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Advances in drilling Composites with PCD drills.

Facet Precision Tool GmbH-Jeremy Bunting, John Bunting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0035
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The use of PCD drills for drilling stack ups of CFRP/Titanium is reviewed. The effect of improvements in PCD micro structure. cutting edge drill design, and coolant flow are documented with improvements in cycle time, hole quality, and and exit burrs.
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System integration in aircraft environment – Hydraulic performances through coupled simulations

Airbus Operations GmbH-Henning Witt lng
Airbus Operations India-Ashutosh Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0004
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate hydraulic performance at early program stages in the complete aircraft and power consuming systems environment based on joint collaboration with Chiastek is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of an aircraft hydraulic performance in order to limit the need for a physical integration test bench and extensive flight test campaign but also to avoid late system redesign based on robust early stage model based engineering and to secure the aircraft entry-into-service
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Item level serialization and traceability of aerospace fasteners based on individual inherent surface patterns

Arconic Fastening Systems-Luke Leonard Haylock, Jens Harde, Juergen Roesing PhD, Nils Murray, Torsten Timpe
fraunhofer-Tobias Schmid-Schirling PhD, Norbert Saum lng, Daniel Carl PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0012
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Item level serialization traceability, defined as the ability to track and trace products, items or components through the supply chain from product manufacturing all the way to the end of life service, has significant value in the aerospace industry. Many items become susceptible to counterfeiting when their origin and authenticity cannot be verified and Item level serialization and traceability fosters supply chain integrity. Data Matrix and radio-frequency identification (RFID) are two common methods that enable detailed information about the manufacturer. However, these methods are not generally compatible with fasteners due to the small size of the fasteners and the cost of these methods. Fasteners are the most commonly used parts on an aircraft and rely on lot level traceability associated with packaging to provide a level of supply chain risk management. However, the association of individual fasteners to parental lots is often lost once the fasteners are removed from packaging. We demonstrate a completely new approach to develop item level serialization traceability for aerospace fasteners. It is demonstrated that this label-free traceability can be realized…
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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of A Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, demanding a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the FAL in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by its production capacity, versus its list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition evolution, factory environmental conditions…
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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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Accounting thermal exchanges in Coanda effect

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Michele Trancossi
Universidade Da Beira Interior-Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0026
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Modeling Coandã effect has been a fundamental issue in fluid dynamic research in the XX century. It has lost some interest because of the improvement in CFD, even if it could be still important in the area of the preliminary design of aerodynamic devices that benefits of fluid deflection by convex surfaces. An effective model of Coandã effect has not been defined, and fundamental questions are still open. One of the problems which affect many practical cases, but it is still marginally approached by scientific literature, is the influence of convective heat exchange on Coandã adhesion of a fluid stream on a convex surface in the presence of a temperature gradient between the fluid and the convex surface. This paper aims to start an effective research direction on the effects of convective heat exchange on Coandã effect. It approaches the problem with a set of CFD simulations. It analyses the previous hypotheses, which are based on Prandtl number and evidences the need of a more effective model that account also Reynolds number.
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A Study on the development of Aerostructures Design for Assembly guidelines and their effective use to proactively identify opportunities for improvement in mitigating common defects of the Aerostructures Assembly.

GITAM School of Technology, Hyderabad-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0009
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Aircraft’s assembly process plays a vital part in its design, development and production phases and contributes to about half of the Total cost spent in its entire product lifecycle. DFA principles have been one of the proven effective methodologies in Automotive and Process industries. Use of DFA principles have resulted in proactively simplifying and optimizing engineering designs with reduced product costs, and improved inefficiencies in product design and performance. Standardization of Assembly guidelines is vital for “Design and Build” and “Build-To-Print” manufacturing supplier organizations. However, Standardizing design methodologies, through use of proven tools like Advanced Product Quality Planning, (APQP) are still in the initial stages in Aerospace part and process design processes. Thus, there is a tremendous opportunity for research on the application of the existing DFA guidelines to optimize Engineering Aerospace Assembly processes aiming to simplify, standardize design methodologies by building on existing industry practices which have a common platform for design communication and are easy to adopt within the existing process/systems. This technical paper is to discuss the framework for application of…
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A communication-free Human-Robot-Collaboration approach for aircraft riveting process using AI planning

Saarland University-Jörg Hoffmann
ZeMA gGmbH-Khansa Rekik, Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0013
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In large scale industries attempts are continuously being made to automate assembly processes to not only increase productivity but also alleviate non-ergonomic tasks. However this is not always technologically possible due to specific joining challenges and the high number of special-purpose parts. For the riveting process, for example, semi-automated approaches represent an alternative to optimizing aircraft assembly and to reduce the exposure of workers to non-ergonomic conditions entailed by performing repetitive tasks. In (Mueller, Rainer, et al. 2019) a semi-automated solution is proposed for the riveting process of assembling the section barrel of the aft section to its pressure bulkhead. The method introduced a dynamic task sharing strategy between human and robot that implements interaction possibilities to establish a communication between a human and a robot in Human-Robot-collaboration fashion. Although intuitive, interacting with the robot constantly is still not natural for the worker as in the manual process no explicit communication between both workers is needed. In this work a communication-free Human-Robot-collaboration solution is presented. The method developed not only enables sharing assembly missions by…
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Delivery of Mixed Reality Tools Training in the Modern Production Environment

Boeing Co.-Mark Friesen, Lorrie Sivich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0052
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the early development of Mixed Reality (MR) technologies for the gaming industry, Boeing Research and Technology has been a leader in applying the technology to the production environment. Mixed Reality technologies have matured in size reduction and cost enabling a wide variety of visualization tools into the factory today. They include: tablets, Microsoft’s HoloLens, Google Glasses, Vive, and Oculus to name a few. These digital productivity tools allow the factory worker to perform work through installation, quality inspection, and trouble shooting.
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Adaptive Test Feedback LoopA Modelling Approach for Checking Side Effects During Test Executionfor Advised Explorative Testing

Bremer Inst. Für Produktion Und Logistik-Marco Franke, K. A. Hribernik
University of Bremen-K. D. Thoben
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0017
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of testing is to evaluate the functionality, reliability, and operational safety of products. However, this objective makes testing a complex and expensive stage in the development process. This is particularly true for complex and large systems, such as trains or aircrafts, which require maximum operational safety. From the perspective of an aircraft manufacturer, the checks are carried out via test cases on the integration, system and application levels. Thus, they certify the products against the requirements using black box testing approach. In doing so, a test plan defines a sequence of test cases whereby it sets up the environment, stimulates the fault, and then observes the system under test for each case. Subsequently, the post processing of the test execution classifies the test plan in passed or failed. The ongoing digitization and interconnectedness between aircraft systems is leading to a high number of test cases and a multitude of reasons why a specific test-case fails. A corresponding error analysis and adaptation of the test plan is a complex and lengthy process, which…