluated under bump and random road excitations in time domain in order to verify the success of the proposed control techniques. The simulated results reveal that the proposed controllers using GA PID and…

Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspenson System (CLASS)

Ford Motor Co.-Alan James Banks
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1122
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System is a high volume composite rear suspension knuckle/tieblade consisting of UD prepreg (epoxy resin), SMC (vinylester resin) carbon fibre and a steel insert to reduce the weight of the component by 35% and reduce Co2. The compression moulding manufacturing process and CAE optimisation are unique and ground-breaking for this product. The manufacturing techniques employed allow for multi-material construction within a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the design actually lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. It is a well-known fact that the performance of a composite part is primarily determined by the way it is manufactured. The design team were able to use their extensive knowledge of material behaviour and state of the art manufacturing cells to enable a component that meets the required functional requirements. The CAE optimisation techniques developed during the project made a significant contribution to the project by bypassing a traditional approach and also reducing the amount of physical…

Development of a standalone application in MATLAB to generate brake performance data

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras-Harsh Kumar Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0513
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves. Debugging and inclusion of new modules was a major issue in old applications. Also, the previous applications lacked ABS module, which after the new government norms will be implemented in every vehicle. Thus, there was…