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Unsettled Issues Concerning Semi-Automated Vehicles: Safety and Human Interactions on the Road to Full-Autonomy

  • Research Report
  • EPR2020001
To be published on 2020-02-25 by SAE International in United States
Across the span of the SAE defined Levels of Driving Automation, human drivers occupy a diverse range of responsibilities and authority on the vehicle movement and the monitoring of the outside environment. From both a technological and a regulatory perspective, there is a gap that divides lower levels of automation (L1 through L3) and higher levels of automation (L4 and L5). For those vehicles that require the cooperation between a human driver and the autonomous technology, it is important to ascertain the safety consequences of such a design choice, and what the transition between automated driving and manual driving entails for the human driver, as well as for the surrounding traffic. This paper investigates unsettled issues concerning what is commonly referred to as "semi-automation", including: an overview of the role of human drivers; the quantification of the "transition-to-manual" problem; the role played by L3 towards full-automation; and regulatory and moral considerations surrounding the deployment of these vehicles. NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled,…
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Bosch On Board Diagnostic solutions for Motorcycles

Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Sol-H. Jessen, A. Kushal, A. Sabu, S. Hande, M. Tappe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0513
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
EU OBD legislation requirements will bring new challenges for motorcycle engine control from 2020 and 2024 respectively. This paper gives a perspective on the Bosch solutions for On Board Monitoring functions to implement the legislation requirements. Specifically the approach and validation results for the monitor for Secondary Air Injection (SAI) will be highlighted. OBD is well established e.g. for passenger car systems in worldwide markets with Bosch solutions covering different system configurations and legislation requirements. While a large portion of the required OBD monitors for motorcycles can be carried over from passenger car solutions with modifications and enhancements where needed, some specific monitors had to be developed from scratch. These new monitors are required for subsystems and components which do not exist in the passenger car environment, e.g. a controlled valve between the intake manifold and engine outlet of the motorcycle to implement secondary air injection. Special focus of this presentation is on the OBD monitoring of the secondary air injection control valve, where robustness is a challenge given the boundary conditions of only binary…
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A Study of the Control Logic of Electronically Controlled Suspension for Motorcycle

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Takenori Terada, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Hideyuki Kato, Taro Iwamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0569
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Electronically controlled suspensions are expected to improve driving performance as the damping characteristics of the suspension can be adjusted in real time to respond to road conditions. This paper reports the results of testing the suspension control logic for improving ride quality, especially when driving on rough roads, using an internally developed riding simulator.The skyhook theory is widely known as a control logic for reducing vibration when driving a four-wheeled vehicle on a rough road, which we utilized in our riding simulator to examine the vibration reduction effects when applying control logic for motorcycle suspensions. The test results show that the skyhook theory can be applied in motorcycles.However, sensors for suspension systems that can be installed in mass-produced motorcycles are severely limited in terms of cost and space. Therefore, we examined a control logic based on skyhook theory that can reduce vibration even with a simple and inexpensive sensor system.A novel control logic was successfully designed that implements the relationship between the suspension stroke speed and the vertical acceleration of the sprung mass from the…
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Analysis of High Cycle Fatigue In Welded Joints Of Profiles With Thin Walls Used In Bus Structures Subjected To Combined Loads Through Comparative Analysis

Marcopolo SA-Eng. Felipe Biondo
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)-Dr. Eng. Afonso Reguly, Dr. Eng. Marcelo Favaro Borges
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0074
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Projects of bus body structures must be developed taking into consideration the dynamic loads that this type of vehicle is subjected to. Experimental and numerical methods can be used to evaluate fatigue life in order to determine the durability of these vehicles. Bus structures are basically constructed using welded thin walled profiles that are often oversized due to the lack of knowledge of several product characteristics such as the conditions of the pavements, deficiency of characterization of welded joints and the quality of the materials used. Allied to this the Brazilian road system counts on several types of roads, presenting roads in good conditions of conservation until roads in precarious conditions with extremely high severity. In addition, vehicle safety standards have been intensifying their requirements. With that in mind, bus body manufacturers are investing in research to produce more durable, efficient and safe buses, expanding the search through engineering tools to develop better and more competitive products. The aim of this work was to analyze high cycle fatigue life of welded joints of thin-walled profiles…
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Unsettled Impacts of Integrating Automated Electric Vehicles into a Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem and Effects on Traditional Transportation and Ownership

International Transportation Innovation Center (ITIC)-Joachim Taiber
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019004
Published 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The current business model of the automotive industry is based on individual car ownership, yet new ridesharing companies such as Uber and Lyft are well capitalized to invest in large, commercially operated, on-demand mobility service vehicle fleets. Car manufacturers like Tesla want to incorporate personal car owners into part-time fleet operation by utilizing the company’s fleet service. These robotaxi fleets can be operated profitably when the technology works in a reliable manner and regulators allow driverless operation.Although Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) models of private and commercial vehicle fleets can complement public transportation models, they may contribute to lower public transportation ridership and thus higher subsidies per ride. This can lead to inefficiencies in the utilization of existing public transportation infrastructure. MaaS platforms can also cause a reduced reliance on parking infrastructure (e.g., street parking lanes and parking garages) which can contribute to an improvement in overall traffic flow, and a reduction in capital investment for commercial and residential real-estate development. Urban planning can be better centered around the true mobility needs of the citizens without sacrificing valuable…
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Precipitation Study of B30 Blended from FAME and/or HVO and Petro Diesel Fuel

Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology Kawasan-Hari Setiapraja, Imam Paryanto
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,-Misri Gozan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2190
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Indonesia has planned for the implementation of B30 fuel in 2020, and as a consequence, a large-scale production of biodiesel from palm oil will be significantly increased in the country. In application as public transportation fuel, biodiesel quality and blending composition play an important role for the success of the implementation of B30 program. Indonesia consists of highlands and lowlands as urban areas that have different temperature regions varying from 12 - 35°C. Cold temperature could accelerate the formation of precipitate of B30 fuels. Samples of B30 fuels were made by blending biodiesel and/or hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) with Euro 3 and Euro 4 petro diesel fuels. The precipitate composed of monoglycerol and FAME. Precipitation of the chemicals was caused by their higher melting point that crystallized and the solvency effect of petro diesel in cold temperature. It was found that the amount of precipitate formed in B30 blended from 30% FAME and 70% Euro 4 petro diesel fuel was the highest one. Therefore, the requirement for monoglycerol and moisture contents in biodiesel quality needed…
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Removing complexity for AUTONOMOUS TRUCKS

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_04
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Narrowing the operating domains for driverless commercial vehicles reduces the requirements of autonomous technology and speeds time to market.

Developers of driverless trucks are eliminating some of the complexity of automated driving in hope of hastening time to market. They are limiting the nearly immeasurable scope of circumstances - the operating design domain (ODD) - that face driverless vehicles by deploying a variant of platooning, or narrowing the operational parameters for transporting goods. Driver shortages, growth in shipments of online purchases and the never-ending push to trim costs are among the factors that have led many to predict that commercial trucking will be an early adopter of autonomy.

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Location and Call Frequency Based Emergency Dial Enabler

Priyanka Marudhavanan, Sai Nadimpalli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2457
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems in the event of a crash , serious incident or manually by a vehicle occupant assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries. But still there are more road accidents happen due to abnormality of driver and fatality rate tend to increase because of this. Drivers have a poor health issues, especially when they travel for long, they may get drowsiness and this leads to lack of concentration while driving and because of this concentration issue any serious issue can happen to the driver. This serious conditions can be totally unavoided. This invention provides the solution for contacting the people, who is known to victim very well. during emergency conditions. This may assist victim to get a immediate medical help.
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Self-Expressive & Self-Healing Closures Hardwares for Autonomous & Shared Mobility

General Motors Technical Center India-Vijayasarathy Subramanian, Biju Kumar, Masani Sivakrishna, Anandakumar Marappan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2525
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Shared Mobility is changing mobility trends of Automotive Industry and its one of the Disruptions. The current vehicle customer usage and life of components are designed majorly for personal vehicle and with factors that comprehend usage of shared vehicles. The usage pattern for customer differ between personal vehicle, shared vehicle & Taxi. In the era of Autonomous and Shared mobility systems, the customer usage and expectation of vehicle condition on each & every ride of vehicle will be a vehicle in good condition on each ride. The vehicle needs systems that will guide or fix the issues on its own, to improve customer satisfaction. We also need a transformation in customer behavior pattern to use shared mobility vehicle as their personal vehicle to improve the life of vehicle hardwares & reduce warranty cost. We will be focusing on Vehicle Closure hardware & mechanisms as that will be the first and major interaction point for customers in vehicle. This gives us an opportunity to improve product life and customer experience in ride share and shared mobility…
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Estimating Drive Cycle for E-Rickshaws Using Real World Operating Scenarios for Overall Powertrain Improvements

Ola Electric Mobility Pvt. Ltd.-Nishit Jain, Smit Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2497
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
E-Rickshaws are popular and convenient mode of transportation for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10 Km) commute. As per recent reports there are more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws plying on Indian roads and approx. 10,000 vehicles are adding every month. Owners of these vehicles are inclined towards the overall range these vehicles can give on a single charge. Range can be improved by using efficient powertrain. Range can also be improved by optimized Battery Management systems and Controllers. Though there are certain evaluation criteria (such as curtailed Indian Drive Cycles) which can be used for efficiency estimations, manufacturers are more interested in extending the range in real world scenarios. Hence, the availability of real-world drive cycle is imperative. Through this paper, we have attempted to derive a typical drive cycle by collecting road data of various types of e-Rickshaws under different environment conditions. The paper also attempted to present how these derived drive cycle can thus help in powertrain optimization and overall efficiency improvements.
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