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The Road to the Top is Not on the Map: Conversations with Top Women of the Automotive Industry

Terry Barclay
Center For Automotive Research-Carla Bailo
  • Book
  • R-491
To be published on 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Carla Bailo, CEO of the Center for Automotive Research, and Terry Barclay, CEO of Inforum, bring together over 30 of the most influential women in the automotive industry to share their insight and advice. From suppliers to OEMs, they hail from every corner of the industry.


Assessment of Automotive Environmental Noise on Mobile Phone Hands Free Call Quality

FEV North America, Inc.-Jeffrey Pruetz, Channing Watson, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1597
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Environmental noises such as wind, road, powertrain, and HVAC are important aspects to consider when implementing a hands-free terminal for mobile phone calling. Traditionally these environmental noises have been exclusively considered for driver comfort, however, with the introduction of the hands-free terminals (HFT) and increasing consumer demand relative to mobile phone call quality, a broader implication of high background noise levels should be considered. HFT algorithm development and implementation can and does provide a high level of background noise suppression to mitigate these concerns, however, this is often done at the expense of computational power and cumulative delay during a phone call. A more advantageous solution would be to address the problem from a source and path perspective, however, this in itself is a challenging task and one that vehicle manufactures have and will continue to pursue as part of conventional vehicle development activities. The assessments shown throughout this paper establishes a sensitivity of HFT call quality to background noise levels, based on industry-standard metrics, including those defined by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards. This…

Brake squeal noise reduction in city buses

Tata Motors Ltd-Ravi Ranjan
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Harish Kumar Gangwar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1572
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Buses have become one of the most widely used mode of public transportation, particularly for city applications. Indeed, passenger comfort and vehicle noise are a major concern faced by automotive industry. Brake system is one such contributor to undesired vibrations and obnoxious noise. Squeal noise, caused due to friction-induced vibrations, is a serious customer irritant to the bus passengers as well as the environment, also leading to brake performance deterioration and monetary abominations in terms of warranty costs. Brake squeal noise has been considerably studied for over years. Several design modifications and structural changes have been incorporated to prevent the occurrence of squeal noise, but the issue persists. In this paper, we have discussed on brake squeal noise reduction in city buses by optimisation brake drum diameter, selection of different friction liner linings and optimising other brake components sizes. Keywords: Squeal, brakes, drum, vibration, bus, comfort

Structure-borne prediction on a tire-suspension assembly using experimental invariant spindle forces.

Siemens Industry Software NV-Jesús Ortega Almirón, Fabio Bianciardi, Patrick Corbeels
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1541
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Road induced noise is getting more and more significant in context of the electrification of the powertrain. The automotive industry is seeking for technologies to predict the contribution of vehicle components upfront, early in the development process. Classical Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a well-established technique that successfully identifies the transmission paths of noise and vibration from different excitation sources to the target responses, but has some drawbacks, such as that it requires the physical availability of the vehicle. To achieve shorter development cycles, avoid costly and time-consuming design iterations, and due to the limited availability of prototypes, engineers derived a method that addresses these requirements. Component-based TPA is a relatively new TPA approach that allows to characterize the source excitation by a set of equivalent loads (blocked forces) independently from the receiver structure and to predict its behavior when coupled to different receivers. FBS is applied in order to obtain the coupled assembly. However, there are a number of challenges affecting its applicability, such as the proper modelling of the coupling degrees of freedom…

On-Track Measurement of Road Load Changes in Two Close-Following Vehicles: Methods and Results

Argonne National Laboratory-Michael Duoba, Alejandro Fernandez Canosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0755
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As emerging automated vehicle technology is making advances in safety and reliability, engineers are also exploring improvements in energy efficiency with this new paradigm. Powertrain efficiency receives due attention, but also impactful is finding ways to reduce driving losses in coordinated-driving scenarios. Efforts focused on simulation to quantify road load improvements require a sufficient amount of background validation work to support them. This study uses a practical approach to directly quantify road load changes by testing the coordinated driving of two vehicles on a test track at various speeds (64, 88, 113 km/h) and vehicle time gaps (0.3 to 1.3 s). Axle torque sensors were used to directly measure the load required to maintain steady-state speeds while following a lead vehicle at various gap distances. Through trial and error, test methods were developed that appear to provide satisfactory results, considering the challenges of track testing under real-world conditions (wind, weather, temperature changes, etc.). We found that total road load was reduced by about 10-12% at an optimum gap time of 0.25 to 0.4 s. Challenges…
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Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on Virtual Proving Ground

