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The benefits of using Composite Bearings in Aircraft Shock Absorbers

Trelleborg Sealing Solutions-Brian Bowen, Torben A. Andersen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1898
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper will use actual examples from aircraft recently introduced into service, to describe the main advantages of changing from the currently used metallic bearings, to composite bearings. Abstract: The introduction of composite bearing in a recently introduced twin aisle aircraft has resulted in: • Weight saving, by replacing bronze bearings with plastic bearings • Lowering of the particle count in the shock absorber oil, (Reduced contamination with metal particles) leading to reduced wear on seals and bearings. Qualification testing showed that Composite Bearings are able to provide longer service life than bronze bearings.
 
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Brake Effectiveness Marking for Brake Blocks - Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1801_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice provides the method to assign numerical values of brake effectiveness, using data from single station inertia dynamometer effectiveness tests, and to identify a uniform procedure to mark these values on the edge of brake blocks in excess of 12.7 mm (0.51 in) in thickness.

 
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Brake Block Effectiveness Rating

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1802_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice provides the test procedure and methods to calculate the effectiveness of brake blocks, using an inertia dynamometer. To minimize testing variability, and to optimize standardization and correlation, a single, high volume size of brake block is specified (FMSI No. 4515E) and evaluated in a reference S-cam brake assembly of 419 mm x 178 mm (16.5 in x 7.0 in) size, using a specified brake drum.

 
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Wheels/Rims - Military Vehicles Test Procedures and Performance Requirements

Truck and Bus Wheel Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1992_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice provides minimum performance requirements and uniform laboratory procedures for fatigue testing of disc wheels, demountable rims, and bolt-together divided wheels intended for normal highway use on military trucks, buses, truck-trailers, and multipurpose vehicles. For other (non-military) wheels and rims intended for normal highway use on trucks and buses, refer to SAE J267. For wheels intended for normal highway and temporary use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles, refer to SAE J328. For wheels used on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks, or multipurpose vehicles, refer to SAE J1204. This document does not cover off-highway or other special application wheels and rims.

 
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Simulation Analysis of a Dual-Purpose Intelligent Mobile Platform for Highway and Railway

Nan Sun
University of Science & Development-Wenming Zhang
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Railways play a huge role in China's transportation industry. In order to ensure intelligence, advanced technology and high efficiency in functions such as railway inspection, rescue and transportation, a dual-purpose intelligent mobile platform for both roads and railways was developed. Due to the height limitation of this platform, resilient wheels and rubber dampers with short stroke are used as the suspension system for the rail chassis. Based on this special suspension form, the dynamic model of the whole platform is derived, and the simulation model of the whole platform is established in the simulation software. The effects of resilient wheels’ axial stiffness, radial stiffness and vertical stiffness, lateral stiffness of rubber dampers on the vertical and lateral stability of the platform were studied. It is found that the increase of the radial stiffness of the resilient wheels will deteriorate the vertical stability and lateral stability of the platform. The increase in the axial stiffness of the resilient wheels will deteriorate the vertical stability of the platform and the lateral stability will be improved. The increase…
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Development of an Accelerated Test for Tire Flat-Spotting

NissanTechnical Center North America-Farokh Kavarana, Scott Fritz
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Tire flat-spotting occurs when tires remain in a loaded condition without rolling for an extended period of time, and can be temporary or permanent depending on the length of storage, vehicle loading and environmental factors. Tire non-uniformity caused from flat-spots often induce shake and shimmy vibration in vehicles due to increased tire-wheel force variation input into the chassis. This results in increased warranty costs for OEMs and tire suppliers and customer dis-satisfaction in third-party quality surveys such as J. D. Power IQS. Flat-spotting is of particular concern for slow-moving vehicle inventory parked for long periods at plants and/or dealership lots.OEMs often stipulate or recommend inventory storage practices for dealers that require physical movement of vehicles at some set duration to reduce the risk of tires developing permanent flat-spots. OEMs also provide component level flat-spotting requirements to tire manufacturers during sourcing and specification timing to secure their internal requirements and targets. The study in this paper initially determined real-world flat-spotting levels on an actual vehicle during the adverse summer months of Arizona. Tire uniformity measured on…
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Simulation of Damping Force for a Magneto-Rheological (MR) Damper Featuring Piston Bypass Holes

Li Guojie
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The magneto-rheological (MR) damper featuring piston bypass holes is an MR damper with improved mechanical properties relative to conventional MR dampers. It brings much better ride comfort for occupants by minimizing the harshness component from disturbing the smooth ride of vehicles. However, few studies on this MR damper featuring piston bypass holes are found. This work is aimed to study the principle that this MR damper works on by experiment, modelling and simulation. The MR damper featuring piston bypass holes is tested on MTS system. A mathematical model for the MR damper is established. Head loss and local head loss caused by the viscosity of the MR fluid are both adopted in the mathematical model. The Eyring model is adopted to describe the mechanical behavior of MR fluid. The result of simulation is in good agreement with experimental data. When the local head loss is eliminated from the mathematical model, simulation accuracy decreases. These results indicate that the local head loss due to sudden contraction and sudden expansion at entrance and exit of piston bypass…
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Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

FCA US LLC-Vinod Singh, Anil Charan
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Aniket Parbat
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications. The demand for power has shifted from mechanical domain into electrical domain, and as such, the solution to electric drive NVH issues also lay partly, in the way these drive systems are calibrated. A time-domain Transfer Path Analysis…
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System Interactions Affecting NVH Performance of an Electric Vehicle Drivetrain

Romax Technology, Ltd.-Melanie Michon, Robert Holehouse, Annabel Shahaj, Hisham Jafarali, Venkatakrishna Janakiraman
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present an integrated approach to system NVH analysis, which gives an insight into the system response in an EV driveline due to electrical and mechanical excitations; namely rotor mechanical imbalance, electrical machine torque ripple, and stator radial force shapes.The paper will address the fact that, as part of a practical design exercise, different subsystems and components may achieve design maturity at different times. It is therefore important to understand to what extent various drivetrain components may be considered in isolation, and at what point it becomes necessary to consider the interactions present in the full system.The paper will compare predicted NVH performance of a representative EV traction motor when different boundary conditions are considered; for example, when considering the motor being bested in isolation as part of a typical test setup, and when included in a representative drivetrain. For each configuration, the response to mechanical and electro-mechanical noise mechanisms will be assessed, and the fidelity of simulation required to achieve an appropriate engineering insight will be considered.From these studies, the best practice…
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Development of 1D Model of Impact Force in Powertrain Equipment

Denso-Yuma Yoshimaru, Makoto Kondo, Yukie Omuro, Masashi Inaba
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Electromagnetic valves excellent in sealing properties and resistant to sliding are often used in powertrain equipment installed in gasoline- or diesel-engine vehicles. An electromagnetic valve has the function of moving internal valve members by means of electromagnetic force generated by the application of a voltage and thereby changing the flow path. When an electromagnetic valve operates, however, the valve members impact with one another, emitting impact noise caused by it. With the requirement for low noise in electromagnetic valves having become stricter recently from the viewpoint of comfort in the passenger compartment, predicting the noise is needed at the design stage.With this background, this paper describes the development of a 1D model of impact force that will enable the noise and the product performance to be examined simultaneously for a GDI (gasoline direct injection) high pressure pump. In contrast to the conventional model in which a movable member is taken as a mass point with a spring and a damper placed at the impact section, this paper proposes a technique in which a spring-mass model…
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