CATARC-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang, Xin Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0170
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The fatigue load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) and loads decomposition using multi-body dynamics tools. Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) methodology is gradually replacing this technical strategy. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the vehicle multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel center force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle measured data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the fatigue load spectrum in the early stage of development.
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On the Mechanical Design of the Rolling Road Addition to the CSUF Wind Tunnel

California State University, Fullerton-Ramitha Edirisinghe, Salvador Mayoral
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0651
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
For ground effect aerodynamic studies in wind tunnels, boundary layer growth over the floor of the test section is a large concern. Many different techniques have been used to remove this boundary layer, of which creating a moving ground plane is considered the best option. By creating a moving floor in the test section, the ground plane speed can be set to that of the free stream air speed, thus removing the boundary layer or at the very least mitigating the boundary layer growth. Several studies detail the aerodynamic design concerns for such devices, but little information exists on the mechanical design concerns. This work reviews lessons learned during a design study of a rolling road for the wind tunnel at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) mainly focusing on the motor specification and cooling system design. First, an overview of the major systems that comprise a rolling road apparatus are given. Then, initial constraints and free-body diagrams are presented detailing the forces experienced by the rolling road. From these free-body diagrams, analytical equations are presented…
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A Novel Vision-Based Framework for Real-Time Lane Detection and Tracking

Horizon Robotics-Yanhu Shan, Yinan Yu
Jilin University-Shun Yang, Jian Wu, Sumin Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0690
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Lane detection is one of the most important part in ADAS because various modules (i.e., LKAS, LDWS, etc.) need robust and precise lane position for ego vehicle and traffic participants localization to plan an optimal routine or make proper driving decisions. While most of the lane detection approaches heavily depend on tedious pre-processing and great amount of assumptions to get reasonable result, the robustness and efficiency are deteriorated. To address this problem, a novel framework is proposed in this paper to realize robust and real-time lane detection. This framework consists of two branches, where canny edge detection and Progressive Probabilistic Hough Transform (PPHT) are introduced in the first branch for efficient detection. To eliminate the dependency of the framework on assumptions such as flatten road, deep learning based encoder-decoder detection branch, which leverages the powerful nonlinear approximation ability of CNN, is introduced to improve the robustness and contribute to a precise intermediate result. Since the detection rate of the CNN branch is much slower than the feature-based branch, a coordinating unit is designed. The two…
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Overcoming Challenges in Connected Autonomous Vehicles Development: Open Source Vehicular Data Analytics Platform

CUCEK-CUSAT-Shreya Krishna
Fuzzy Logix Inc.-Himanshu Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1083
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Data Science and Machine Learning are buzzwords in our everyday lives, as is evident from its applications, such as voice recognition features in vehicles and on cell phones, automatic facial and traffic sign recognition, etc. Analyzing big data on the basis of internet searches, pattern recognition, and learning algorithms, provides deep understanding of the behaviour of processes, systems, nature, and ultimately the people. The already implementable idea of autonomous driving is nearly a reality for many drivers today with the aid of “lane keeping assistance” and “adaptive cruise control systems” in the vehicle. The drift towards connected, autonomous, and artificially intelligent systems that constantly learns from big data and is able to make best-suited decisions, is progressing in ways that is fundamental to the growth of automotive industry. The paper envisages the future of connected-and-autonomous-vehicles (CAVs) as computers-on-wheels. These are pictured as sophisticated systems with sensors on board as data sources and a lot of other functions and running services to support autonomous-driving. These services are considered to be computationally expensive. The unit performing on-board…
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An Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Bluff Bodies in Close Longitudinal Proximity

Coventry University-Geoffrey Le Good, Peter Boardman, Max Resnick, Brian Clough
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0659
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The potential benefit for passenger cars when travelling in a ‘platoon’ formation results from the total aerodynamic drag reduction which may result from the interaction of bluff bodies in close-proximity. In the 1980s this was considered as an opportunity to alleviate congestion and also for fuel-saving in response to the oil crises of the 1970s. Early interest was limited by the availability of suitable systems to control vehicle spacing. However, recent developments in communication and control technologies intended for connected and autonomous driving applications has provided the potential for ‘platooning’ to be incorporated within future traffic management systems. The study described in this paper uses a systematic approach to changes in vehicle shape in order to identify the sensitivity of the benefits of platooning to vehicle style. The Windsor bluff-body model with its’ interchangeable rear-end geometry was chosen as the test subject because of its similarity to the approximate proportions of typical mid-sized European passenger cars. Three small-scale models were manufactured so as to be accommodated in-line within the working section of the Coventry University…
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